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Democratization through the looking glass

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ISBN: 9781526137302 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Democratization is a major political phenomenon of the current age. Democratization through the looking glass argues that our perspectives on democratization reflect the intellectual origins of the inquiry. How we see and understand it are influenced by what we 'bring to the table'. By considering democratization across a range of disciplines from anthropology and economics, to sociology, law and area studies, this volume offers a rich combination of analytical frameworks, distinctive insights and leading points of concern. On one level the book provides anyone interested in democratization with a wide-ranging distillation of the main themes, issues, and topics, concisely written by leading experts in their field. On a second level the book advances the case for a broadly-based comparative study which includes Europe and North America alongside developing regions, while maintaining the belief that a multi-disciplinary approach enhances our understanding of democratization far more than that of a narrow political science view. The book is aimed at students of politics willing to explore the boundaries of their subject and all social scientists who need an introduction to this important contemporary phenomenon.

Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state

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ISBN: 9781526137494 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Manchester University Press
Subject: Gender Studies
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Democratization has become an important concept in the last ten years. With the end of the Cold War, the spread of globalization, and the extension of economic regulatory regimes, democratization has come to be seen as important to securing long-term political stability. Much has been written about democratization and gender in works on human rights, citizenship, women's movements and challenges to authoritarian regimes. This book, published in association with the United Nations, builds on this existing body of literature by looking at the relevance of national machineries for the advancement of women. Appropriate mechanisms through which the mainstreaming of gender can take place are considered, and the levels of governance involved - the relationship between gender mainstreaming and state structures, and the effect of this relationship on issues of decentralization, accountability, consultation and participation. It defines what the 'interests of women' are, and how and by what processes these interests are represented to the state policy making structures. Global strategies for the advancement of women, and how far these have penetrated at national level are considered. This is illuminated by a series of case studies - gender equality in Sweden and other Nordic countries, the Ugandan ministry of Gender, Culture and Social services, gender awareness in Central and Eastern Europe, and further examples from South Korea, the Lebanon, Beijing and Australia. This book will be of vital use to students of democratization, gender studies and politics, and is the first full-length appraisal of global strategies and national machineries for the advancement of women.

Chapter 7. Where is My State? Citizenship as a Factor in Yugoslavia’s Disintegration (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 119-132 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-008 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:02:17
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Chapter 7 shows that citizenship has to be counted as one of the crucial factors of Yugoslavia’s disintegration. The fundamental questions of citizenship related to the very definition of membership in a political community as well as the citizenship contract by which citizen exchanges his loyalty and duties for the rights and protection by his political community and its institutions (state) influenced critically the democratization process and Yugoslavia’s disintegration. At the crucial junction, in the context of imminent redefinition and possible collapse of federal Yugoslavia, between early 1990 and early 1992, citizens were asking themselves these basic questions: To what political community do I belong? or, to whom do I owe my loyalty? And, finally, who (what state?) guarantees, or promises to guarantee my rights – starting with human, civic and political rights, employment and property … – and, last but not least, security? The ethnonational conception of citizenship, the chapter argues, finally prevailed and fuelled conflicts over the redefinition of borders within which the ethnonational states were to be formed on the basis of absolute majorities of the core ethnonational groups.

