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PID Control for Industrial Processes

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ISBN: 9781789237009 9781789237016 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69592 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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PID Control for Industrial Processes presents a clear, multidimensional representation of proportional - integral - derivative (PID) control for both students and specialists working in the area of PID control. It mainly focuses on the theory and application of PID control in industrial processes. It incorporates recent developments in PID control technology in industrial practice. Emphasis has been given to finding the best possible approach to develop a simple and optimal solution for industrial users. This book includes several chapters that cover a broad range of topics and priority has been given to subjects that cover real-world examples and case studies. The book is focused on approaches for controller tuning, i.e., method bases on open-loop plant tests and closed-loop experiments.

Marine Tidal and Wave Energy Converters: Technologies, Conversions, Grid Interface, Fault Detection, and Fault-Tolerant Control

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039282784 9783039282791 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-279-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The worldwide potential of electric power generation from marine tidal currents, waves, or offshore winds is enormous. The high load factor resulting from the fluid properties and the predictable resource characteristics make tidal and wave energy resources attractive and advantageous for power generation and advantageous when compared to other renewable energies. The technologies are just beginning to reach technical and economic viability to make them potential commercial power sources in the near future. While only a few small projects currently exist, the technology is advancing rapidly and has huge potential for generating bulk power. Moreover, international treaties related to climate control and dwindling fossil fuel resources have encouraged us to harness energy sustainably from such marine renewable sources. Several demonstrative projects have been scheduled to capture tidal and wave energies. A number of these projects have now reached a relatively mature stage and are close to completion. However, very little is known to the academic world about these technologies beyond the basics of their energy conversion principles. While research emphasis is more towards hydrodynamics and turbine design, very limited activities are witnessed in power conversion interface, control, and power quality aspects. Regarding this emerging and promising area of research, this book aims to present recent results, serving to promote successful marine renewable energies integration to the grid or to standalone microgrids.

Cleaner Combustion

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214778 9783039214785 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-478-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This volume provides unique views of combustion from many technical and international research perspectives.

Building Thermal Envelope

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ISBN: 9783039285181 9783039285198 Year: Pages: 244 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-519-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Construction --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This book results from a Special Issue published in Energies, entitled “Building Thermal Envelope"". Its intent is to identify emerging research areas within the field of building thermal envelope solutions and contribute to the increased use of more energy-efficient solutions in new and refurbished buildings. Its contents are organized in the following sections: Building envelope materials and systems envisaging indoor comfort and energy efficiency; Building thermal and energy modelling and simulation; Lab test procedures and methods of field measurement to assess the performance of materials and building solutions; Smart materials and renewable energy in building envelope; Adaptive and intelligent building envelope; and Integrated building envelope technologies for high performance buildings and cities.

Keywords

hybrid heat collecting facade (HHCF) --- passive solar building --- heat transfer model --- thermal performance --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- thermal resistance --- thermal transmittance --- heat flow meter method --- average method --- convergence characteristics --- opaque exterior wall --- hot box --- thermal models --- measuring and control system --- digital temperature probes --- data post-processing --- roof window --- thermal performance --- passive building --- building component development --- natural ventilation --- air environment --- school restroom --- awning window --- CFD --- thermal anisotropy --- building envelope --- thermal management --- energy efficiency --- peak load reduction --- window thermal performance --- U-value --- window type --- simulation performance test --- actual physical performance test --- heat transfer --- energy --- thermosyphon --- natural circulation loop --- expanded polystyrene (EPS) --- gray polystyrene --- artificial sun --- thermographic measurement --- temperature distribution --- cork --- energy retrofitting --- life cycle assessment --- life cycle costs --- thermal insulating rendering mortar --- Building Information Modeling --- cloud-based --- envelope thermal performance --- green buildings --- Green Mark --- Integrated Digital Delivery (IDD) --- traditional Diyarbak?r houses --- courtyard --- settlement --- Designbuilder simulation --- energy performance --- n/a

Solution Models based on Symmetric and Asymmetric Information

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210060 9783039210077 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-007-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This Special Issue covers symmetry and asymmetry phenomena occurring in real-life problems. We invited authors to submit their theoretical or experimental research presenting engineering and economic problem solution models dealing with the symmetry or asymmetry of different types of information. The issue gained interest in the research community and received many submissions. After rigorous scientific evaluation by editors and reviewers, nine papers were accepted and published. The authors proposed different MADM and MODM solution models as integrated tools to find a balance between the components of sustainable global development, to find a symmetry axis concerning goals, risks, and constraints to cope with the complicated problems. Most approaches suggested decision models under uncertainty, combining the usual decision-making methods with interval-valued fuzzy or rough sets theory, also Z numbers. The application fields of the proposed models involved both problems of technological sciences and social sciences. The papers cover three essential areas: engineering, economy, and management. We hope that a summary of the Special Issue as provided here will encourage a detailed analysis of the papers included in the Printed Edition.

