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Autophagy in plants and algae

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194773 Year: Pages: 102 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-477-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:33
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Autophagy (also known as macroautophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved process by which cytoplasmic components are nonselectively enclosed within a double-membrane vesicle known as the autophagosome and delivered to the vacuole for degradation of toxic components and recycling of needed nutrients. This catabolic process is required for the adequate adaptation and response of the cell, and correspondingly the whole organism, to different types of stress including nutrient starvation or oxidative damage. Autophagy has been extensively investigated in yeasts and mammals but the identification of autophagy-related (ATG) genes in plant and algal genomes together with the characterization of autophagy-deficient mutants in plants have revealed that this process is structurally and functionally conserved in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Recent studies have demonstrated that autophagy is active at a basal level under normal growth in plants and is upregulated during senescence and in response to nutrient limitation, oxidative stress, salt and drought conditions and pathogen attack. Autophagy was initially considered as a non-selective pathway, but numerous observations mainly obtained in yeasts revealed that autophagy can also selectively eliminate specific proteins, protein complexes and organelles. Interestingly, several types of selective autophagy appear to be also conserved in plants, and the degradation of protein aggregates through specific adaptors or the delivery of chloroplast material to the vacuole via autophagy has been reported. This research topic aims to gather recent progress on different aspects of autophagy in plants and algae. We welcome all types of articles including original research, methods, opinions and reviews that provide new insights about the autophagy process and its regulation.

Untersuchung der Hochvoltstabilität und Tiefentladung von dotierten LiNi0,5Mn1,5O4-Hochvoltspinellen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Angewandte Materialien, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 21929963 ISBN: 9783731507284 Year: Volume: 73 Pages: X, 249 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000074496 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-28 18:37:01
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Due to its high operating voltage the so-called high voltage spinel (LiNi0,5Mn1,5O4) is a promising cathode material. In this work the kinetics of the capacity loss during cycling and its change due to different coatings are analyzed. In a second part the electrochemical behavior for the insertion of a second lithium per formula unit is discussed for different doped spinel materials.

Protein engineering and other bio-synthetic routes for bio-based materials: Current uses and potential applications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193950 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-395-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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In the past 20 years protein engineering has been used for the production of proteins mostly for biological applications. The incorporation of artificial amino acids and chemical handles into proteins had made possible the design and production of protein-based materials like hybrid inorganic-organic materials, smart/ responsive materials, monodisperse polymers, and nanoscale assemblies. In the current topic, we cover current uses and envision future applications of materials generated using protein engineering and biosynthesis techniques.

Degradation of whey in an anaerobic fixed bed (AnFB) reactor

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Book Series: Karlsruher Berichte zur Ingenieurbiologie ISSN: 01728709 ISBN: 3937300120 Year: Volume: 41 Pages: XIII, 135 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1592004 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Astronomy (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02

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An Anaerobic Fixed Bed (AnFB) reactor was run as an upflow anaerobic reactor with an arrangement of supporting material for growth of a biofilm. The supporting material was made from Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas (Herding Co., Amberg).The AnFB reactor was used for treating high concentrations of whey-containing wastewater. Optimal operating conditions for whey treatment at a concentration of COD in the influent of around 50 g whey·l-1 were found for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the range of 4-8 days or an organic loading rate (OLR) less than 10 kg COD·m-3·d-1. This is a higher load than normally applied in praxis reactors.Accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) happened when the AnFB was supplied with surplus whey solution at a high OLR or when it was oxygenated. VFAs were accumulated faster when the HRT was changed from 12 days to 6 days compared to a change of HRT from 6 days to 4 days. However, at a HRT of 6 days, the accumulated VFAs were completely degraded after an adaptation period of about 5 days, whereas the accumulated VFAs at a HRT of 4 days remained constant upon time and could not be degraded during further incubation.The conversion process (acetogenesis and methanogenesis) of VFAs was influenced by the pH in the reactor. Acetate and n-Butyrate were converted faster at neutral or slightly alkaline pH, while propionate was degraded faster at slightly acidic pH-value. The population in the AnFB contained hydrogen-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, formate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, methanol-utilizing methanogenic bacteria, acetoclastic methanogenic bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria as the final-stage organism of whey degradation. Acetogenic and methanogenic bacteria grew slower and were present at much lower numbers than acidogenic bacteria. This made the acid degradation rate less than the acid production rate. The minimal HRT in the whey reactor was thus dependent on acid degradation rates. Acetate-utilizing methanogens seemed to be unable to grow as single cells. They preferred to grow in a particulate or attached manner on a support material. The biofilm on the support materials provided a lower redox potential and an anaerobic environment that was obligately needed by these bacteria. The addition of a reducing agent was necessary to keep the few culturing acetoclastic methanogens in suspended cultures active.H2/CO2 was the best methanogenic substrate for the bacteria in the effluent suspension of whey reactor, followed by formate and methanol. The least degradable substrate in suspension cultures was acetate. The optimal H2 gas concentration for methanogens was provided at 2.25 bar.Ferric ions addition or the addition of a mix of minerals improved acetate degradation and methane production rates more than two-folds. The redox potential + reducing agent was low enough for methanogenesis. An AnFB-reactor would be a suitable means for stabilizing wastewater from dairy processing. Liapor-clay-polyethylene sinter lamellas in a regularly arrangement could be the substratum for biofilm formation. A minimum HRT of 4-6 days should be planned or a maximum OLR rate 10 kg COD·m-3·d-1 not exceeded.

Danger pollutions !

