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The Future of Coral Reefs Subject to Rapid Climate Change: Lessons from Natural Extreme Environments

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889457175 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-717-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Examination of corals and reef-associated organisms which endure in extreme coral reef environments is challenging our understanding of the conditions that organisms can survive under. By studying individuals naturally adapted to unfavorable conditions, we begin to better understand the important traits required to survive rapid environmental and climate change. This Research Topic, comprising reviews, and original research articles, demonstrates the current state of knowledge regarding the diversity of extreme coral habitats, the species that have been studied, and the knowledge to-date on the mechanisms, traits and trade-offs that have facilitated survival.

Biology, Ecology and Management of Crown-of-Thorns Starfish

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ISBN: 9783038426028 9783038426035 Year: Pages: VIII, 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-603-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-04 12:20:54
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Outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster spp.) are a major contributor to ongoing coral loss on reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific, thereby jeopardizing productivity and biodiversity of these important marine ecosystems. Controlling outbreak populations of Acanthaster spp. is considered one of the most promising strategies to halt or reverse widespread declines in live coral cover. Effective management of crown-of-thorns starfish is, however, conditional on improved understanding of their biology and ecology. While crown-of-thorns starfish are arguably the most extensively studied of any single coral reef species, there remain considerable gaps in our knowledge of their basic biology and ecology. This edited monograph presents the latest research and significant advances in understanding and managing outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish.

Effects of Climate Change Across Ocean Regions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455027 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-502-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) highlighted that conditions within Earth’s ocean are changing more rapidly than any of the time during the past 65 million years, and as a consequence, major changes are occurring in natural and human systems. While this major report as enhanced our understanding of the complexity of ocean issues, we propose this research topic as an opportunity to expand discussion on past, present and future changes across oceans regions.

Outstanding Topics in Ocean Optics

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ISBN: 9783038977049 9783038977056 Year: Pages: 454 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-705-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Ocean optics is a branch of oceanography which is firmly embedded in studies of a great variety of ocean science and engineering questions. The interactive nature between radiative transfer of light and various dissolved and particulate constituents of seawater is at the core of ocean optics science and applications. The transfer of radiant solar energy has vital implications to life and climate on Earth, and the large variety of subjects of ocean optics ranges from the subtle problems of physical optics to optical remote sensing towards a better understanding of ocean biology, biogeochemistry and ecosystems and their roles in the Earth's system processes. The intention of this book is to present a collection of papers that generally share a common denominator of frontier topics in ocean optics which are unique, uncommon or outstanding in the literature, and to provide a balanced view of the extraordinary breadth of research in this field. Topics as diverse as measurements and modeling of radiative transfer, light fields, light scattering and polarization, ocean color, benthic optical properties, and the use of optics for characterizing seawater constituents are addressed in this book. The book is expected to be of interest and useful to a broad audience of professional ocean scientists, engineers and advanced students with an interest in ocean optics and applications of optical methods in oceanography.

Keywords

forward modeling --- suspended matter --- marine particles --- fractal structure --- organic carbon --- chlorophyll-a --- oceanic light field --- irradiance quartet --- apparent optical properties --- inelastic processes --- Gershun equation --- ocean euphotic zone --- phytoplankton pigments --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- MERIS --- global oceans --- light scattering --- light scattering by pure water --- light scattering by pure seawater --- anomalous properties of water --- remote-sensing reflectance --- bathymetry --- hyperspectral --- bottom mapping --- radiative transfer --- apparent optical properties --- 3D Monte Carlo numerical simulations --- downward irradiance --- upward radiance --- sea ice heterogeneity --- vertical attenuation coefficient --- melt ponds --- remote sensing --- coral reef --- sensor noise --- retrieval uncertainty --- particle dynamics --- optical properties --- suspended sediment --- phytoplankton --- PFT --- ocean colour --- satellite radiometry --- radiative transfer --- optical modelling --- vector radiative transfer --- polarization --- coupled systems --- atmosphere --- ocean --- forward modeling --- inverse problems --- marine optics --- inherent optical properties --- volume scattering function --- degree of linear polarization --- marine particles --- light scattering measurements --- LISST-VSF instrument --- ocean optics --- ocean color --- remote sensing --- radiative transfer approximation --- volume scattering function --- NASA PACE mission --- polarization --- ocean optics --- upwelling radiance distribution --- remote sensing --- remote sensing --- hyperspectral --- shallow water --- coral --- derivative --- radiative transfer --- canopy --- ocean color database --- oceanic carbon --- chromophoric dissolved organic matter --- dissolved organic carbon --- CDOM spectral slope --- ocean color remote sensing --- algorithm development --- ocean color algorithm validation --- ocean optics --- CDOM climatology --- CDOM and ENSO --- machine learning --- ocean optics --- backscattering ratio --- phytoplankton --- coated-sphere model --- bulk refractive index --- seawater component --- natural organic matter --- DOM --- FDOM --- CDOM --- Gelbstoff --- EEMS --- PARAFAC --- marine sensors --- Kallemeter --- FerryBox --- Trondheimsfjord --- Norway --- ocean optics --- light scattering --- Mueller matrix --- volume and surface integral methods

