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Phonological Augmentation in Prominent Positions

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Book Series: Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics ISBN: 9780203506394 9780415971072 9780415861496 9781135876005 9781135875992 9781135875954 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203506394 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:15
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Phonologically prominent or "strong" positions are well known for their ability to resist positional neutralization processes such as vowel reduction or place assimilation. However, there are also cases of neutralization that affect only strong positions, as when stressed syllables must be heavy, default stress is inserted into roots, or word-initial onsets must be low in sonority. In this book, Jennifer Smith shows that phonological processes specific to strong positions are distinct from those involved in classic positional neutralization effects because they always serve to augment the strong position with a perceptually salient characteristic. Formally, positional augmentation effects are modeled by means of markedness constraints relativized to strong positions. Because positional augmentation constraints are subject to certain substantive restrictions, as seen in their connection to perceptual salience, this study has implications for the relationship between functional grounding and phonological theory.

Unlocking markets to smallholders: Lessons from South Africa

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Book Series: Mansholt Publication Series ISBN: 9789086861347 9789086861682 Year: Pages: 268 Language: English
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers Grant: Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2012-04-11 23:01:31
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This book assesses the institutional, technical and market constraints as well as opportunities for smallholders, notably, emerging farmers in disadvantaged areas such as the former homelands of South Africa. Emerging farmers are previously disadvantaged black people who started or will start their business with the support of special government programs. Public support programs have been developed as part of the Black Economic Empowerment strategy of the South African government. These programs aim to improve the performance of emerging farmers. This requires, first and foremost, upgrading the emerging farmers skills by providing access to knowledge about agricultural and entrepreneurial practices. To become or to remain good farmers they also need access to suitable agricultural land and sufficient water for irrigation and for feeding their cattle. Finally, for emerging farmers to be engaged in viable farming operations, various factors need to be in place such as marketing and service institutions to give credit for agricultural inputs and investments; input markets for farm machinery, farm implements, fertilizers and quality seeds; and accessible output markets for their end products. This book develops a policy framework and potential institutional responses to unlock the relevant markets for smallholders.

A grammar of Rapa Nui

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Book Series: Studies in Diversity Linguistics ISBN: 9783946234753 9783946234760 9781542544795 Year: Pages: 665 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.235525 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-16 11:01:54
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This book is a comprehensive description of the grammar of Rapa Nui, the Polynesian language spoken on Easter Island. After an introductory chapter, the grammar deals with phonology, word classes, the noun phrase, possession, the verb phrase, verbal and nonverbal clauses, mood and negation, and clause combinations. The phonology of Rapa Nui reveals certain issues of typological interest, such as the existence of strict conditions on the phonological shape of words, word-final devoicing, and reduplication patterns motivated by metrical constraints. For Polynesian languages, the distinction between nouns and verbs in the lexicon has often been denied; in this grammar it is argued that this distinction is needed for Rapa Nui. Rapa Nui has sometimes been characterised as an ergative language; this grammar shows that it is unambiguously accusative. Subject and object marking depend on an interplay of syntactic, semantic and pragmatic factors. Other distinctive features of the language include the existence of a ‘neutral’ aspect marker, a serial verb construction, the emergence of copula verbs, a possessive-relative construction, and a tendency to maximise the use of the nominal domain. Rapa Nui’s relationship to the other Polynesian languages is a recurring theme in this grammar; the relationship to Tahitian (which has profoundly influenced Rapa Nui) especially deserves attention. The grammar is supplemented with a number of interlinear texts, two maps and a subject index.

Modellierung und Ausführung von Workflows unter Berücksichtigung mobiler Kontextinformationen

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ISBN: 9783731507543 Year: Pages: XVIII, 362 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000078961 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Existing business modeling languages (or their extensions) have time, identity and activity related contexts (or objects) for modeling business processes. In order to support a Context Aware Service, location awareness is needed to enable the application or process to control the related workflows. For the integration of location constraints into workflow models, a concept based on restrictions is being developed in the present work.

Ein Beitrag zur viskoelastischen Modellierung nichtholonomer Bindungsgleichungen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783731505488 Year: Volume: 29 Pages: XVIII, 216 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000056152 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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Based on a formalism to simulate mechanical rigid body systems with plane frictional contacts, an extension to systems with rolling contacts is proposed. A special focus is put on tagential contact compliance. A mathematical convergency proof of the solution of the tangential elastic formulation to the rigid one is proposed.