Keywords

multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- group decision-making --- interval type-2 fuzzy set (IT2FS) --- subjective weights --- criteria weights --- Step-wise Weight Assessment Ratio Analysis (SWARA) --- multiple attribute decision making (MADM) --- neutrosophic numbers --- 2-tuple linguistic neutrosophic numbers set (2TLNNSs) --- Bonferroni mean (BM) operator --- generalized Bonferroni mean (GBM) operator --- dual generalized Bonferroni mean (DGBM) operator --- dual generalized geometric Bonferroni mean (DGGBM) operator --- green supplier selection --- green supply chain management --- Pythagorean fuzzy set --- normal cloud --- MCGDM --- backward cloud transformation --- MCDM --- the criteria of the weights --- Bayes’ theorem --- combining the weights --- symmetry of the method --- IDOCRIW --- FAHP --- evaluating the quality of distant courses --- optimal dividend --- capital injection --- salvage value --- transaction cost --- excess-of-loss reinsurance --- thrust --- data logger --- sensor --- quadcopter --- measurement --- control system --- stability --- data envelopment analysis --- Z-numbers --- full fuzzy environment --- fuzzy efficiency --- rough ARAS --- transport --- performance --- logistics --- MCDM --- probabilistic systems analysis --- nonlinear dynamics --- public management --- pattern formation --- resources distribution --- population sizes --- information theory --- oscillations --- hybrid problem solution models --- multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) --- hybrid MCDM --- criteria weight assessment --- fuzzy sets --- rough sets --- Z-numbers --- neutrosophic numbers --- Bonferroni mean (BM) operator --- engineering problems --- economic decisions

Sustainable Energy Systems Planning, Integration and Management

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039280469 9783039280476 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-047-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Energy systems worldwide are undergoing major transformation as a consequence of the transition towards the widespread use of clean and sustainable energy sources. Basically, this involves massive changes in technical and organizational levels together with tremendous technological upgrades in different sectors ranging from energy generation and transmission systems down to distribution systems. These actions generate huge science and engineering challenges and demands for expert knowledge in the field to create solutions for a sustainable energy system that is economically, environmentally, and socially viable while meeting high security requirements. This book covers these promising and dynamic areas of research and development, and presents contributions in sustainable energy systems planning, integration, and management. Moreover, the book elaborates on a variety of topics, ranging from design and planning of small- to large-scale energy systems to the operation and control of energy networks in different sectors, namely electricity, heat, ?and transport.

Keywords

Black Sea --- Romanian coastal environment --- wave energy --- numerical models --- SWAN --- renewable energy --- environment --- solid waste to energy plant --- FANP --- TOPSIS --- fuzzy logic --- MCDM --- smart logistics system --- smart box --- information platform --- renewable biomass energy --- agricultural pruning --- cuckoo search algorithm --- support vector machine --- ensemble empirical mode decomposition --- wind speed forecasting --- forecasting validity --- smart logistics system --- information platform --- pruning biomass --- performance evaluation --- product quality model --- product usability testing --- rural residential building --- solar energy --- heat transfer --- wind velocities --- field test and numerical simulation --- renewable energy --- load regulation --- datacenter --- smart grid --- demand response --- threshold value of daily operation hours --- intermittent heating --- configurations of internal wall --- heat storage and release --- hot summer and cold winter climate zone --- dual robust optimization --- risk aversion --- energy and environmental systems --- vehicular emissions --- multiple uncertainties --- photovoltaic systems --- meteorological variables --- electric power --- gradient descent --- sustainable development --- optimal chiller loading (OCL) --- uncertain cooling demand --- information gap decision theory (IGDT) --- mixed-integer non-linear programming problem (MINLP) --- novel method --- internal coverings --- neural networks --- energy --- thermal comfort --- control system --- resampling --- feature extraction --- non-intrusive load monitoring --- pure electric buses --- multi-type bus operating organization --- time-space network --- energy consumption --- public transport --- n/a

Distributed Energy Resources Management 2018

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039281701 9783039281718 Year: Pages: 286 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-171-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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The Special Issue Distributed Energy Resources Management 2018 includes 13 papers, and is a continuation of the Special Issue Distributed Energy Resources Management. The success of the previous edition shows the unquestionable relevance of distributed energy resources in the operation of power and energy systems at both the distribution level and at the wider power system level. Improving the management of distributed energy resources makes it possible to accommodate the higher penetration of intermittent distributed generation and electric vehicle charging. Demand response programs, namely the ones with a distributed nature, allow the consumers to contribute to the increased system efficiency while receiving benefits. This book addresses the management of distributed energy resources, with a focus on methods and techniques to achieve an optimized operation, in order to aggregate the resources namely in the scope of virtual power players and other types of aggregators, and to remunerate them. The integration of distributed resources in electricity markets is also addressed as an enabler for their increased and efficient use.