Chapter 6. Partners into Competitors (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 103-118 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-007 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:02:19
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The clash between civic and ethnic solidarity as well as diverse understanding of whom should be loyal to whom and who belong together turned decisive at the moment when the multi-party majority democracy was introduced in the Yugoslav republics. Democratic participation and political belonging clashed in Yugoslavia at the junction of Yugoslav citizenship, republican citizenship and ethnic membership. Yugoslavia’s initial democratization eventually exacerbated inter-republic and inter-ethnic conflicts which had been meticulously nurtured and controlled by those nationalist elites who were attempting to, by multi-party elections, accede to power or stay in power. In this context, messages sent from the West underscoring the importance of state consolidation for successful democratization did not pressure regional actors to redefine or reform their ethnically heterogeneous states towards greater pluralism. They reinforced the idea that a truly functional state could only be an ethnically homogenized nation-state. In multinational socialist federations, it ended up promoting ethnically based political communities in opposition to the existing civic-legal political communities at the republican level as basis for democracy. This chapter argues that this ethnocentric vision of citizenship immediately challenged the existing social realities and institutional settings, put in question the borders between the republics, and opened the doors for violence and war. In his book States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control, Jeffrey Herbst describes the conflicts between the Zulu and early Dutch settlers over their opposing conceptions of sovereignty over territory and people. The Zulu believed that their political authority extended wherever people had pledged obedience to their king regardless of the territory where they happened to be. Also, ‘the Zulu believed that they could let the whites settle on land without giving up ownership’, whereas for the European whites, occupation over a certain territory also meant the ownership of that territory and control of the people that happened to be there (2000: 40–41). Extrapolated from its colonial context in which the Dutch colonizers wanted to absolutely dominate the colonized and take their land, the story could be interpreted as a clash between the conception of a political community based on ethnic, cultural, hereditary or maybe also declaratory loyalty and solidarity, regardless of existing political boundaries and polities in which the members of this community live, and a political community based on loyalty to the authorities governing a territory where one lives and, ideally, on solidarity with all those who happen to be on that territory under the same authorities. Modern states in reality often combine these two principles in a particular way: they often claim that their citizens or their ethnic kin abroad are bound to their polity and thus expect a loyalty and sometimes exercise an influence on diaspora members (who, in turn, are often interested in meddling in political affairs of the ‘old country’), but, internally, they always insist on undivided loyalty of the population they govern. Even further from its original South African situation, the clash between what we can generally call civic and ethnic solidarity, as well as different understandings of whom should be loyal to whom and who belonged together, turned crucial during the last years of Yugoslavia and decisive at the moment when the multi-party majority democracy was introduced in its republics.

From monologue to dialogue; Radio and reform in Indonesia

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Book Series: Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde ISBN: 9789067183543 9789004253834 Year: Volume: 264 Pages: vi+190 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_377413 Language: English
Publisher: Brill
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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From monologue to dialogue; Radio and reform in Indonesia analyses how radio journalism since the late 1990s has been shaped by and contributed to Reformasi, or the ambition of democratizing Indonesian politics, economy and society. The book examines ideas and practices such as independent journalism, peace journalism, meta-journalism, virtual interactivity, talk-back radio and community radio, which have all been designed to renew audience interest in media and societal affairs. It pays special attention to radio programmes that enable hosts, experts, listeners and other participants to discuss and negotiate the very rules and boundaries of Indonesia’s newly acquired media freedom. The author argues that these contemporary programmes provide dialogic alternatives to the official New Order discourse dominated by monologism. Edwin Jurriëns is Lecturer in Indonesian Language and Culture at the University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia. He is author of Cultural travel and migrancy; The artistic representation of globalization in the electronic media of West Java (KITLV, 2004) and co-editor of Cosmopatriots; On distant belongings and close encounters (Rodopi, 2007

Chapter 10 (Book chapter)

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781783209712 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Intellect Grant: The Euromedia Research Group
Subject: Business and Management --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:35:38
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For functioning well, the media need democracy as much as democracy needs the media. This is the starting point of this analysis of the delicate relation between the news media and democracy which is well defined in constitutional terms both in the European Convention on Human Rights and in national legislation. The relation is best described as social contract – to the benefit of freedom of speech and editorial independence, but also to sound governance of the state and other powerholders in society. Notably, different models of democracy correspond to different roles of the media. In any case, however, media policy is requested to respect media freedom. The Internet, as well as social and networked media require policy answers to challenges such as data protection, content blocking and surveillance. The authors conclude that media policy tools need to be developed along the all-digital media future.

