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12 Computer science (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Routledge International Handbooks ISBN: 9780415826266 9780203431405 Year: Pages: 13 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-26 11:21:02
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In this chapter we will explore the relationship between crime and computers and networks by answering the following questions:&#xD;••&#xD;Which techniques from computer science can be used to prevent crime?&#xD;••&#xD;Which techniques from computer science can be used to study crime?&#xD;To address the first question we use the 25 techniques of situational crime prevention to provide a systematic assessment of how computer and network technology can be used to prevent crime. The second question will be addressed by discussing computer simulation methods in cases where real experiments with crime prevention would be too costly or impractical.

Chapter 1: "Crime Fiction in German: Concepts, Developments and Trends" from book: Crime Fiction in German

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Book Series: European Crime Fictions ISBN: 9781783168163 Year: DOI: 10.16922/1783168163-01 Language: English
Publisher: University of Wales Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-03 15:21:06
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This is a chapter from Crime Fiction in German: Der Krimi, edited by Katharina Hall. It is the first volume in English to offer a comprehensive overview of German-language crime narratives from the nineteenth century to the new millennium. It introduces readers to crime novels from Germany, Austria, Switzerland and the former East Germany, and examines under-researched areas such as Nazi crime fiction, Turkish-German crime fiction and the Afrika-Krimi.

Keywords

crime --- fiction --- german

Luminol Theory

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ISBN: 9781947447127 9781947447134 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.21983/P3.0177.1.00 Language: English
Publisher: punctum books
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-12 09:24:33
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Representations of forensic procedures saturate popular culture in both fiction and true crime. One of the most striking forensic tools used in these narratives is the chemical luminol, so named because it glows an eerie greenish-blue when it comes into contact with the tiniest drops of human blood. Luminol is a deeply ambivalent object: it is both a tool of the police, historically abused and misappropriated, and yet it offers hope to families of victims by allowing hidden crimes to surface. Forensic enquiry can exonerate those falsely accused of crimes, and yet the rise of forensic science is synonymous with the development of the deeply racist ‘science’ of eugenics. Luminol Theory investigates the possibility of using a tool of the state in subversive, or radical, ways. By introducing luminol as an agent of forensic inquiry, Luminol Theory approaches the exploratory stages that a crime scene investigation might take, exploring experimental literature as though these texts were ‘crime scenes’ in order to discover what this deeply strange object can tell us about crime, death, and history, to make visible violent crimes, and to offer a tangible encounter with death and finitude. At the luminol-drenched crime scene, flashes of illumination throw up words, sentences, and fragments that offer luminous, strange glimpses, bobbing up from below their polished surfaces. When luminol shines its light, it reveals, it is magical, it is prescient, and it has a nasty allure

Cascades of Violence

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ISBN: 9781760461898 Year: Pages: 706 DOI: 10.22459/CV.02.2018 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-10 11:02:33
License: ANU Press

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War and crime are cascade phenomena. War cascades across space and time to more war; crime to more crime; crime cascades to war; and war to crime. As a result, war and crime become complex phenomena. That does not mean we cannot understand how to prevent crime and war simultaneously. This book shows, for example, how a cascade analysis leads to an understanding of how refugee camps are nodes of both targeted attack and targeted recruitment into violence. Hence, humanitarian prevention also must target such nodes of risk. This book shows how nonviolence and nondomination can also be made to cascade, shunting cascades of violence into reverse. Complexity theory implies a conclusion that the pursuit of strategies for preventing crime and war is less important than understanding meta strategies. These are meta strategies for how to sequence and escalate many redundant prevention strategies. These themes were explored across seven South Asian societies during eight years of fieldwork.

Keywords

peacebuilding --- crime --- war --- complexity theory

National Reconviction Statistics and Studies in Europe = Nationale Rückfallstatistiken und -untersuchungen in Europa

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Book Series: Göttinger Studien zu den Kriminalwissenschaften ISBN: 9783863951870 Year: Pages: 249 Language: English|German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Law --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2015-03-10 11:01:10
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Recidivism belongs to the main categories of criminology, crime policy and criminal justice. If the target of preventing offenders from reoffending is taken seriously crime policy should be measured by success of certain penal sanctions in terms of relapses. Also institutions that deal directly with crime and offenders need to get basic information on the consequences of their actions; particularly general knowledge about offender groups at risk of reoffending. All these are reasons why representative recidivism studies are needed. Meanwhile a lot of European countries gather systematic and comprehensive information on recidivism, periodically and on a national level. This volume presents an exemplary collection of such endeavors: Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Switzerland and a comparative study of England and Wales, the Netherlands and Scotland.

