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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds. Although the primary role of these toxins is thought to be related to the colonisation of the environment by the fungi—mycotoxins are able to kill other microorganisms (antimicrobial effect) and/or plant cells (mycotoxinproducing fungi being necrophagic)—the exposure of animals and humans to mycotoxins through the consumption of mycotoxincontaminated food and feeds leads to diseases and death. Among the different mycotoxins described (more than 350 mycotoxins have been identified), deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) produced by Fusarium species has attracted the most attention due to its prevalence and toxicity. DON is part of a family of mycotoxins called trichothecenes that are small sesquiterpenoids with an epoxide group at positions 12–13 allowing their binding to ribosomes causing the socalled ribosome stress response, characterized by the activation of various protein kinases that lead to alterations in gene expression and cellular toxicity in animals, humans and plants. Here, we compiled very recent findings regarding DON and its derivatives: i) their prevalence in human food; ii) the estimation of the exposure of humans to them using biological markers; iii) their roles during plant–fungi interaction; iv) the alteration caused by them in animals and humans, particularly at low doses that are close to those observed in farm animals and human consumers; v) possible strategies to decrease their presence in food and feeds. Overall, this book will give the reader a clear and global view on this important mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species which is responsible for huge economic loss and health issues.
deoxynivalenol  trichothecene  cell entry  cell effect  DON derivative
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Bioluminescence tomography is a recent biomedical imaging technique which allows to study molecular and cellular activities in vivo. From a mathematical point of view, it is an illposed inverse source problem: the location and the intensity of a photon source inside an organism have to be determined, given the photon count on the organism's surface. To face the illposedness of this problem, a geometric regularization approach is introduced, analyzed and numerically verified in this book.
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The many technical and computational problems that appear to be constantly emerging in various branches of physics and engineering beg for a more detailed understanding of the fundamental mathematics that serves as the cornerstone of our way of understanding natural phenomena. The purpose of this Special Issue was to establish a brief collection of carefully selected articles authored by promising young scientists and the world's leading experts in pure and applied mathematics, highlighting the stateoftheart of the various research lines focusing on the study of analytical and numerical mathematical methods for pure and applied sciences.
ultraparabolic equation  ultradiffusion process  probabilistic representation  mathematical finance  linear elastostatics  layer potentials  fredholmian operators  fractional differential equations  fractional derivative  Abeltype integral  time delay  distributed lag  gamma distribution  macroeconomics  Keynesian model  integral transforms  Laplace integral transform  transmutation operator  generating operator  integral equations  differential equations  operational calculus of Mikusinski type  Mellin integral transform  fractional derivative  fractional integral  Mittag–Leffler function  Riemann–Liouville derivative  Caputo derivative  Grünwald–Letnikov derivative  spacetime fractional diffusion equation  fractional Laplacian  subordination principle  MittagLeffler function  Bessel function  exterior calculus  exterior algebra  electromagnetism  Maxwell equations  differential forms  tensor calculus  Fourier Theory  DFT in polar coordinates  polar coordinates  multidimensional DFT  discrete Hankel Transform  discrete Fourier Transform  Orthogonality  multispecies biofilm  biosorption  free boundary value problem  heavy metals toxicity  method of characteristics  relativistic diffusion equation  Caputo fractional derivatives of a function with respect to another function  BesselRiesz motion  Mittag–Leffler function  matrix function  Schur decomposition  Laplace transform  fractional calculus  central limit theorem  anomalous diffusion  stable distribution  fractional calculus  power law  n/a
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This book is focused on fractional order systems. Historically, fractional calculus has been recognized since the inception of regular calculus, with the first written reference dated in September 1695 in a letter from Leibniz to L’Hospital. Nowadays, fractional calculus has a wide area of applications in areas such as physics, chemistry, bioengineering, chaos theory, control systems engineering, and many others. In all those applications, we deal with fractional order systems in general. Moreover, fractional calculus plays an important role even in complex systems and therefore allows us to develop better descriptions of realworld phenomena. On that basis, fractional order systems are ubiquitous, as the whole real world around us is fractional. Due to this reason, it is urgent to consider almost all systems as fractional order systems.
