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Dietary Zn and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038970194 9783038970200 Year: Pages: XII, 216 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-10 13:50:52
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• Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient that contributes to the proper functioning of over 300 enzymes and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. Zinc functions in the regulation of an extensive variety of genes, such as those involved in nucleic acid metabolism, cell signalling, apoptosis, and plays an integral role in immune system functioning. Even a mild Zn deficiency can profoundly affect growth and development, as well as impede immune differentiation and maturation. Zinc is widely distributed in foods, however, it was demonstrated that dietary constituents, such as phytate, polyphenols, and the intestinal microbiome, affect its dietary bioavailability and intestinal absorption. Regulation of zinc metabolism is achieved through a balance of absorption and excretion and involves adaptive mechanisms. The aim of this Special Issue is to explore dietary approaches that aim to improve Zn bioavailability and absorption, biomarkers of status, and the effect of Zn status on the intestinal microbiome.

Fe Deficiency, Dietary Bioavailability and Absorption

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ISBN: 9783038972303 9783038972310 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-231-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-12 11:51:12
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that approximately one-third of worldwide infant deaths, and one half in developing countries, can be attributed to malnutrition. More specifically, iron (Fe) deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and a major cause of infant mortality. Fe deficiency is particularly widespread in low-income countries because of a general lack of consumption of animal products (which can promote non-heme Fe absorption and contain highly bioavailable heme Fe) coupled with a high consumption of a monotonous diet of cereal grains and legumes. Such diets are low in bioavailable Fe due to the presence of phytic acid and certain polyphenols that are inhibitors of Fe bioavailability. Diets with chronically poor Fe bioavailability which result in high prevalence of Fe deficiency and anemia, increase the risk of all-cause child mortalities and also may lead to many pathophysiological consequences including stunted growth, low birth weight, delayed mental development and motor functioning, among others. Thus, a crucial step in alleviating Fe deficiency anemia is through understanding how specific dietary practices and components contribute to the Fe status in a particular region where Fe deficiency is prevalent. The aim of this Special Issue is to report on the recent advances and research developments related to the improvements of dietary Fe bioavailability and absorption in an effort to alleviate dietary Fe deficiency.]

Frontiers of Sulfur Metabolism in Plant Growth, Development, and Stress Response

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199037 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-903-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Growing plants have a constitutive demand for sulfur to synthesize proteins, sulfolipids and other essential sulfur containing molecules for growth and development. The uptake and subsequent distribution of sulfate is regulated in response to demand and environmental cues. The importance of sulfate for plant growth and vigor and hence crop yield and nutritional quality for human and animal diets has been clearly recognized. The acquisition of sulfur by plants, however, has become an increasingly important concern for the agriculture due to the decreasing S-emissions from industrial sources and the consequent limitation of inputs from atmospheric deposition. Molecular characterization involving transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in Arabidopsis thaliana as well as in major crops revealed that sulfate uptake, distribution and assimilation are finely regulated depending on sulfur status and demand, and that these regulatory networks are integrated with cell cycle, photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, hormonal signaling, uptake and assimilation of other nutrients, etc., to enable plant growth, development, and reproduction even under different biotic and abiotic stresses. This knowledge can be used to underpin approaches to enhance plant growth and nutritional quality of major food crops around the world. Although considerable progress has been made regarding the central role of sulfur metabolism in plant growth, development and stress response, several frontiers need to be explored to reveal the mechanisms of the cross-talk between sulfur metabolism and these processes. In this research topic the knowledge on plant sulfur metabolism is reviewed and updated. Focus is put not only on molecular mechanisms of control of sulfur metabolism but also on its integration with other vital metabolic events. The topic covers 4 major areas of sulfur research: sulfate uptake, assimilation and metabolism, regulation, and role in stress response. We hope that the topic will promote interaction between researchers with different expertise and thus contribute to a more integrative approach to study sulfur metabolism in plants.

