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Recent Advances and Perspectives in Deoxynivalenol Research

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ISBN: 9783038424703 9783038424710 Year: Pages: X, 290 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-23 08:50:49
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Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds. Although the primary role of these toxins is thought to be related to the colonisation of the environment by the fungi—mycotoxins are able to kill other micro-organisms (antimicrobial effect) and/or plant cells (mycotoxin-producing fungi being necrophagic)—the exposure of animals and humans to mycotoxins through the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated food and feeds leads to diseases and death. Among the different mycotoxins described (more than 350 mycotoxins have been identified), deoxynivalenol (DON or vomitoxin) produced by Fusarium species has attracted the most attention due to its prevalence and toxicity. DON is part of a family of mycotoxins called trichothecenes that are small sesquiterpenoids with an epoxide group at positions 12–13 allowing their binding to ribosomes causing the so-called ribosome stress response, characterized by the activation of various protein kinases that lead to alterations in gene expression and cellular toxicity in animals, humans and plants. Here, we compiled very recent findings regarding DON and its derivatives: i) their prevalence in human food; ii) the estimation of the exposure of humans to them using biological markers; iii) their roles during plant–fungi interaction; iv) the alteration caused by them in animals and humans, particularly at low doses that are close to those observed in farm animals and human consumers; v) possible strategies to decrease their presence in food and feeds. Overall, this book will give the reader a clear and global view on this important mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species which is responsible for huge economic loss and health issues.

Geometric Regularization in Bioluminescence Tomography

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ISBN: 9783731501428 Year: Pages: IX, 185 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000037411 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Bioluminescence tomography is a recent biomedical imaging technique which allows to study molecular and cellular activities in vivo. From a mathematical point of view, it is an ill-posed inverse source problem: the location and the intensity of a photon source inside an organism have to be determined, given the photon count on the organism's surface. To face the ill-posedness of this problem, a geometric regularization approach is introduced, analyzed and numerically verified in this book.

Advanced Mathematical Methods: Theory and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039282463 9783039282470 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-247-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Physics (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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The many technical and computational problems that appear to be constantly emerging in various branches of physics and engineering beg for a more detailed understanding of the fundamental mathematics that serves as the cornerstone of our way of understanding natural phenomena. The purpose of this Special Issue was to establish a brief collection of carefully selected articles authored by promising young scientists and the world's leading experts in pure and applied mathematics, highlighting the state-of-the-art of the various research lines focusing on the study of analytical and numerical mathematical methods for pure and applied sciences.

Keywords

ultraparabolic equation --- ultradiffusion process --- probabilistic representation --- mathematical finance --- linear elastostatics --- layer potentials --- fredholmian operators --- fractional differential equations --- fractional derivative --- Abel-type integral --- time delay --- distributed lag --- gamma distribution --- macroeconomics --- Keynesian model --- integral transforms --- Laplace integral transform --- transmutation operator --- generating operator --- integral equations --- differential equations --- operational calculus of Mikusinski type --- Mellin integral transform --- fractional derivative --- fractional integral --- Mittag–Leffler function --- Riemann–Liouville derivative --- Caputo derivative --- Grünwald–Letnikov derivative --- space-time fractional diffusion equation --- fractional Laplacian --- subordination principle --- Mittag-Leffler function --- Bessel function --- exterior calculus --- exterior algebra --- electromagnetism --- Maxwell equations --- differential forms --- tensor calculus --- Fourier Theory --- DFT in polar coordinates --- polar coordinates --- multidimensional DFT --- discrete Hankel Transform --- discrete Fourier Transform --- Orthogonality --- multispecies biofilm --- biosorption --- free boundary value problem --- heavy metals toxicity --- method of characteristics --- relativistic diffusion equation --- Caputo fractional derivatives of a function with respect to another function --- Bessel-Riesz motion --- Mittag–Leffler function --- matrix function --- Schur decomposition --- Laplace transform --- fractional calculus --- central limit theorem --- anomalous diffusion --- stable distribution --- fractional calculus --- power law --- n/a

Fractional Order Systems

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ISBN: 9783039216086 9783039216093 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-609-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This book is focused on fractional order systems. Historically, fractional calculus has been recognized since the inception of regular calculus, with the first written reference dated in September 1695 in a letter from Leibniz to L’Hospital. Nowadays, fractional calculus has a wide area of applications in areas such as physics, chemistry, bioengineering, chaos theory, control systems engineering, and many others. In all those applications, we deal with fractional order systems in general. Moreover, fractional calculus plays an important role even in complex systems and therefore allows us to develop better descriptions of real-world phenomena. On that basis, fractional order systems are ubiquitous, as the whole real world around us is fractional. Due to this reason, it is urgent to consider almost all systems as fractional order systems.