anomalous diffusion  complexity  magnetic resonance imaging  fractional calculus  fractional complex networks  adaptive control  pinning synchronization  timevarying delays  impulses  reaction–diffusion terms  fractional calculus  mass absorption  diffusionwave equation  Caputo derivative  harmonic impact  Laplace transform  Fourier transform  MittagLeffler function  fractional calculus  fractionalorder system  long memory  time series  Hurst exponent  fractional  control  PID  parameter  meaning  audio signal processing  linear prediction  fractional derivative  musical signal  optimal randomness  swarmbased search  cuckoo search  heavytailed distribution  global optimization
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Fractional calculus provides the possibility of introducing integrals and derivatives of an arbitrary order in the mathematical modelling of physical processes, and it has become a relevant subject with applications to various fields, such as anomalous diffusion, propagation in different media, and propogation in relation to materials with different properties. However, many aspects from theoretical and practical points of view have still to be developed in relation to models based on fractional operators. This Special Issue is related to new developments on different aspects of fractional differential equations, both from a theoretical point of view and in terms of applications in different fields such as physics, chemistry, or control theory, for instance. The topics of the Issue include fractional calculus, the mathematical analysis of the properties of the solutions to fractional equations, the extension of classical approaches, or applications of fractional equations to several fields.
fractional qdifference equation  existence and uniqueness  positive solutions  fixed point theorem on mixed monotone operators  fractional pLaplacian  Kirchhofftype equations  fountain theorem  modified functional methods  Moser iteration method  fractionalorder neural networks  delays  distributed delays  impulses  Mittag–Leffler synchronization  Lyapunov functions  Razumikhin method  generalized convexity  bvex functions  subbsconvex functions  oscillation  nonlinear differential system  delay differential system  ?fractional derivative  positive solution  fractional thermostat model  fixed point index  dependence on a parameter  Hermite–Hadamard’s Inequality  Convex Functions  Powermean Inequality  Jenson Integral Inequality  Riemann—Liouville Fractional Integration  Laplace Adomian Decomposition Method (LADM)  NavierStokes equation  Caputo Operator  fractionalorder system  model order reduction  controllability and observability Gramians  energy inequality  integral conditions  fractional wave equation  existence and uniqueness  initial boundary value problem  conformable fractional derivative  conformable partial fractional derivative  conformable double Laplace decomposition method  conformable Laplace transform  singular one dimensional coupled Burgers’ equation
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A plethora of problems from diverse disciplines such as Mathematics, Mathematical: Biology, Chemistry, Economics, Physics, Scientific Computing and also Engineering can be formulated as an equation defined in abstract spaces using Mathematical Modelling. The solutions of these equations can be found in closed form only in special case. That is why researchers and practitioners utilize iterative procedures from which a sequence is being generated approximating the solution under some conditions on the initial data. This type of research is considered most interesting and challenging. This is our motivation for the introduction of this special issue on Iterative Procedures.
Banach space  weightedNewton method  local convergence  Fréchetderivative  ball radius of convergence  Nondifferentiable operator  nonlinear equation  divided difference  Lipschitz condition  convergence order  local and semilocal convergence  scalar equations  computational convergence order  Steffensen’s method  basins of attraction  nonlinear equations  multipleroot solvers  Traub–Steffensen method  fast algorithms  Multiple roots  Optimal iterative methods  Scalar equations  Order of convergence  simple roots  Newton’s method  computational convergence order  nonlinear equations  split variational inclusion problem  generalized mixed equilibrium problem  fixed point problem  maximal monotone operator  left Bregman asymptotically nonexpansive mapping  uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach space  nonlinear equations  multiple roots  derivativefree method  optimal convergence  multiple roots  optimal iterative methods  scalar equations  order of convergence  Newton–HSS method  systems of nonlinear equations  semilocal convergence  local convergence  convergence order  Banach space  iterative method  nonlinear equations  Chebyshev’s iterative method  fractional derivative  basin of attraction  nonlinear equations  iterative methods  general means  basin of attraction
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In recent decades, there has been an increase in the development of strategies for water ecosystem mapping and monitoring. Overall, this is primarily due to legislative efforts to improve the quality of water bodies and oceans. Remote sensing has played a key role in the development of such approaches—from the use of drones for vegetation mapping to autonomous vessels for water quality monitoring. Within the specific context of vegetation characterization, the wide range of available observations—from satellite imagery to highresolution drone aerial imagery—has enabled the development of monitoring and mapping strategies at multiple scales (e.g., micro and mesoscales). This Special Issue, entitled “Novel Advances in Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring in Ocean, Lakes and Rivers”, collates recent advances in remote sensingbased methods applied to ocean, river, and lake vegetation characterization, including seaweed, kelp, submerged and emergent vegetation, and floatingleaf and freefloating plants. A total of six manuscripts have been compiled in this Special Issue, ranging from area mapping substrates in riverine environments to the identification of macroalgae in marine environments. The work presented leverages current stateoftheart methods for aquatic vegetation monitoring and will spark further research within this field.