Keywords

clustering --- demand Response --- distributed generation --- smart grids --- demand-side management --- multi-agent system --- distributed coordination --- distributed energy resources --- swarm intelligence --- virtual power plant --- distributed energy resources --- multi-agent technology --- bidding strategy --- stackelberg dynamic game --- aggregator --- distribution system operator --- distributed energy resources --- local flexibility market --- flexibility service --- distributed energy --- comprehensive benefits --- multi-agent synergetic estimation --- synergistic optimization strategy --- control system --- fault-tolerant control --- algorithm design and analysis --- IoT (Internet of Things) --- nonlinear control --- optimization --- DSM --- microgrid --- solar --- wind --- teaching-learning --- microgrid --- energy storage system --- distributed generator --- frequency control --- active power control --- autonomous control --- droop control --- frequency bus-signaling --- batteries --- energy storage --- microgrids --- optimal scheduling --- particle swarm optimization --- power system management --- smart grid --- supply and demand --- trade agreements --- low voltage networks --- multi-period optimal power flow --- multi-temporal optimal power flow --- active distribution networks --- unbalanced networks --- indoor environment quality --- occupant comfort --- building climate control --- healthy building --- energy efficiency --- adaptability --- decentralized energy management system --- local energy trading --- multi-agent system --- optimization --- smart grid --- demand response --- distributed generation --- particle swarm optimization --- prosumer --- n/a

Remote Sensing Applications for Agriculture and Crop Modelling

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ISBN: 9783039282265 9783039282272 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-227-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Crop models and remote sensing techniques have been combined and applied in agriculture and crop estimation on local and regional scales, or worldwide, based on the simultaneous development of crop models and remote sensing. The literature shows that many new remote sensing sensors and valuable methods have been developed for the retrieval of canopy state variables and soil properties from remote sensing data for assimilating the retrieved variables into crop models. At the same time, remote sensing has been used in a staggering number of applications for agriculture. This book sets the context for remote sensing and modelling for agricultural systems as a mean to minimize the environmental impact, while increasing production and productivity. The eighteen papers published in this Special Issue, although not representative of all the work carried out in the field of Remote Sensing for agriculture and crop modeling,

Keywords

crop residue management --- remote sensing --- satellite images --- hyperspectral sensor --- vegetation index --- yield monitoring --- remote sensing --- proximal sensing --- crop modeling --- soil --- plant --- management zone --- spatial variability --- temporal variability --- precision agriculture --- Á Trous algorithm --- conservation agriculture --- crop inventory --- remote sensing --- spectral-weight variations in fused images --- soil stoichiometry --- land use change --- soil organic carbon --- nitrogen --- Tarim Basin --- SPAD --- leaf nitrogen concentration --- nitrogen nutrition index --- grain yield --- dynamic model --- wheat --- disease --- yield --- septoria tritici blotch --- leaf area index --- crop modelling --- decision support system for agrotechnology transfer (DSSAT) --- Cropsim-CERES Wheat --- sorghum biomass --- prediction modeling --- machine learning --- fAPAR --- Sentinel-2 satellite imagery --- big data technology --- remote sensing --- UAV --- vegetation indices --- relative frequencies --- yield --- precision agriculture --- cultivars --- crop growth model --- data assimilation --- Leaf Area Index --- Sentinel-2 --- EPIC model --- yield estimation --- NDVI --- remote sensing --- GIS --- precision farming --- variable rate technology --- yield mapping --- protein content --- wheat --- canopy temperature depression --- NDVI --- RGB images --- grain yield --- ?13C --- UAV chemical application --- droplet drift --- flat-fan atomizer --- simulation analysis --- control variables --- agricultural land-cover --- multi-spectral --- generalized model --- machine learning --- crop type mapping --- Integrated Administration and Control System --- remote sensing --- hydroponic --- vegetable monitoring --- crop production --- spectral simulation --- hyperspectral data --- n/a --- fractional cover --- irrigation --- satellite --- crop simulation model --- AquaCrop --- yield mapping --- remote sensing --- durum wheat --- precision agriculture --- large cardamom --- remote sensing --- species modelling --- habitat assessment --- climate change

Renewable Energy in Marine Environment

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ISBN: 9783039285280 9783039285297 Year: Pages: 324 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-529-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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The effects of human-caused global warming are obvious, requiring new strategies and approaches. The concept of business-as-usual is now no longer beneficial. Extraction of renewable energy in marine environments represents a viable solution and an important path for the future. These huge renewable energy resources in seas and oceans can be harvested, including wind, tide, and waves. Despite the initial difficulties related mostly to the elevated operational risks in the harsh marine environment, newly developed technologies are economically effective or promising. Simultaneously, many challenges remain to be faced. These are the main issues targeted by the present book, which is associated with the Special Issue of Energies Journal entitled “Renewable Energy in Marine Environment”. Papers on innovative technical developments, reviews, case studies, and analytics, as well as assessments, and papers from different disciplines that are relevant to the topic are included. From this perspective, we hope that the results presented are of interest to for scientists and those in related fields such as energy and marine environments, as well as for a wider audience.

