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True-Time-Delay Beamforming für ultrabreitbandige Systeme hoher Leistung

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik ISSN: 18684696 ISBN: 9783866445222 Year: Volume: 60 Pages: VIII, 176 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000018294 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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In dieser Arbeit werden folgende Punkte, zum Teil erstmalig, untersucht:- Entwicklung eines analytischen Modells zum schnellen Design von Rotman-Linsen- Rotman-Linsen im Zeitbereich bei transienten Eingangssignalen- Leistungsaufteilung innerhalb einer Rotman-Linse- Untersuchung der Rotman-Linse im Frequenzbereich 450 MHz bis 5 GHz- Untersuchung einer Vivaldi-Antenne im Frequenzbereich 450 MHz bis 5 GHz- Systemtheoretische Abschätzung der Funktionalität der Rotman-Linse in einem HPEM-System

Brain Development and the Attention Spectrum

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194827 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-482-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Early-onset and enduring developmental deficits in attention, especially if combined with increased hyperactivity, and impulsivity, may result in constant impairments in multiple domains of personal life. The full spectrum of symptoms is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity, which is maladaptive and inconsistent with a comparable level of developmental age known as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ADHD is considered one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders and of childhood, and among the most prevalent chronic health conditions.Given the wide heterogeneity and complex manifestations of the disorder, there is an importance in a developmental perspective that views ADHD as a multi-factorial disorder with multiple, causal processes, and pathways. The symptoms of ADHD should be cast, not as static or fixed neurobehavioral deficits, but rather in terms of underlying developmental processes.Even experienced professional might minimize the prevalence of a disorder among certain groups of patients. Therefore, the existence of attention disorders might become ""transparent"" for both the patient and the professional. This might lead to a non-accurate diagnosis, harm the treatment aspects and has potential non beneficial prognostic aspects.The developmental approach can provide predictions as to how characteristics associated with attention develop over time and how multiple risk and protective factors transact to impact it's development, as well as the development of a broad range of associated co-morbid features.Among children with mental retardation, autistic spectrum disorders, children who were born premature, born with low birth weight, as well as among those who suffer from chronic disorders (such as epilepsy, diabetes, chronic kidney disease or asthma), as well as among otherwise healthy preschoolers - the assessment of attention performance might be very challenging. In this research topic, we explore the latest cutting edge research on the biological and neural pathways as well as on psychosocial and behavioral correlates of brain development and attention spectrum. In doing so we aim to highlight: what is currently known regarding this new conceptualization of attention as a spectrum; the mechanisms underlying this spectrum; and where this field is headed in terms of developing our understanding of the link between brain development and attention performance.

Keywords

ADHD --- Attention --- Brain --- autism --- Child --- Delay --- development --- fetal --- maturation --- spectrum --- visual

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Visual Working Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451685 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-168-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Visual working memory allows us to temporarily maintain and manipulate visual information in order to solve a task. The study of the brain mechanisms underlying this function began more than half a century ago, with Scoville and Milner’s (1957) seminal discoveries with amnesic patients. This timely collection of papers brings together diverse perspectives on the cognitive neuroscience of visual working memory from multiple fields that have traditionally been fairly disjointed: human neuroimaging, electrophysiological, behavioural and animal lesion studies, investigating both the developing and the adult brain.

