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KfW Water Symposium 2009

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ISBN: 9781780401515 Year: DOI: 10.2166/9781780401515 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-16 11:02:28
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"The central objective of the International Year of Sanitation was to put the global community on track to achieve the Millennium Development Goals MDG sanitation target. However, one year later, it is still difficult to keep sanitation high on the agenda, while practical action is required to encourage demand driven and sustainable solutions. With the support of the German Ministry for Development and Cooperation and together with the European Investment Bank EIB and the French Development Agency AFD, KfW organised a two day Symposium to specifically address ways in which financing institutions can better promote the achievement of the MDG sanitation target. More than 70 experts from various backgrounds explored the challenges of sanitation and discussed ways to further develop innovative financing mechanisms for improved hygiene, sanitation and wastewater management in low-income countries. &#xD;&#xD;Four thematic areas were tackled by detailed background papers, presentations and high-level open floor discussions. Session 1: Financing Change in Personal Hygiene Behaviour and Demand Creation for Sanitation Motivation This section contains a rapid review of past experiences in developed countries and the evolution of methods used in developing countries to change hygiene and sanitation behaviors, including successes and failures. Relative costs and impacts, the role of institutional arrangements and actors, as well as approaches for linking hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation (so called software investments) with hardware investments are examined. Finally, considerations and opportunities for development banks and other financing agencies to become engaged in the scale-up of hygiene behavior change and sanitation demand creation approaches which have demonstrated success are presented. &#xD;&#xD;Session 2: Targeting the Poor with Facilities and Improved Services Motivation The interventions that can help poor people to access sanitation goods and services are examined. The focus is on three types of interventions: the use of low-cost technologies, the use of micro-credit and the use of targeted public finance (or subsidies) to reduce the funding gap that poor people face to meet the capital and recurrent costs of sustainable sanitation. Targeted public finance, performance assessment, effectiveness, sustainability, public funding strategies and performance are analysed. &#xD;&#xD;Session 3: Urban Spaces - How to Provide and Finance Service to Peri-urban Areas New approaches to meet sanitation challenges arising from absolute population growth and rapid urbanization are examined from a technical point of view. Simplified solutions and semi-centralised supply and treatment systems are examined in detail and with the help of examples. &#xD;&#xD;Session 4: The Potential Role of Utilities in Sanitation Provision for Peri-urban Areas and Poor Target Groups The question why sanitation service provision by local government authorities is poor is addressed. Examples of how water supply and sanitation utilities are being encouraged to support peri-urban areas and poor target groups with the provision of sanitation services are provided. The difficulties of utilities to provide piped water and sewers in a commercially viable manner is addressed. The role of local government authorities, of the regulatory framework, of education and public awareness is highlighted. &#xD;&#xD;A theme that appeared in all four sessions concerned the process of project design by development banks. Recommendations to improve it in order to best tackle sanitation issues were as follows: 1. address the entire sanitation chain 2. plan for all urban areas including informal housing areas and slums 3. ensure the sustainable operation of all sections of the sanitation chain (long-term effectiveness). &#xD;&#xD;For the full proceedings and the main findings and recommendations, please visit www.iwaponline.com to download free of charge."

Measuring Poverty and Wellbeing in Developing Countries

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Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198744818 9780198744801 Year: Pages: 384 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744801.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-27 11:01:19
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Detailed analyses of poverty and wellbeing in developing countries, based on household surveys, have been ongoing for more than three decades. The large majority of developing countries now regularly conduct a variety of household surveys, and their information base with respect to poverty and wellbeing has improved dramatically. Nevertheless, appropriate measurement of poverty remains complex and controversial. This is particularly true in developing countries where (i) the stakes with respect to poverty reduction are high; (ii) the determinants of living standards are often volatile; and (iii) related information bases, while much improved, are often characterized by significant non-sample error. It also remains, to a surprisingly high degree, an activity undertaken by technical assistance personnel and consultants based in developed countries. This book seeks to enhance the transparency, replicability, and comparability of existing practice. It also aims to significantly lower the barriers to entry to the conduct of rigorous poverty measurement and increase the participation of analysts from developing countries in their own poverty assessments. The book focuses on two domains: the measurement of absolute consumption poverty and a first-order dominance approach to multidimensional welfare analysis. In each domain, it provides a series of computer codes designed to facilitate analysis by allowing the analyst to start from a flexible and known base. The volume covers the theoretical grounding for the code streams provided, a chapter on ‘estimation in practice’, a series of eleven case studies where the code streams are operationalized, a synthesis, an extension to inequality, and a look forward.

Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context

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ISBN: 9781780407111 9781780407104 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.2166/9781780408392 Language: English
Publisher: IWA Publishing Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 282911
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-30 11:02:29
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"Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context is based on the work from the Saph Pani project (Hindi word meaning potable water). The book aims to study and improve natural water treatment systems, such as River Bank Filtration (RBF), Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR), and wetlands in India, building local and European expertise in this field. The project aims to enhance water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri urban areas in different parts of the Indian sub-continent. This project is co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework (FP7) scheme of small or medium scale focused research projects for specific cooperation actions (SICA) dedicated to international cooperation partner countries.&#xD;&#xD;Natural Water Treatment Systems for Safe and Sustainable Water Supply in the Indian Context provides:&#xD;&#xD;an introduction to the concepts of natural water treatment systems (MAR, RBF, wetlands) at national and international level&#xD;knowledge of the basics of MAR, RBF and wetlands, methods and hydrogeological characterisation&#xD;an insight into case studies in India and abroad.&#xD;This book is a useful resource for teaching at Post Graduate level, for research and professional reference."

Negotiating Gender Equity in the Global South

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Routledge ISS Gender, Sexuality and Development Studies ISBN: 9780815372356 9781351245623 Year: Pages: 262 Language: English
Publisher: Routledge
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-26 11:21:03
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The fact that women have achieved higher levels of political inclusion within low- and middle-income countries has generated much speculation about whether this is reaping broader benefits in tackling gender-based inequalities. This book uncovers the multiple political dynamics that influence governments to adopt and implement gender equity policies, pushing the debate beyond simply the role of women’s inclusion in influencing policy. Bringing the politics of development into discussion with feminist literature on women's empowerment, the book proposes the new concept of ‘power domains’ as a way to capture how inter-elite bargaining, coalitional politics, and social movement activism combine to shape policies that promote gender equity.&#xD;&#xD;In particular, the book investigates the conditions under which countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia have adopted legislation against domestic violence, which remains widespread in many developing countries. The book demonstrates that women’s presence in formal politics and policy spaces does not fully explain the pace in adopting and implementing domestic violence law. Underlying drivers of change within broader domains of power also include the role of clientelistic politics and informal processes of bargaining, coalition-building, and persuasion; the discursive framing of gender-equitable ideas; and how transnational norms influence women’s political inclusion and gender-inclusive policy outcomes. The comparative approach across Uganda, Rwanda, South Africa, Ghana, India, and Bangladesh demonstrates how advancing gender equality varies by political context and according to the interests surrounding a particular issue.

Des outils pour le changement

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Book Series: Études en développement international et mondialisation ISBN: 9782760321922 9782760322127 Year: Pages: 408 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574290 Language: French
Publisher: University of Ottawa Press / Les Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-02 11:01:12
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global crisis - developing countries - international development studies

Food Price Policy in an Era of Market Instability: A Political Economy Analysis

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Book Series: WIDER Studies in Development Economics ISBN: 9780198718574 Year: Pages: 544 DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718574.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: UNU WIDER
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-10 11:01:18
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Food price volatility is one of the major challenges facing the global agricultural system today. This was most vividly illustrated during the global food crisis of 2007–9 when price spikes occurred for key staple food commodities—such as wheat, rice, maize, and soybeans. Given the variety of reactions by governments of countries experiencing similar food price shocks, the 2007–9 crisis offered an excellent natural experiment for generating knowledge on responses to price volatility in particular and on the political economy of agricultural policy-making more generally. This book contains the wealth of collaborative research by a global team of experts on food price policy—the research was undertaken on a sizeable group of low- and middle-income countries that were highly affected by the 2007–9 food crisis. The central aim of the study is to uncover which political economy factors—ranging from the constellation of different interest groups to the nature of political institutions—explain variations in policy responses across countries. The research output proves valuable for at least three target audiences. First, it can inform international organizations and donors about which types of policy interventions can mitigate price volatility and whether they are feasible given a country’s political economy context. Second, it can help national policy makers better understand the trade-offs of certain policy interventions. Third, it generates much-needed further knowledge about the agricultural policy-making process in developing countries, which remains incredibly scarce despite the importance of agriculture to these countries’ economies.