freshwater wetland  Lake Baikal  methodological comparison  Selenga River Delta  WorldView2  aquatic vegetation  concave–convex decision function  remote sensing extraction  GF1 satellite  Lake Ulansuhai  China  invasive plants  Spartina alterniflora  CAS S. alterniflora  objectbased image analysis  Landsat OLI  substrate  aquatic vegetation  bottom reflectance  watercolumn correction  river  spectroscopy  radiative transfer  WorldView3  macroalgae  reflectance  1st derivative  species discrimination  unmanned aerial vehicle  nuclear power station  floating algae index (FAI)  normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)  remote sensing  seaweed enhancing index (SEI)  seaweed
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This special issue entitled “Soft and hard tissue regeneration” will cover both periodontal and implant therapies. Regenerative periodontal treatment goal is to restore functional periodontal support offering a valuable treatment alternative even for teeth with large periodontal destruction, which may be successfully treated and maintained in health for long periods. In most cases where teeth are extracted for periodontal reasons, implant therapy will demand large bone augmentation procedures. Lack of sufficient bone volume may prevent placement of dental implants. In extreme cases, large bone reconstruction is indispensable before implant placement can be performed. Although, most bone grafts are only able to fill and maintain a space, where bone regeneration can occur (“osseoconductive”), the ideal bone graft will also promote osseous regeneration (“osseoinductive”). Several bone augmentation procedures have been described, each, presenting advantages and shortcomings. Success of bone augmentation procedures depends on the presence of bone forming cells, primary wound closure over the augmented area, space creation and maintenance where bone can grow and proper angiogenesis of the grafted area. Factors that influence the choice of the surgical technique are the estimated duration of surgical procedure, its complexity, cost, total estimated length of procedure until the final rehabilitations may be installed and the surgeons’ experience. This special issue will have a definite clinical orientation, and be entirely dedicated to soft and hard tissue regenerative treatment alternatives, both in periodontal and implant therapy, discussing their rationale, indications and clinical procedures. Internationally renowned leading researchers and clinicians will contribute with articles in their field of expertize.
n/a  Smart Dentin Grinder  tooth particles  autogenous particulate tooth graft  socket preservation  dog study  Alveolar ridge preservation  ?tricalcium phosphate  bone regeneration  bone substitutes  animal study  minimally invasive  videoscope  periodontal surgery  bone regeneration  bone grafts  biologics  periodontal regeneration  connective tissue graft  enamel matrix proteins derivative  root coverage  combination therapy  soft tissue management  periodontal surgery  periodontal regeneration  aggressive periodontitis  deproteinized bovine bone  enamel matrix derivatives (Emdogain®)  guided tissue regeneration (GTR)  plateletrich plasma  platelets  aggregation  spectrophotometer  quality assurance
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Researches and investigations involving the theory and applications of integral transforms and operational calculus are remarkably widespread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, physical, chemical, engineering and statistical sciences.
highly oscillatory  convolution quadrature rule  volterra integral equation  Bessel kernel  convergence  higher order Schwarzian derivatives  Janowski starlike function  Janowski convex function  bound on derivatives  tangent numbers  tangent polynomials  Carlitztype qtangent numbers  Carlitztype qtangent polynomials  (p,q)analogue of tangent numbers and polynomials  (p,q)analogue of tangent zeta function  symmetric identities  zeros  Lommel functions  univalent functions  starlike functions  convex functions  inclusion relationships  analytic function  Hankel determinant  exponential function  upper bound  nonlinear boundary value problems  fractionalorder differential equations  RiemannStieltjes functional integral  LiouvilleCaputo fractional derivative  infinitepoint boundary conditions  advanced and deviated arguments  existence of at least one solution  Fredholm integral equation  Schauder fixed point theorem  Hölder condition  generalized Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation  modified Kudryashov method  exact solutions  Maple graphs  analytic function  Hadamard product (convolution)  partial sum  Srivastava–Tomovski generalization of Mittag–Leffler function  subordination  differential equation  differential inclusion  Liouville–Caputotype fractional derivative  fractional integral  existence  fixed point  Bernoulli spiral  Grandi curves  Chebyshev polynomials  pseudoChebyshev polynomials  orthogonality property  symmetric  encryption  password  hash  cryptography  PBKDF  q–Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators  (p,q)integers  (p,q)Bernstein operators  (p,q)Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators  modulus of continuity  rate of approximation  Kfunctional  HurwitzLerch zeta function  generalized functions  analytic number theory  ?generalized HurwitzLerch zeta functions  