Eyeblink Conditioning in Psychiatric Conditions - State of the Field and Future Directions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452750 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-275-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Eyeblink classical conditioning (EBC) is a model paradigm for associative (also termed Pavlovian) learning, one of the simplest and best understood forms of learning and memory. Because EBC paradigms are readily adapted across species, the neural substrates of EBC have been well characterized, and include but are not limited to the cerebellum and anterior interpositus nucleus, the hippocampus, and prefrontal cortices. The ability to collect EBC data across many different species (i.e. including but not limited to humans) also has the distinct advantage of facilitating translational research, and therefore may be of particular benefit to elucidate mechanistic changes associated with a wide variety of psychiatric disorders. In fact, EBC paradigms have been employed to assess individuals with a wide range of neurological deficits (including Korsakoff’s amnesia, Alzheimer's disease as well as normal aging, dyslexia, inflammatory tremor, dystonia, and multiple sclerosis) and psychiatric disorders (including major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, autism, and alcohol use/addiction disorders). Individuals with these disorders exhibit differential impairments across different EBC task types (e.g., delay vs. trace EBC), with some showing impairment in one but not the other task and some showing impairments in both; across learning stage (e.g., acquisition, discrimination, or extinction), and across response variables (e.g., magnitude and timing of the conditioned eyeblink motor response, modality of the conditioned stimulus). Evaluating specific individual differences in the context of variable brain pathology should aid characterization and refinement of our understanding of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. The field of psychiatry has seen a transition from more traditional use of symptom clusters to define psychiatric disorders with subsequent examination of associated behaviors and traits, to the use of physiological and behavioral indicators to characterize individuals with respect to various psychological domains [in line with the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative]. This approach employs a neuroscience-based framework to assess the pathophysiology of chronic mental illnesses. Behavioral and cognitive processes are critical domains of interest in evaluating potential maladaptive patterns that may be indicative of specific psychopathologies. Furthermore, the rapid development of technological advances that allow for more detailed examination (e.g., EEG, MEG, MRI, fMRI, infrared imaging) and manipulation (e.g. transcranial magnetic and direct current stimulation) of brain functions should enhance our ability to better characterize EBC performance and its utility in characterizing aspects of particular neuropathologies. Substantial research evidence exists for the value of EBC paradigms to inform our understanding of the pathophysiologies underlying a wide variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Despite these findings, this readily implemented classic cognitive-behavioral paradigm is relatively underutilized in clinical settings. This e-book highlights recent convergence of clinical and research efforts in this area and aims to promote a resurgent interest in eyeblink classical conditioning, and to emphasize the potential for future translational and diagnostic applications of EBC in combination with other techniques to strengthen our understanding of alterations in brain function manifested in behaviors characteristic of specific psychopathologies.

Slow-light photonic crystal devices for high-speed optical signal processing

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Book Series: Karlsruhe Series in Photonics & Communications / Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institute of High-Frequency and Quantum Electronics (IHQ) ISSN: 18651100 ISBN: 9783866443136 Year: Volume: 4 Pages: X, 170 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000009905 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:57
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This book discusses design, modeling, and the characterization of slow-light photonic crystal waveguides. Guidelines are developed to obtain slow-light waveguides with broadband characteristics and with low disorder-induced losses. Three functional devices are proposed and studied: A tunable dispersion compensator, a tunable optical delay line, and a high-speed electro-optic modulator. Optical and microwave measurements confirm the designs.

Einfluss von Instationarität auf die Wartezeit an Knotenpunkten mit und ohne Lichtsignalanlage

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Verkehrswesen, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie ISSN: 03415503 ISBN: 9783731506751 Year: Volume: 72 Pages: IX, 155 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000069797 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Vehicle delay is used to assess the level of service for intersections. The impact of non-stationary arrival flow rates has only partly been included in calculation methods. Empirical data is used to show that traffic volume during the peak hour can be distributed in very different forms. A microscopic traffic simulation study is carried out in order to assess their impact on the delay. As a result a new factor is proposed to include non-stationarity more precisely in the calculation of delay.

Hybrid routing in delay tolerant networks

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ISBN: 9783866448070 Year: Pages: XVIII, 220 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000025626 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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This work addresses the integration of today's infrastructure-based networks with infrastructure-less networks. The resulting Hybrid Routing System allows for communication over both network types and can help to overcome cost, communication, and overload problems. Mobility aspect resulting from infrastructure-less networks are analyzed and analytical models developed. For development and deployment of the Hybrid Routing System an overlay-based framework is presented.