Uma politics; An ethnography of democratization in West Sumba, Indonesia, 1986-2006

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Book Series: Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde ISBN: 9789067183246 9789004253926 Year: Volume: 260 Pages: XVII, 277 p DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_393150 Language: English
Publisher: Brill
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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Democracy cannot be implemented overnight. Democratization is an often unpredictable process. This book concentrates on that political transformation in one of Indonesia’s most ‘traditional’ islands, Sumba. Why does democratization create such great opportunities for local politicians with their private agenda’s? Why does regional autonomy, as part of the national democratization program, promote socio-economic inequality in West Sumba? This book is written out of an intimate knowledge of Sumba’s social groupings. Jacqueline Vel lived in Sumba as a development worker for six years in the 1980s and has made frequent return visits for further research since then. She studied every stage of ‘transition to democracy’ in the local context, thus creating this ethnography of democratization. The book analyses themes apparent in a series of chronological events that occurred over a period of twenty years (1986-2006). Uma Politics is the sequel of Vel’s dissertation The Uma Economy, and the title refers to the uniquely Sumbanese type of network politics. The author brings together tradition with the modern economy, government and politics into an evolving, dynamic concept of political culture. 
Jacqueline Vel is researcher at the Van Vollenhoven Institute of law, governance and development at Leiden University. Part of the research for this book was for the Modern Indonesia Project of KITLV in Leiden and sponsored by a research fellowship of the IIAS. She is currently involved in research on land law, access to justice, and socio-legal aspects of biofuel production in Indonesia.

Renegotiating boundaries

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Book Series: Verhandelingen van het Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde ISBN: 9789067182836 9789004260436 Year: Volume: 238 Pages: 540 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_376972 Language: English
Publisher: Brill
Added to DOAB on : 2013-10-11 21:10:18
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For decades almost the only social scientists who visited Indonesia’s provinces were anthropologists. Anybody interested in politics or economics spent most of their time in Jakarta, where the action was. Our view of the world’s fourth largest country threatened to become simplistic, lacking that essential graininess. Then, in 1998, Indonesia was plunged into a crisis that could not be understood with simplistic tools. After 32 years of enforced stability, the New Order was at an end. Things began to happen in - the provinces that no one was prepared for. Democratization was one, decentralization another. Ethnic and religious identities emerged that had lain buried under the blanket of the New Order’s modernizing ideology. Unfamiliar, sometimes violent forms of political competition and of rentseeking came to light.
Decentralization was often connected with the neo-liberal desire to reduce state powers and make room for free trade and democracy. To what extent were the goals of good governance and a stronger civil society achieved? How much of the process was ‘captured’ by regional elites to increase their own powers? Amidst the new identity politics, what has happened to citizenship? These are among the central questions addressed in this book.
This volume is the result of a two-year research project at KITLV. It brings together an international group of 24 scholars – mainly from Indonesia and the Netherlands but also from the United States, Australia, Germany, Canada and Portugal.

Zwischen geistiger Erneuerung und Restauration

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ISBN: 9783205795001 Year: Pages: 762 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_465031 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 82
Added to DOAB on : 2014-01-27 08:27:28
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The book discusses the origins and the formation of U.S. reorientation strategies for post-war democratization and its implementation in the aftermath of World War II, exemplified by case studies of university and academic reconstruction in Austria in the years from 1945 to 1955. The study illustrates and analyzes both the changes and the specific implementations of U.S. reorientation strategies, starting with the war years and continuing up to U.S. propaganda strategies at the outbreak of the Cold War and its subsequent ramifications of post-war-democratization. After the end of World War II, the initial civil intent of U.S. reorientation was to foster a sustainable peacebuilding process by means of intellectual disarmament and a set of long-term democratization measures. The focus of reorientation narrowed first to the limited repertoire of educational and academic policy before ultimately becoming a propaganda instrument of the Cold War.

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