Keywords

WEC array --- WEC farm --- PTO system --- PTO system tuning --- linearization --- hydraulic --- WEC-sim --- PTO-sim --- model coupling --- BEM --- NEMOH --- numerical modeling --- numerical coupling --- wave propagation --- MILDwave --- wave–structure interaction --- near field --- far field --- experimental validation --- WECwakes project --- wave energy converter arrays --- turbulence --- turbulence intensity --- turbulence kinetic energy --- ADCP --- site measurements --- time scale --- length scale --- wave–structure interaction --- wave propagation model --- smoothed particle hydrodynamics --- open boundaries --- coupling --- DualSPHysics --- OceanWave3D --- Mild-slope wave propagation model --- MILDwave --- periodic lateral boundaries --- short crested waves --- offshore wind turbines --- large scale experiments --- scour protection damage --- wide-graded materials --- climate change conditions --- optical measurements --- acoustic measurements --- waves-current interaction --- moored floating wave-energy converter --- oscillating water column --- wave flume experiment --- nonlinear wave condition --- 6 degrees of freedom motion --- mooring-line tension --- renewable energy --- marine environment --- wave energy converters --- variable depth effects --- multi-DOF WECs --- design optimization --- end fitting --- unbonded flexible pipe --- sealing performance --- pressure penetration --- temperature --- Caspian Sea --- wind speed --- offshore turbines --- capacity factor --- LCOE --- offshore wind farm --- jacket --- scour --- wave-current interaction --- spatial resolution --- erosion patterns --- sediment transport --- laboratory tests --- ocean energy --- marine energy --- wave energy --- renewable energy --- wave energy converter --- control system --- cost-benefit analysis --- DC collection --- energy economics --- HVDC --- HVAC --- levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) --- offshore wind --- ocean renewable energy --- ocean renewable technologies --- ocean source potential --- Brazilian ocean energy

Power Electronics and Power Quality

Author:
ISBN: 9783039283583 / 9783039283590 Year: Pages: 336 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-359-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Power quality (PQ) is receiving more and more attention from consumers, distribution system operators, transmission system operators, and other entities related to electrical power systems. As PQ problems have direct implications for business productivity, causing high economic losses, the research and development monitoring technologies and power electronics solutions that ensure the PQ of the power systems are matters of utmost importance. This book is a collection of high quality papers published in the “Power Electronics and Power Quality” Special Issue of the journal Energies. It reflects on the latest investigations and the new trends in this field.

Keywords

high speed maglev --- long-stator synchronous motor --- propulsion inverter control system position estimator --- distorted grid conditions --- SGDFT --- Lagrange-interpolation method --- frequency adaption --- SC --- primary neutral integrity --- multi-grounded neutral (MGN) system --- neutral integrity detection --- passive method --- computer simulation --- modeling --- microinverter --- photovoltaic systems --- state-space model --- power inverter --- voltage source inverter --- four-leg inverter --- cost-effectiveness --- current control --- pulse width modulation --- indirect matrix converter (IMC) --- input filter --- input power factor --- matrix converter (MC) --- space vector modulation (SVM) --- power quality --- microgrid (MG) --- renewable power generation --- superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) --- energy shaping passivity (ESP)-based control --- power semiconductor device --- temperature --- switching transients --- variation in voltage --- half-bridge inverters --- digital control --- hysteresis current control --- switching frequency --- optimization --- static var compensator --- series active filter --- thyristor-controlled reactor --- phase-leading capacitor --- hybrid static var compensator --- static synchronous compensator --- hybrid active filter --- Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) --- Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) --- Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) --- harmonics --- event detection --- power quality --- histogram --- machine learning --- wavelet transform --- continuous particle swarm optimization (CPSO) --- overcurrent relay coordination (OCR) --- time multiplier setting (TMS) --- power system protection --- protection relay --- Simulink --- Matlab --- Omicron CMC 256plus --- power quality --- enerlyzer --- comtrade --- distance protection --- Shunt Active Power Filter --- digital control --- harmonics --- multilevel converter --- power quality --- p-q theory --- robust control --- DC-DC converter --- constant power load --- low voltage direct-current residential microgrid --- Multiterminal HVDC --- CSC --- FBMMC --- MMC --- Hybrid HVDC --- Full-bridge --- power control --- voltage control --- DC short-circuit handling --- hybrid power filter --- power quality --- reactive power

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