Punishing the Criminal Corpse, 1700-1840: Aggravated Forms of the Death Penalty in England

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Book Series: Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife ISBN: 9781137513601 9781137513618 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-51361-8 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 15:35:22
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This book analyses the different types of post-execution punishments and other aggravated execution practices, the reasons why they were advocated, and the decision, enshrined in the Murder Act of 1752, to make two post-execution punishments, dissection and gibbeting, an integral part of sentences for murder. It traces the origins of the Act, and then explores the ways in which Act was actually put into practice. After identifying the dominance of penal dissection throughout the period, it looks at the abandonment of burning at the stake in the 1790s, the rapid decline of hanging in chains just after 1800, and the final abandonment of both dissection and gibbeting in 1832 and 1834. It concludes that the Act, by creating differentiation in levels of penalty, played an important role within the broader capital punishment system well into the nineteenth century. While eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century historians have extensively studied the ‘Bloody Code’ and the resulting interactions around the ‘Hanging Tree’, they have largely ignored an important dimension of the capital punishment system – the courts extensive use of aggravated and post-execution punishments. With this book, Peter King aims to rectify this neglected historical phenomenon.

The Golden and Ghoulish Age of the Gibbet in Britain

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Book Series: Palgrave Historical Studies in the Criminal Corpse and its Afterlife ISBN: 9781137600882 9781137600899 Year: Pages: 155 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-60089-9 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 15:41:55
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This book is the first academic study of the post-mortem practice of gibbeting (‘hanging in chains’), since the nineteenth century. Gibbeting involved placing the executed body of a malefactor in an iron cage and suspending it from a tall post. A body might remain in the gibbet for many decades, while it gradually fell to pieces. Hanging in chains was a very different sort of post-mortem punishment from anatomical dissection, although the two were equal alternatives in the eyes of the law. Where dissection obliterated and de-individualised the body, hanging in chains made it monumental and rooted it in the landscape, adding to personal notoriety. Focusing particularly on the period 1752-1832, this book provides a summary of the historical evidence, the factual history of gibbetting which explores the locations of gibbets, the material technologies involved in hanging in chains, and the actual process from erection to eventual collapse. It also considers the meanings, effects and legacy of this gruesome practice.

Criminalità e sicurezza a Napoli: Primo Rapporto

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Book Series: Studi e Ricerche in Scienze Criminologiche, Giuridiche e Sociali ISBN: 9788868870041 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 393 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-004-1 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-12 13:52:23
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This report on crime and security in Naples is a first contribution in a series of works that will systematically address the quantitative dimension related to the outcome of crime as well as the critical issues underlying the security questions faced by citizens who live in Naples; the causes and characteristics of victimization; the initiatives, interventions, activities that can provide answers in a coordinated manner to the questions of prevention, contrast and social rehabilitation of the deviant and criminal behaviors, by addressing critical issues concerning the programming and integration of local social services, government offices, private social institutions, and the criminal justice system.Beside a section in which some features of the criminal phenomenon in Naples are illustrated, comparatively to other territories, in the report there are two further sections, one devoted to the seizure of illicit assets and another in which the phenomenon of extortion in Campania is analyzed.

Criminalità e sicurezza a Napoli: Secondo rapporto

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Book Series: Studi e Ricerche in Scienze Criminologiche, Giuridiche e Sociali ISBN: 9788868870287 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 344 DOI: 10.6093/978-88-6887-028-7 Language: Italian
Publisher: FedOA - Federico II University Press
Subject: Law
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-12 15:18:04
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In this second report on crime and security in Naples are addressed questions such as the determinants of a high propensity to illegal behavior although crime appears very risky, the appearance of youth-gangs and their peculiarities with respect to similar experiences in other countries, the correlation between social and economic vulnerability and the diffusion of an illegal credit market, the relationship between households’ overindebtedness and their consumption behavior, the diffusion of an usury market where criminal organizations rise huge profits.Many changes have occurred in the deviant and criminal behaviors, and an appropriate response to all of them ask for a radical innovation in the policies to prevent, control and contrast crime. In our region, what might be perceived as a social damnation is actually the result of different factors that produce a sort of crime trap, such that the diffusion of illegal behaviors reduce legal opportunities making a criminal career more convenient.

Explaining Criminal Careers: Implications for Justice Policy

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780199697243 Year: DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199697243.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: OAPEN-UK
Subject: Mathematics --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-03 22:50:17
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Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple quantitative theory of crime, conviction and reconviction, the assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples drawn from the “UK Home Office” Offenders Index (OI). Mathematical models based on the theory, together with population trends, are used to make: exact quantitative predictions of features of criminal careers; aggregate crime levels; the prison population; and to explain the age-crime curve, alternative explanations are shown not to be supported by the data. Previous research is reviewed, clearly identifying the foundations of the current work. Using graphical techniques to identify mathematical regularities in the data, recidivism (risk) and frequency (rate) of conviction are analysed and modelled. These models are brought together to identify three categories of offender: high-risk / high-rate, high-risk / low-rate and low-risk / low-rate. The theory is shown to rest on just 6 basic assumptions. Within this theoretical framework the seriousness of offending, specialisation or versatility in offence types and the psychological characteristics of offenders are all explored suggesting that the most serious offenders are a random sample from the risk/rate categories but that those with custody later in their careers are predominantly high-risk/high-rate. In general offenders are shown to be versatile rather than specialist and can be categorised using psychological profiles. The policy implications are drawn out highlighting the importance of conviction in desistance from crime and the absence of any additional deterrence effect of imprisonment. The use of the theory in evaluation of interventions is demonstrated.

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