Reward Processing in Motivational and Affective Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199860 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-986-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Preferential reward processing is the hallmark of addiction, where salient cues become overvalued and trigger compulsion. In depression, rewards appear to lose their incentive properties or become devalued. In the context of schizophrenia, aberrations in neural reward signalling are thought to contribute to the overvaluation of irrelevant stimuli on the one hand and the onset of negative symptoms on the other. Accordingly, reward processing has emerged as a key variable in contemporary, evidence based, diagnostic frameworks, such as the Research Domain Criteria launched by the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Delineation of the underlying mechanisms of aberrant or blunted reward processing can be of trans-diagnostic importance across several neuropsychiatric disorders. Reward processing can become automatic thus raising the question of cognitive control, a core theme of this Topic, which aims at justifying the necessity of reward processing as a potential therapeutic target in clinical settings. Empirical and theoretical contributions on the following themes were expected to: *Explore new avenues of research by investigating the processing of rewards at the cognitive, behavioral, motivational, neural systems and individual difference levels. A developmental focus is promising in this regard, probing the core processes that shape reward processing and thus subsequent liability to motivational and affective disorders. *Develop and refine conceptual models of reward processing from computational neuroscience. *Promote greater understanding and development of emergent therapeutic approaches such as cognitive bias modification and behavioural approach or avoidance training. A key question is the feasibility of reversing or modifying maladaptive patterns of reward processing to therapeutic ends. *Refine and augment the evidential database for tried and tested therapies such as Contingency Management and Behavioral Activation by focusing on core cognitive processes mediating rewards. *Provide a potential dimensional approach for reward processing deficits that can be of trans-diagnostic importance in clinically relevant disorders, including depression and addiction * Investigate the subjective experience of pleasure- the hedonic aspect of reward seeking and consumption – and how this can be distinguished from the motivational, sometimes compulsive, component of reward pursuit. This promises more nuanced and effective interventions. Depression, for instance, could be seen as the restricted pursuit of pleasure rather than blunted pleasure experience; addiction can be viewed as accentuated drug seeking despite diminished consummatory pleasure. This aims to place motivation centre stage in both scenarios, emphasising the transdiagnostic theme of the Topic. *Temporal discounting of future rewards, whereby smaller, more immediate rewards are chosen even when significantly more valuable deferred rewards are available, is another trans-diagnostic phenomenon of interest in the in the present context. Factors that influence this, such as discounting of future reward are thought to reflect compulsion in the addictive context and hopelessness on the part of people experiencing depression. The executive cognitive processes that regulate this decision making are of both scientific and clinical significance. Empirical findings, theoretical contributions or commentaries bearing on cognitive or executive control were therefore welcome.

Dynamical Models of Biology and Medicine

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ISBN: 9783039212170 / 9783039212187 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-218-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Mathematical and computational modeling approaches in biological and medical research are experiencing rapid growth globally. This Special Issue Book intends to scratch the surface of this exciting phenomenon. The subject areas covered involve general mathematical methods and their applications in biology and medicine, with an emphasis on work related to mathematical and computational modeling of the complex dynamics observed in biological and medical research. Fourteen rigorously reviewed papers were included in this Special Issue. These papers cover several timely topics relating to classical population biology, fundamental biology, and modern medicine. While the authors of these papers dealt with very different modeling questions, they were all motivated by specific applications in biology and medicine and employed innovative mathematical and computational methods to study the complex dynamics of their models. We hope that these papers detail case studies that will inspire many additional mathematical modeling efforts in biology and medicine

Keywords

hemodynamic model --- microcirculation load --- liquid-solid-porous media seepage coupling --- 2-combination --- graphical representation --- cell-based vector --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- intraguild predation --- random perturbations --- persistence --- stationary distribution --- global asymptotic stability --- quorum sensing --- chemostat --- mathematical model --- differential equations --- delay --- bifurcations --- dynamical system --- numerical simulation --- predator-prey model --- switched harvest --- limit cycle --- rich dynamics --- algae growth models --- uncertainty quantification --- asymptotic theory --- bootstrapping --- model comparison tests --- Raphidocelis subcapitata --- Daphnia magna --- spotting --- wildfire --- transport equations --- spotting distribution --- obesity --- mechano-electrochemical model --- articular cartilage --- cartilage degeneration --- cartilage loading --- optimal control --- hepatitis B --- delay differential equations (DDE) --- immune response --- drug therapy --- dynamic model --- flocculation --- global stability --- uniform persistence --- epidermis --- mathematical model --- bacterial inflammation --- bacterial competition --- chronic myeloid leukemia --- tyrosine kinase inhibitors --- immunomodulatory therapies --- combination therapy --- equilibrium points --- mathematical modeling --- prostate cancer --- androgen deprivation therapy --- data fitting --- generalized pseudo amino acid composition --- numerical characterization --- phylogenetic analysis --- identification of DNA-binding proteins --- n/a