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ISBN: 9791030003819 DOI: 10.4000/books.pub.1296 Language: French
Publisher: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:42
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Pollution de l'air par les fumées, pollution des eaux et des sols par les engrais ou les pesticides, pollution des mers et des plages par les marées noires ou les « marées vertes », pollution due aux substances toxiques comme l'amiante, les déchets industriels ou ménagers, pollution nucléaire ou encore pollutions visuelles... La seconde moitié du XXe siècle a inauguré une période dangereuse mettant en péril ressources naturelles et santé humaine. À travers l'étude de ces différents types de pollution, l'auteur tente de montrer comment, pour la défense d'intérêts particuliers, quelques groupes de pression freinent la lutte antipollution. Il démontre aussi comment, grâce à la prise de conscience aiguë des citoyens face à la montée des risques de pollution - illustrée par l'apparition de partis politiques « écologistes » et par la multiplication des associations de défense des consommateurs - les politiques mises en œuvre aujourd'hui ignorent de moins en moins la question environnementale.

Comprendre la mondialisation III

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ISBN: 9782842461140 9782842462123 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de la Bibliothèque publique d’information
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-06 08:58:08
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Avec l'année 2006 s'est achevé notre cycle de rencontres commencé en janvier. Partant de ces fondements économiques, nous avons pu constater que la mondialisation s'étend bien au-delà du domaine des marchés et des échanges commerciaux : l'avènement d'un espace mondial bouleverse les modes de vie, l'urbanisme, les migrations, les communications, les relations politiques, les cultures... Avec les derniers débats, nous avons abordé encore l'environnement, l'évolution du droit, la planétarisation...

Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination

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ISBN: 9789535112358 9789535142355 Year: Pages: 920 DOI: 10.5772/57086 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:49

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Soil is an irreplaceable resource that sustains life on the planet, challenged by food and energy demands of an increasing population. Therefore, soil contamination constitutes a critical issue to be addressed if we are to secure the life quality of present and future generations. Integrated efforts from researchers and policy makers are required to develop sound risk assessment procedures, remediation strategies and sustainable soil management policies. Environmental Risk Assessment of Soil Contamination provides a wide depiction of current research in soil contamination and risk assessment, encompassing reviews and case studies on soil pollution by heavy metals and organic pollutants. The book introduces several innovative approaches for soil remediation and risk assessment, including advances in phytoremediation and implementation of metabolomics in soil sciences.

Soil Contamination

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ISBN: 9789533076478 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.5772/927 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:08

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Soil contamination has severely increased over the last decades, mainly due to petroleum hydrocarbons, solvents, pesticides, lead and other heavy metals from industrial wastes and human activities. The critical point regarding contaminated soil monitoring is the intrinsic difficulty in defining fixed monitoring variables and indicators as the establishment of any a priori criterion and threshold for soil quality can be still considered subjective. This book is organized into eight chapters and presents the state-of-the art and new research highlights in the context of contaminated soil monitoring and remediation strategies, including examples from South America, Europe and Asia. The chapters deal with the following topics: - monitoring of dioxin, furan, hydrocarbons and heavy metals level in soils - bioindicators and biomarkers for the assessment of soil toxicity - use of reflectance spectroscopy for soil contaminants and waste material detection - remediation technologies and strategies.

Land Degradation and Desertification - a Global Crisis

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ISBN: 9789535127062 9789535127079 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.5772/61629 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:10

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Land degradation which is caused by multiple forces-extreme weather conditions and anthropogenic activities that pollute or degrade the quality of soils and land utility-negatively affects food production, livelihoods, and the provision of other ecosystem goods and services. Land degradation can also lead to climate change and affect human health. The problem is more pronounced in least developing countries due to overdependence of natural resources for survival. Sustainable ways to reduce land degradation and desertification demand research and advocacy of sustainable land management practices. This book is organized into two sections. The first section covers three major aspects, viz., an understanding of patterns of land degradation and desertification for developing mitigation strategies, land-atmosphere interaction from response of land cover to climate change effects of Karst rocky desertification, and the effect of unprecedented human activity into land degradation and desertification processes using natural and human-induced landscape research. The last section dwells on the relationship between soil degradation and crop production and an examination on how land degradation impacts the quality of soil in communal rangelands. Environmentalists, land-use planners, ecologists, pedologists, researchers, and graduate students will find this book to be an essential resource.

Endoplasmic reticulum - shape and function in stress translation

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193448 Year: Pages: 110 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-344-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a manufacturing unit in eukaryotic cells required for the synthesis of proteins, lipids, metabolites and hormones. Besides supporting cellular signalling networks by its anabolic function, the ER on its own or in communication with other organelles directly initiates signalling processes of physiological significance. Based on the intimate and immediate involvement in stress signalling the ER is considered as sensory organelle on which cells strongly rely to effectively translate environmental cues into adaptive stress responses. The transcellular distribution of the ER providing comprehensive cell-to-cell connections in multicellular organisms probably allows a concerted action of cell alliances and tissue areas towards environmental constraints. At the cellular level, stress adaptation correlates with the capability of the ER machinery to synthesise proteins participating in stress signalling as well as in the activation of ER membrane localised proteins to start cell-protective signalling processes. Importantly, depending on the stress insult, the ER either supports protective strategies or initiates cell death programmes. Recent, genetic, molecular and cell biological studies have drawn an initial picture of underlying signalling events activated by ER membrane localised proteins. In this Research Topic, we provided a platform for articles describing research on ER morphology and metabolism with a focus on stress translation. The Research Topic is sub-divided into the following sections: 1. ER in stress signalling and adaptation 2. ER structure and biosynthetic functions 3. Regulation of protein processing 4. Regulation of programmed cell death

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