Fractional Differential Equations: Theory, Methods and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039217328 9783039217335 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-733-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Fractional calculus provides the possibility of introducing integrals and derivatives of an arbitrary order in the mathematical modelling of physical processes, and it has become a relevant subject with applications to various fields, such as anomalous diffusion, propagation in different media, and propogation in relation to materials with different properties. However, many aspects from theoretical and practical points of view have still to be developed in relation to models based on fractional operators. This Special Issue is related to new developments on different aspects of fractional differential equations, both from a theoretical point of view and in terms of applications in different fields such as physics, chemistry, or control theory, for instance. The topics of the Issue include fractional calculus, the mathematical analysis of the properties of the solutions to fractional equations, the extension of classical approaches, or applications of fractional equations to several fields.

Symmetry with Operator Theory and Equations

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ISBN: 9783039216666 9783039216673 Year: Pages: 208 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-667-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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A plethora of problems from diverse disciplines such as Mathematics, Mathematical: Biology, Chemistry, Economics, Physics, Scientific Computing and also Engineering can be formulated as an equation defined in abstract spaces using Mathematical Modelling. The solutions of these equations can be found in closed form only in special case. That is why researchers and practitioners utilize iterative procedures from which a sequence is being generated approximating the solution under some conditions on the initial data. This type of research is considered most interesting and challenging. This is our motivation for the introduction of this special issue on Iterative Procedures.

Novel Advances in Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring in Ocean, Lakes and Rivers

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ISBN: 9783039212057 9783039212064 Year: Pages: 132 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-206-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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In recent decades, there has been an increase in the development of strategies for water ecosystem mapping and monitoring. Overall, this is primarily due to legislative efforts to improve the quality of water bodies and oceans. Remote sensing has played a key role in the development of such approaches—from the use of drones for vegetation mapping to autonomous vessels for water quality monitoring. Within the specific context of vegetation characterization, the wide range of available observations—from satellite imagery to high-resolution drone aerial imagery—has enabled the development of monitoring and mapping strategies at multiple scales (e.g., micro- and mesoscales). This Special Issue, entitled “Novel Advances in Aquatic Vegetation Monitoring in Ocean, Lakes and Rivers”, collates recent advances in remote sensing-based methods applied to ocean, river, and lake vegetation characterization, including seaweed, kelp, submerged and emergent vegetation, and floating-leaf and free-floating plants. A total of six manuscripts have been compiled in this Special Issue, ranging from area mapping substrates in riverine environments to the identification of macroalgae in marine environments. The work presented leverages current state-of-the-art methods for aquatic vegetation monitoring and will spark further research within this field.

Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration

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ISBN: 9783039283040 9783039283057 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-305-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Dentistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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This special issue entitled “Soft and hard tissue regeneration” will cover both periodontal and implant therapies. Regenerative periodontal treatment goal is to restore functional periodontal support offering a valuable treatment alternative even for teeth with large periodontal destruction, which may be successfully treated and maintained in health for long periods. In most cases where teeth are extracted for periodontal reasons, implant therapy will demand large bone augmentation procedures. Lack of sufficient bone volume may prevent placement of dental implants. In extreme cases, large bone reconstruction is indispensable before implant placement can be performed. Although, most bone grafts are only able to fill and maintain a space, where bone regeneration can occur (“osseoconductive”), the ideal bone graft will also promote osseous regeneration (“osseoinductive”). Several bone augmentation procedures have been described, each, presenting advantages and shortcomings. Success of bone augmentation procedures depends on the presence of bone forming cells, primary wound closure over the augmented area, space creation and maintenance where bone can grow and proper angiogenesis of the grafted area. Factors that influence the choice of the surgical technique are the estimated duration of surgical procedure, its complexity, cost, total estimated length of procedure until the final rehabilitations may be installed and the surgeons’ experience. This special issue will have a definite clinical orientation, and be entirely dedicated to soft and hard tissue regenerative treatment alternatives, both in periodontal and implant therapy, discussing their rationale, indications and clinical procedures. Internationally renowned leading researchers and clinicians will contribute with articles in their field of expertize.

Integral Transforms and Operational Calculus

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ISBN: 9783039216185 9783039216192 Year: Pages: 510 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-619-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Researches and investigations involving the theory and applications of integral transforms and operational calculus are remarkably wide-spread in many diverse areas of the mathematical, physical, chemical, engineering and statistical sciences.