derivative properties  series representation  basic hypergeometric functions  generating functions  qpolynomials  analytic functions  Mittag–Leffler functions  starlike functions  convex functions  Hardy space  vibrating string equation  initial conditions  spectral decomposition  regular solution  the uniqueness of the solution  the existence of a solution  analytic  ?convex function  starlike function  stronglystarlike function  subordination  q Sheffer–Appell polynomials  generating relations  determinant definition  recurrence relation  q Hermite–Bernoulli polynomials  q Hermite–Euler polynomials  q Hermite–Genocchi polynomials  Volterra integral equations  highly oscillatory Bessel kernel  Hermite interpolation  direct Hermite collocation method  piecewise Hermite collocation method  differential operator  qhypergeometric functions  meromorphic function  Mittag–Leffler function  Hadamard product  differential subordination  starlike functions  Bell numbers  radius estimate  (p, q)integers  Dunkl analogue  generating functions  generalization of exponential function  Szász operator  modulus of continuity  function spaces and their duals  distributions  tempered distributions  Schwartz testing function space  generalized functions  distribution space  wavelet transform of generalized functions  Fourier transform  analytic function  subordination  Dziok–Srivastava operator  nonlinear boundary value problem  nonlocal  multipoint  multistrip  existence  Ulam stability  functions of bounded boundary and bounded radius rotations  subordination  functions with positive real part  uniformly starlike and convex functions  analytic functions  univalent functions  starlike and qstarlike functions  qderivative (or qdifference) operator  sufficient conditions  distortion theorems  Janowski functions  analytic number theory  ?generalized Hurwitz–Lerch zeta functions  derivative properties  recurrence relations  integral representations  Mellin transform  natural transform  Adomian decomposition method  Caputo fractional derivative  generalized mittagleffler function  analytic functions  Hadamard product  starlike functions  qderivative (or qdifference) operator  Hankel determinant  qstarlike functions  fuzzy volterra integrodifferential equations  fuzzy general linear method  fuzzy differential equations  generalized Hukuhara differentiability  spectrum symmetry  DCT  MFCC  audio features  anuran calls  analytic functions  convex functions  starlike functions  strongly convex functions  strongly starlike functions  uniformly convex functions  Struve functions  truncatedexponential polynomials  monomiality principle  generating functions  Apostoltype polynomials and Apostoltype numbers  Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials  Bernoulli, Euler, and Genocchi numbers  operational methods  summation formulas  symmetric identities  Euler numbers and polynomials  qEuler numbers and polynomials  HurwitzEuler eta function  multiple HurwitzEuler eta function  higher order qEuler numbers and polynomials  (p, q)Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order  symmetric identities  symmetry of the zero
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The adipokine adiponectin is very concentrated in plasma, and decreased levels of adiponectin are associated with pathological conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. When produced in its fulllength form, adiponectin selfassociates to generate multimeric complexes. The fulllength form of adiponectin can be cleaved by the globular form of elastase that is produced locally, and the resulting biological effects are exerted in a paracrine or autocrine manner. The different forms of adiponectin bind to specific receptors consisting of two Gproteinindependent, seventransmembranespanning receptors, called AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, while Tcadherin has been identified as a potential receptor for high molecular weight complexes of adiponectin. Adiponectin exerts a key role in cellular metabolism, regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. However, its biological effects are heterogeneous, involving multiple target tissues. The Special Issue “Mechanisms of Adiponectin Action” highlights the pleiotropic role of this hormone through 3 research articles and 7 reviews. These papers focus on the recent knowledge regarding adiponectin in different target tissues, both in healthy and in diseased conditions.
adiponectin  atherosclerosis  cholesterol efflux  diabetes  inflammation  endometrium  implantation  transcriptome  microarray  adiponectin  pig  fertility  adipose tissue  reproductive tract  adipokines  cell signaling  skeletal muscle  regeneration  adiponectin isoforms  exercise  training  adiponectin  AMPK  BIAcore  extracellular signalregulated kinase (ERK)  matricellular proteins  neuritogenesis  NGF?  PC12 cells  Secreted protein  acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)  adiponectin  muscle  myopathies  adiponectin  metabolism  AdipoRon  lipotoxicity  adiponectin  adiponectin inducer  kojyl cinnamate ester derivative  adipogenesis  hair growthrelated factor  human follicular dermal papilla cell  obesity  adipokines  adiponectin  breast cancer  ovarian cancer  endometrial cancer  cervix cancer  estrogen receptor  adiponectin  obesity  cancer  adiponectin  adipose tissue  obesity  endocrine cancer  n/a
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