Ten Years of TerraSAR-X—Scientific Results

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ISBN: 9783038977247 9783038977254 Year: Pages: 422 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-725-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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This Special Issue is a collection of papers addressing the scientific use of data acquired in the course of the TerraSAR-X mission 10 years after launch. The articles deal with the mission itself, the accuracy of the products, with differential interferometry, and with applications in the domains cryosphere, oceans, wetlands, and urban areas.

Keywords

synthetic aperture radar --- TerraSAR-X --- geolocation --- absolute localization accuracy --- stereo sar --- imaging geodesy --- TerraSAR-X --- internal calibration --- geometric and radiometric calibration --- antenna model verification --- antenna pointing determination --- radiometric accuracy --- calibration targets --- long term performance monitoring --- TerraSAR-X --- TanDEM-X --- LEO --- POD --- SLR --- SAR --- Satellite Laser Ranging --- radar ranging --- satellite orbit --- validation --- InSAR coherence --- NDVI --- damage assessment --- density map --- tsunami --- earthquake --- GIS --- TSX Staring spotlight --- high resolution InSAR --- small-scale movements --- atmospheric phase --- layover --- DSM blending --- SAR --- internal waves --- Andaman Sea --- radar --- satellite --- remote sensing --- SAR --- TerraSAR-X --- operations --- ground segment --- orbit --- mission --- global --- urban footprint --- processing --- validation --- community survey --- sustainability --- synthetic aperture radar --- X-band --- marine --- estuarine --- lacustrine --- riverine --- palustrine --- time-series --- SAR applications --- vegetation --- remote sensing data --- DInSAR --- landslide monitoring --- PSI --- super high-spatial resolution TerraSAR-X images --- pixel selection --- measurement pixels’ density --- synthetic aperture radar --- PolSAR --- TerraSAR-X --- surface water monitoring --- flooded vegetation --- classification --- segmentation --- InSAR --- landslide --- phase unwrapping --- phase demodulation --- TerraSAR-X --- RADARSAT-2 --- ALOS-1 --- ERS --- synthetic aperture radar --- TerraSAR-X --- habitat mapping --- monitoring --- remote sensing --- Wadden Sea --- mussel beds --- intertidal bedforms --- tidal gullies --- remote sensing --- film slicks on the sea surface --- dual co-polarized microwave radar --- surface wind waves --- wave breaking --- Snow Cover Extent (SCE) --- TerraSAR-X --- Landsat --- wet snow --- small Arctic catchments --- satellite time series --- TerraSAR-X --- synthetic aperture radar (SAR), radar mission --- remote sensing --- land subsidence --- TerraSAR-X --- SAR interferometry --- coastal environments --- Venice lagoon --- multi-baseline --- multi-pass --- PS --- DS --- geodetic --- TomoSAR --- D-TomoSAR --- PSI --- robust estimation --- covariance matrix --- InSAR --- SAR --- review --- SAR --- SAR interferometry --- atmospheric propagation delay --- persistent scatterer interferometry --- numerical weather prediction --- stratified atmospheric delay --- zenith path delay --- slant path delay --- interferometry --- surface movement monitoring --- ground control points --- radargrammetry --- automated target recognition --- convolutional neural networks (CNN), deep CNN --- support vector machine --- SVM --- synthetic aperture radar --- TerraSAR-X --- SAR interferometry --- land subsidence --- precise orbit determination --- geometric and radiometric calibration --- PSI

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