Keywords

highly oscillatory --- convolution quadrature rule --- volterra integral equation --- Bessel kernel --- convergence --- higher order Schwarzian derivatives --- Janowski star-like function --- Janowski convex function --- bound on derivatives --- tangent numbers --- tangent polynomials --- Carlitz-type q-tangent numbers --- Carlitz-type q-tangent polynomials --- (p,q)-analogue of tangent numbers and polynomials --- (p,q)-analogue of tangent zeta function --- symmetric identities --- zeros --- Lommel functions --- univalent functions --- starlike functions --- convex functions --- inclusion relationships --- analytic function --- Hankel determinant --- exponential function --- upper bound --- nonlinear boundary value problems --- fractional-order differential equations --- Riemann-Stieltjes functional integral --- Liouville-Caputo fractional derivative --- infinite-point boundary conditions --- advanced and deviated arguments --- existence of at least one solution --- Fredholm integral equation --- Schauder fixed point theorem --- Hölder condition --- generalized Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equation --- modified Kudryashov method --- exact solutions --- Maple graphs --- analytic function --- Hadamard product (convolution) --- partial sum --- Srivastava–Tomovski generalization of Mittag–Leffler function --- subordination --- differential equation --- differential inclusion --- Liouville–Caputo-type fractional derivative --- fractional integral --- existence --- fixed point --- Bernoulli spiral --- Grandi curves --- Chebyshev polynomials --- pseudo-Chebyshev polynomials --- orthogonality property --- symmetric --- encryption --- password --- hash --- cryptography --- PBKDF --- q–Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators --- (p,q)-integers --- (p,q)-Bernstein operators --- (p,q)-Bleimann–Butzer–Hahn operators --- modulus of continuity --- rate of approximation --- K-functional --- Hurwitz-Lerch zeta function --- generalized functions --- analytic number theory --- ?-generalized Hurwitz-Lerch zeta functions --- derivative properties --- series representation --- basic hypergeometric functions --- generating functions --- q-polynomials --- analytic functions --- Mittag–Leffler functions --- starlike functions --- convex functions --- Hardy space --- vibrating string equation --- initial conditions --- spectral decomposition --- regular solution --- the uniqueness of the solution --- the existence of a solution --- analytic --- ?-convex function --- starlike function --- strongly-starlike function --- subordination --- q -Sheffer–Appell polynomials --- generating relations --- determinant definition --- recurrence relation --- q -Hermite–Bernoulli polynomials --- q -Hermite–Euler polynomials --- q -Hermite–Genocchi polynomials --- Volterra integral equations --- highly oscillatory Bessel kernel --- Hermite interpolation --- direct Hermite collocation method --- piecewise Hermite collocation method --- differential operator --- q-hypergeometric functions --- meromorphic function --- Mittag–Leffler function --- Hadamard product --- differential subordination --- starlike functions --- Bell numbers --- radius estimate --- (p, q)-integers --- Dunkl analogue --- generating functions --- generalization of exponential function --- Szász operator --- modulus of continuity --- function spaces and their duals --- distributions --- tempered distributions --- Schwartz testing function space --- generalized functions --- distribution space --- wavelet transform of generalized functions --- Fourier transform --- analytic function --- subordination --- Dziok–Srivastava operator --- nonlinear boundary value problem --- nonlocal --- multi-point --- multi-strip --- existence --- Ulam stability --- functions of bounded boundary and bounded radius rotations --- subordination --- functions with positive real part --- uniformly starlike and convex functions --- analytic functions --- univalent functions --- starlike and q-starlike functions --- q-derivative (or q-difference) operator --- sufficient conditions --- distortion theorems --- Janowski functions --- analytic number theory --- ?-generalized Hurwitz–Lerch zeta functions --- derivative properties --- recurrence relations --- integral representations --- Mellin transform --- natural transform --- Adomian decomposition method --- Caputo fractional derivative --- generalized mittag-leffler function --- analytic functions --- Hadamard product --- starlike functions --- q-derivative (or q-difference) operator --- Hankel determinant --- q-starlike functions --- fuzzy volterra integro-differential equations --- fuzzy general linear method --- fuzzy differential equations --- generalized Hukuhara differentiability --- spectrum symmetry --- DCT --- MFCC --- audio features --- anuran calls --- analytic functions --- convex functions --- starlike functions --- strongly convex functions --- strongly starlike functions --- uniformly convex functions --- Struve functions --- truncated-exponential polynomials --- monomiality principle --- generating functions --- Apostol-type polynomials and Apostol-type numbers --- Bernoulli, Euler and Genocchi polynomials --- Bernoulli, Euler, and Genocchi numbers --- operational methods --- summation formulas --- symmetric identities --- Euler numbers and polynomials --- q-Euler numbers and polynomials --- Hurwitz-Euler eta function --- multiple Hurwitz-Euler eta function --- higher order q-Euler numbers and polynomials --- (p, q)-Euler numbers and polynomials of higher order --- symmetric identities --- symmetry of the zero

Mechanisms of Adiponectin Action

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ISBN: 9783039212453 9783039212460 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-246-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The adipokine adiponectin is very concentrated in plasma, and decreased levels of adiponectin are associated with pathological conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. When produced in its full-length form, adiponectin self-associates to generate multimeric complexes. The full-length form of adiponectin can be cleaved by the globular form of elastase that is produced locally, and the resulting biological effects are exerted in a paracrine or autocrine manner. The different forms of adiponectin bind to specific receptors consisting of two G-protein-independent, seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors, called AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, while T-cadherin has been identified as a potential receptor for high molecular weight complexes of adiponectin. Adiponectin exerts a key role in cellular metabolism, regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. However, its biological effects are heterogeneous, involving multiple target tissues. The Special Issue “Mechanisms of Adiponectin Action” highlights the pleiotropic role of this hormone through 3 research articles and 7 reviews. These papers focus on the recent knowledge regarding adiponectin in different target tissues, both in healthy and in diseased conditions.

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