The Importance of Iron in Pathophysiologic Conditions

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195244 Year: Pages: 479 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-524-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The iron element (Fe) is strictly required for the survival of most forms of life, including bacteria, plants and humans. Fine-tuned regulatory mechanisms for Fe absorption, mobilization and recycling operate to maintain Fe homeostasis, the disruption of which leads to Fe overload or Fe depletion. Whereas the deleterious effect of Fe deficiency relies on reduced oxygen transport and diminished activity of Fe-dependent enzymes, the cytotoxicity induced by Fe overload is due to the ability of this metal to act as a pro-oxidant and catalyze the formation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton chemistry. This results in unfettered oxidative stress generation that, by inducing protein, lipid and DNA oxidation, leads to Fe-mediated programmed cell death and organ dysfunction. Major and systemic Fe overloads occurring in hemochromatosis and Fe-loading anemias have been extensively studied. However, localized tissue Fe overload was recently associated to a variety of pathologies, such as infection, inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. In keeping with the existence of cross-regulatory interactions between Fe homeostasis and the pathophysiology of these diseases, further investigations on the mechanisms that provide cellular and systemic adaptation to tissue Fe overload are instrumental for future therapeutic approaches. Thus, we encourage our colleagues to submit original research papers, reviews, perspectives, methods and technology reports to contribute their findings to a current state of the art on a comprehensive overview of the importance of iron metabolism in pathophysiologic conditions.

Vitamin D and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038975861 / 9783038975878 Year: Pages: 306 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-587-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-21 10:04:11
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Over the past decades, researchers have gathered data demonstrating that vitamin D and its metabolites possess activities far beyond the classic regulation of calcium–phosphate homeostasis. It is now well established that vitamin D is essential for the proper functioning of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Furthermore, vitamin D and its analogs were shown to regulate proliferation and differentiation of keratinocyte, immune cells, and numerous cancer-derived cells, both in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, population base studies have provided evidence that global vitamin D deficiency is correlated with the occurrence and aggravation of symptoms of skeletal, cardiovascular autoimmune, and skin disease; infections; metabolic and cognitive disorders; multiple types of cancers; as well as overall mortality. This Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled “Vitamin D and Human Health”, summarizes recent advances in our understanding of pleiotropic activity of vitamin D with a focus on its protective role against cancer, hypertension, viral infections, and neurological diseases, as well as its impact on the immune system and mitochondria. Furthermore, eight research papers provide new insight into vitamin D research and highlight new directions and targets in the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Vitamin D and Human Health

ISBN: 9783038420569 9783038420576 Year: Pages: 476 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 08:50:54
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Vitamin D research has expanded greatly over the last 10 years, with a more than two-fold increase in annual publications listed in Pubmed with the key word ‘vitamin D’ from 1675 in 2005 to 3953 in 2014. Part of this increase is due to research showing that vitamin D deficiency is associated with a wide range of diseases and health outcomes. Until the 1980s, the primary focus of vitamin D research (in combination with calcium supplementation) was on bone diseases. Since then, observational studies have linked vitamin D deficiency with increased risk of many diseases: both acute and chronic. This book contains publications on several of these disease groups linked to vitamin D deficiency.

Micronutrients Intake and Status during Pregnancy and Lactation

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978404 9783038978411 Year: Pages: 152 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-841-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-09 17:16:14
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Optimal nutrition is important during pregnancy and lactation for the health of both the mother and infant. Chronic deficiencies of both macronutrients and micronutrients are well established in developing countries. Although in developed countries overconsumption of macronutrients is a major issue, micronutrient deficiencies which occur concomitantly are no less of a concern. Furthermore in developed countries there is also the risk of excessive micronutrient intake from dietary supplements. Micronutrients have a role in fetal and neonatal health and also health in later life. Micronutrient deficiency or toxicity during pregnancy or early life can permanently affect developing tissues, resulting in adverse growth and development of the infant which is associated with chronic diseases in adulthood. An aberrant micronutrient intake during pregnancy or lactation can also have detrimental effect on the mother both in the neonatal period and in later life.

Eating Disorders and Obesity: The Challenge for Our Times

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979982 / 9783038979999 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-999-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Eating Disorders have traditionally been considered apart from public health concerns about increasing obesity. It is evident that these problems are, however, related in important ways. Comorbid obesity and eating disorder is increasing at a faster rate than either obesity or eating disorders alone and one in five people with obesity also presents with an Eating Disorder, commonly but not limited to Binge Eating Disorder. New disorders have emerged such as normal weight or Atypical Anorexia Nervosa. However research and practice too often occurs in parallel with a failure to understand the weight disorder spectrum and consequences of co-morbidity that then contributes to poorer outcomes for people living with a larger size and an Eating Disorder. Urgently needed are trials that will inform more effective assessment, treatment and care where body size and eating disorder symptoms are both key to the research question.