Discretisation techniques for large deformation computational contact elastodynamics

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 23634936 ISBN: 9783731502784 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: XXIII, 200p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000043490 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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The present thesis deals with large deformation contact problems of flexible bodies in the field of nonlinear elastodynamics. Special emphasis will be placed on a consistent spatial and temporal discretization. For the spatial discretization of the underlying bodies, the finite element method will be used. For the contact boundaries the collocation type node-to-surface method as well as the variationally consistent Mortar method will be applied.

Numerical methods for the inverse dynamics simulation of underactuated mechanical systems

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Mechanik, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 23634936 ISBN: 9783731506263 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: XVII, 224 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000065049 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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The present work deals with the inverse dynamics simulation of underactuated multibody systems. In particular, the study focuses on solving trajectory tracking control problems of differentially flat underactuated systems. The use of servo constraints provides an approach to formulate trajectory tracking control problems of underacutated systems, which are also called underactuated servo constraint problems.

Exact and Heuristic Scheduling Algorithms

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ISBN: 9783039284689 9783039284696 Year: Pages: 200 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-469-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This edited book presents new results in the area of the development of exact and heuristic scheduling algorithms. It contains eight articles accepted for publication for a Special Issue in the journal Algorithms. The book presents new algorithms, e.g., for flow shop, job shop, and parallel machine scheduling problems. The particular articles address subjects such as a heuristic for the routing and scheduling problem with time windows, applied to the automotive industry in Mexico, a heuristic for the blocking job shop problem with tardiness minimization based on new neighborhood structures, fast heuristics for the Euclidean traveling salesman problem or a new mathematical model for the period-aggregated resource leveling problem with variable job duration, and several others.

Building the Foundation: Whole Numbers in the Primary Grades: The 23rd ICMI Study

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Book Series: New ICMI Study Series ISSN: 1387-6872 ISBN: 9783319635545 9783319635552 Year: Pages: 536 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-63555-2 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI); International Mathematical Union (IMU)
Subject: Education --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-22 15:48:51
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This twenty-third ICMI Study addresses for the first time mathematics teaching and learning in the primary school (and pre-school) setting, while also taking international perspectives, socio-cultural diversity and institutional constraints into account. One of the main challenges of designing the first ICMI primary school study of this kind is the complex nature of mathematics at the early level. Accordingly, a focus area that is central to the discussion was chosen, together with a number of related questions. The broad area of Whole Number Arithmetic (WNA), including operations and relations and arithmetic word problems, forms the core content of all primary mathematics curricula. The study of this core content area is often regarded as foundational for later mathematics learning. However, the principles and main goals of instruction on the foundational concepts and skills in WNA are far from universally agreed upon, and practice varies substantially from country to country. As such, this study presents a meta-level analysis and synthesis of what is currently known about WNA, providing a useful base from which to gauge gaps and shortcomings, as well as an opportunity to learn from the practices of different countries and contexts.

Applications of Computational Intelligence to Power Systems

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ISBN: 9783039217601 9783039217618 Year: Pages: 116 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-761-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:31:56
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Electric power systems around the world are changing in terms of structure, operation, management and ownership due to technical, financial, and ideological reasons. Power systems keep on expanding in terms of geographical areas, asset additions, and the penetration of new technologies in generation, transmission, and distribution. The conventional methods for solving the power system design, planning, operation, and control problems have been extensively used for different applications, but these methods suffer from several difficulties, thus providing suboptimal solutions. Computationally intelligent methods can offer better solutions for several conditions and are being widely applied in electrical engineering applications. This Special Issue represents a thorough treatment of computational intelligence from an electrical power system engineer’s perspective. Thorough, well-organised, and up-to-date, it examines in detail some of the important aspects of this very exciting and rapidly emerging technology, including machine learning, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithms, and deep learning systems. Written in a concise and flowing manner by experts in the area of electrical power systems who have experience in the application of computational intelligence for solving many complex and difficult power system problems, this Special Issue is ideal for professional engineers and postgraduate students entering this exciting field.

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