Marine Geomorphometry

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038979548 / 9783038979555 Year: Pages: 400 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-955-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:07
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Geomorphometry is the science of quantitative terrain characterization and analysis, and has traditionally focused on the investigation of terrestrial and planetary landscapes. However, applications of marine geomorphometry have now moved beyond the simple adoption of techniques developed for terrestrial studies, driven by the rise in the acquisition of high-resolution seafloor data and by the availability of user-friendly spatial analytical tools. Considering that the seafloor represents 71% of the surface of our planet, this is an important step towards understanding the Earth in its entirety.This volume is the first one dedicated to marine applications of geomorphometry. It showcases studies addressing the five steps of geomorphometry: sampling a surface (e.g., the seafloor), generating a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from samples, preprocessing the DTM for subsequent analyses (e.g., correcting for errors and artifacts), deriving terrain attributes and/or extracting terrain features from the DTM, and using and explaining those terrain attributes and features in a given context. Throughout these studies, authors address a range of challenges and issues associated with applying geomorphometric techniques to the complex marine environment, including issues related to spatial scale, data quality, and linking seafloor topography with physical, geological, biological, and ecological processes. As marine geomorphometry becomes increasingly recognized as a sub-discipline of geomorphometry, this volume brings together a collection of research articles that reflect the types of studies that are helping to chart the course for the future of marine geomorphometry.

Keywords

bedforms --- forage fish --- Pacific sand lance --- sediment habitats --- bathymetry --- currents --- seabed mapping --- marine geology --- submarine topography --- marine geomorphology --- terrain analysis --- multibeam echosounder --- bathymetry --- DEM --- satellite imagery --- multi beam echosounder --- filter --- geomorphology --- coral reefs --- Acoustic applications --- object segmentation --- seafloor --- underwater acoustics --- Cretaceous --- Cenomanian–Turonian --- paleobathymetry --- paleoclimate --- paleoceanography --- reconstruction --- simulation --- shelf-slope-rise --- geomorphometry --- GIS --- spatial scale --- spatial analysis --- terrain analysis --- seafloor geomorphometry --- domes --- volcanoes --- digital elevation models (DEMs) --- Canary Basin --- Atlantic Ocean --- cold-water coral --- carbonate mound --- habitat mapping --- spatial prediction --- image segmentation --- geographic object-based image analysis --- random forest --- accuracy --- confidence --- global bathymetry --- Seabed 2030 --- Nippon Foundation/GEBCO --- seafloor mapping technologies --- seafloor mapping standards and protocols --- benthic habitats --- shelf morphology --- eastern Brazilian shelf --- geomorphometry --- terrain analysis --- bathymetry --- surface roughness --- benthic habitat mapping --- python --- geomorphology --- submerged glacial bedforms --- deglaciation --- sedimentation --- multibeam --- acoustic-seismic profiling --- swath geometry --- multibeam spatial resolution --- integration artefacts --- Multibeam bathymetry --- benthic habitat mapping --- multiscale --- Random Forests --- pockmarks --- automated-mapping --- ArcGIS --- Glaciated Margin --- North Sea --- Malin Basin --- Barents Sea --- bathymetry --- thalwegs --- canyons --- Alaska --- Bering Sea --- multibeam sonar --- carbonate banks --- semi-automated mapping --- polychaete --- Northwestern Australia --- Oceanic Shoals Australian Marine Park --- Bonaparte Basin --- Timor Sea --- bathymetry --- digital terrain analysis --- geomorphometry --- geomorphology --- habitat mapping --- marine remote sensing

Sediment Transport in Coastal Waters

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ISBN: 9783038978442 9783038978459 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-845-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Oceanography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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The interface of 440,000 km long coastline in the world is subject to global change, with an increasing human pressure (land use, buildings, sand mining, dredging) and increasing population. Improving our knowledge on involved mechanisms and sediment transport processes, monitoring the evolution of sedimentary stocks and anticipating changes in littoral and coastal zones is essential for this purpose. The special issue of Water on “Sediment transport in coastal waters” gathers thirteen papers which introduce the current revolution in the scientific research related to coastal and littoral hydrosedimentary dynamics, and reflect the diversity of concerns on which research in coastal sediment transport is based, and current trends — topics and preferred methods — to address them.

Keywords

suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- coastal hydraulics --- Mekong --- river plume --- monsoon --- mathematical model --- geochemical map --- particle transfer process --- tidal current --- analysis of variance (ANOVA) --- Cluster analysis --- Mahalanobis’ generalized distances --- Seto Inland Sea --- East Coast Low --- nearshore processes --- coastal erosion --- coastal management --- climate change --- numerical modelling --- Southeast Australia --- soil erosion --- SWAT --- water scarcity --- sediment transport modelling --- Tafna catchment --- North Africa --- suspended sediment --- sediment transport --- lagoon --- geochemistry --- Ni mining --- sediment trap --- hydrodynamics --- New Caledonia --- dry season --- Senegal River delta --- Langue de Barbarie spit --- delta vulnerability --- river-mouth migration --- spit breaching --- ERA hindcast waves --- longshore sediment transport --- Vietnam --- South China Sea --- erosion --- recovery --- storminess --- winter monsoon --- typhoons --- shoreline --- waves forcing --- storms --- resilience --- post-storm recovery --- Bight of Benin --- seasonal cycle --- trend --- sand-mud mixture erosion --- numerical modelling --- non-cohesive to cohesive transition --- remote sensing reflectance --- turbidity --- seagrass beds --- bed shear stress --- fresh water runoff --- oceanic water intrusion --- suspended particulate matter --- aggregates --- flocculation --- biomass --- sediment --- turbidity --- remote-sensing --- MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) --- Support Vector Regression (SVR) --- oligotrophic lagoon --- bathymetry --- reflectance --- seabed colour --- coral reef --- New Caledonia --- sediment transport --- cohesive sediments --- non cohesive sediments --- sand --- mud --- coastal erosion --- sedimentation --- morphodynamics --- suspended particulate matter --- bedload

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