Keywords

obesity risk --- mothers --- women --- young children --- socioecological --- obesity --- eating disorders --- binge eating --- dieting --- treatment --- the Roma --- nurse --- overweight --- obesity --- health education --- lifestyle factors --- nutrition --- cultural features --- spinal cord injury --- athlete --- energy availability --- nutrient deficiency --- low energy availability --- bone mineral density --- para athlete --- menstrual dysfunction --- Female Athlete Triad --- Relative Energy Deficiency in Sports (RED-S) --- binge eating --- questionnaire --- psychometric --- eating disorders --- obesity --- obesity --- weight loss --- bariatric surgery --- eating behaviour --- psychology --- Bulimia Nervosa --- binge-eating disorder --- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders --- International Classification of Diseases --- biofeedback --- EEG-Neurofeedback --- fMRI-Neurofeedback --- eating disorders --- psychophysiology --- eating disorders-related symptoms --- loss of control eating --- obesity --- BMI --- adolescent --- females --- family functioning --- energy intake --- physical fitness --- visceral adipose tissue --- obesity --- eating disorders --- nutrition --- physical activity --- exercise --- bulimia --- binge eating disorder --- feeding behavior --- cognition --- obesity --- event-related potential --- P3 --- children --- eating disorders --- eating behavior --- feeding practices --- obesity --- EEG --- frequency bands --- obesity --- brain activity --- impulsivity --- children --- eating disorders --- obesity --- prevention --- food industry --- food environment --- food policy --- executive function --- obesity --- binge-eating disorder --- food addiction --- addictive-like eating --- dietary patterns --- body satisfaction --- orthorexia nervosa --- students --- binge-eating disorder --- BED --- obesity --- binge-type eating --- neuromedin U receptor 2 --- NMUR2 --- nucleus accumbens --- ventral tegmental area --- usability study --- online health intervention --- adolescents --- school setting --- eating disorders --- overweight --- prevention --- engagement --- E-Mental Health --- bulimia nervosa --- binge eating disorder --- weight --- dieting --- treatment

Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038979500 / 9783038979517 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-951-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The goal of this Special Issue, “Probiotics and Prebiotics in Pediatrics”, is to focus on the importance of pediatric nutrition with probiotics and prebiotics to improve gastrointestinal health in newborn, infants, and children.Specifically, the aim is to clarify if probiotics and prebiotics can influence gut microbiota composition and host-interaction favoring human health and preventing diseases.This new information will provide health care professionals with a widespread, clear and update evidence on probiotics and prebiotics and intestinal gut microbiota in pediatric care.

Keywords

acute diarrhea --- children --- Bacillus clausii --- efficacy --- randomized controlled trials --- breast feeding --- formula feeding --- human milk oligosaccharide --- 2?-fucosyllactose --- Lacto-N-neotetraose --- microbiota --- bifidobacteria --- acute gastroenteritis --- children --- Lactobacillus reuteri --- oral rehydration solution --- probiotics --- zinc --- probiotics --- allergy --- infants --- pediatrics --- human milk oligosaccharides --- human milk --- infant formula --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- preterm infant --- preterm infant --- probiotic --- human milk --- probiotic strain --- safety --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- microbiome --- intestinal microbiota --- microbial programming --- nutritional programming --- allergy --- prevention --- neonatal --- preterm --- breast milk --- oligosaccharides --- diversity --- necrotizing enterocolitis --- sepsis --- growth --- constipation --- prebiotic --- intestinal transit time --- infant --- Bifidobacterium --- Lactobacillus --- probiotics --- asthma --- Childhood Asthma Control Test --- peak expiratory flow rate --- immunoglobulin E --- “Probiotics”[Mesh] --- “Pregnancy”[Mesh] --- “Infant, Newborn”[Mesh] --- Bifidobacterium breve --- probiotics --- paediatrics --- therapeutic microbiology --- celiac disease --- iron deficiency anemia --- gluten-free diet --- inulin --- prebiotics --- iron absorption --- hepcidin --- probiotics --- microbiota --- celiac disease --- gluten free diet --- probiotics --- functional gastrointestinal disorders --- functional abdominal pain disorders --- functional constipation --- infantile colic --- infant --- colic --- lactobacilli --- n/a --- fecal microbiota --- protein hydrolyzed formulas --- cow’s milk protein --- tolerance acquisition --- non-IgE mediated allergy --- n/a

AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signalling

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038976622 Year: Pages: 452 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-663-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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Starting from a kinase of interest, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has gone far beyond an average biomolecule. Being expressed in all mammalian cell types and probably having a counterpart in every eukaryotic cell, AMPK has attracted interest in virtually all areas of biological research. Structural and biophysical insights have greatly contributed to a molecular understanding of this kinase. From good old protein biochemistry to modern approaches, such as systems biology and advanced microscopy, all disciplines have provided important information. Thus, multiple links to cellular events and subcellular localizations have been established. Moreover, the crucial involvement of AMPK in human health and disease has been evidenced. AMPK accordingly has moved from an interesting enzyme to a pharmacological target. However, despite our extensive current knowledge about AMPK, the growing community is busier than ever. This book provides a snapshot of recent and current AMPK research with an emphasis on work providing molecular insight, including but not limited to novel physiological and pathological functions, or regulatory mechanisms. Up-to-date reviews and research articles are included.

Keywords

exercise --- glucose uptake --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- TBC1D4 --- AS160 --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) --- hypertension --- kidney disease --- nutrient-sensing signals --- oxidative stress --- renin-angiotensin system --- AMPK --- autophagy --- co-expression --- microarrays --- 3T3-L1 --- adipocyte --- differentiation --- AMPK --- tight junctions --- epithelial cells --- ZO-1 --- par complex --- MDCK --- nectin-afadin --- adherent junctions --- TAK1 --- AMPK --- phosphorylation --- AMPK kinase --- endothelial nitric-oxide synthase --- vasodilation --- phenylephrine --- vasoconstriction --- endothelial cells --- ionomycin --- AMPK --- liver --- lipid metabolism --- fatty acid oxidation --- indirect calorimetry --- atrophy --- regrowth --- sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) --- peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-? (PGC1?) --- heat shock protein --- fiber-type --- AMPK --- monocytes --- macrophages --- differentiation --- autophagy --- AML --- MDS --- CML --- CMML --- pregnancy --- catechol-O-methyltransferase --- 2-methoxyestradiol --- preeclampsia --- gestational diabetes mellitus --- AMPK --- IL-1? --- NLRP3 --- nutrition --- dietary fatty acids --- metabolic-inflammation --- nutrigenomics --- AMPK --- LKB1 --- autophagy --- proteasome --- hypertrophy --- atrophy --- skeletal muscle --- AICAR --- mTOR --- protein synthesis --- AMPK --- epigenetics --- chromatin remodeling --- histone modification --- DNA methylation --- medulloblastoma --- sonic hedgehog --- AMPK --- AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) --- spermatozoa --- motility --- mitochondria --- membranes --- signaling --- stress --- assisted reproduction techniques --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- epigenetics --- protein acetylation --- KATs --- HDACs --- acetyl-CoA --- NAD+ --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- glycogen --- exercise --- metabolism --- cellular energy sensing --- energy utilization --- liver --- skeletal muscle --- metabolic disease --- glycogen storage disease --- resveratrol --- AMPK --- hepatocyte --- liver --- steatosis --- transporter --- carrier --- pump --- membrane --- energy deficiency --- AMPK --- infection --- mycobacteria --- host defense --- energy metabolism --- AMPK --- activation loop --- AID --- ?-linker --- ?-linker --- CBS --- LKB1 --- CaMKK2 --- ?RIM --- hypothalamus --- adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase --- adipose tissue --- food intake --- adaptive thermogenesis --- beiging --- AMPK --- HDAC4/5 --- p70S6K --- MyHC I(?), motor endplate remodeling --- soleus muscle --- mechanical unloading --- hindlimb suspension --- AMPK --- synaptic activation --- PKA --- CREB --- soluble Adenylyl cyclase --- Immediate early genes --- transcription --- AMPK --- autophagy --- metabolism --- mTOR --- ULK --- AMP-activated protein kinase --- protein kinase B --- Akt --- insulin signalling --- A769662 --- endothelial function --- n/a

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