Technologies for Development: From Innovation to Social Impact

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783319910673 9783319910680 Year: Pages: 225 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91068-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Schweizerischer Nationalfonds zur Förderung der wissenschaftlichen Forschung (SNF)
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-20 16:20:27
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This open access book presents 18 case studies that explore current scientific and technological efforts to address global development issues, such as poverty, from a holistic and interdisciplinary point of view, putting actual impacts at the centre of its analysis. It illustrates the use of technologies for development in various fields of research, such as humanitarian action, medical and information and communication technology, disaster risk-reduction technologies, habitat and sustainable access to energy. The authors discuss how innovative technologies, such as unmanned aerial vehicles for disaster risk reduction, crowdsourcing humanitarian data, online education and ICT-based medical technologies can have significant social impact. The book brings together the best papers of the 2016 International Conference on Technologies for Development at EPFL, Switzerland. The book explores how the gap between innovation in the global South and actual social impact can be bridged. It fosters exchange between engineers, other scientists, practitioners and policy makers active at the interface of innovation and technology and human, social, and economic development.

The Leap of Faith

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ISBN: 9780198796817 Year: Pages: 332 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 295675
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-08 11:01:03
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This is the first book to compare the history of tax compliance in several countries (Sweden, Britain, Italy, Romania, and the United States)The book clearly elaborates the policy lessons from the five cases explored for countries who are currently trying to build successful and effective tax policiesMakes the direct connection between historical cases and current policy issues in developed and developing countriesWhy are citizens in some countries more willing to pay taxes than in other countries? This book examines the history of the relationship between citizens and their states in five countries, (Sweden, Britain, Italy, Romania, and the United States), and demonstrates how and why people in in some countries have come to trust the government with their money while in other countries they do not. The book explores the evolution of this relationship in detail, in each case showing how some governments developed the fiscal and technical capacity to tax their citizens fairly and deliver public services efficiently. In short, how and why some countries became more trustworthy than others. The volume concludes by examining the implications of these five cases for developing countries today and the lessons that can be learned.

The e-Government Development Discourse

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ISBN: 9781928396574 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.4102/aosis.2018.BK71 Language: English
Publisher: AOSIS
Subject: Computer Science --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:21:04
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research agenda for e-Government. When e-Government was first conceived, it was designed upon basic technologies where the emphasis was only on the simple display of government information for citizens to read. Nowadays, e-Government design comprises many complicated modules such as upload and download consoles, two-way interaction consoles between citizens and government agents, integrated government business processes presenting the whole of government, and it does not depend solely on technology. The complexity of e-Government has now evolved to include political, cultural, economic, social and technical dimensions. Bringing all these difficult aspects together is so complicated that it needs carefully planned strategies informed by local contextual characteristics. &#xD;&#xD;Rather than giving formulaic definitions and conceptual standpoints on many aspects of e-Government, as is the case in many e-Government publications, this book will explore the frontiers of global knowledge value chains by discussing current and future dimensions of e-Government. For example, the book discusses the concept of data governance by exploring how actual opening up of government data can be achieved, especially in a developing world context. Further, the book posits that opening government data should be followed by the opening up of government business processes in order to peddle the concept of accountability and responsiveness. Much text on data governance has concentrated on articulating the basic definitions surrounding this concept. Another very important topic explored in this book is regarding how the concept of decolonisation can be extended to e-Government by providing practical examples as to how researchers in the developing world can contribute to the advancement of e-Government as a scientific field of enquiry and guide its implementation, thereof. Decolonisation is advocated for in e-Government research so that there is a balance in the inclusion of the Afrocentric knowledge into e-Government advancement other than over-reliance on the Euro-, Asia- and America-centric knowledge value chains (Mbembe 2015). &#xD;&#xD;As e-Government is a very expensive undertaking, the issue of funding has excluded African countries and a majority of the developing world from implementing e-Government. Despite funding being a critical cornerstone of e-Government development, there is a dearth of information on this topic. Therefore, this book provides a chapter which discusses traditional and innovative ways of funding e-Government design and implementation which can go a long way in improving e-Government penetration into the developing world. Further, the book explores how intelligent e-Government applications can be designed, especially in resource-constrained countries. A couple of emerging technology innovations such as fog computing and intelligent information technology are explored within the realm of e-Government design.&#xD;

Manual Sobre los Derechos Humanos al Agua Potable y Saneamiento para Profesionales

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ISBN: 9781789060522 Year: Language: Spanish;
Publisher: IWA Publishing
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-13 11:21:02
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"Also available in Portuguese (Manual Sobre os Direitos Humanos à Água Potável e Saneamento para Profissionais), French (Manuel des Droits de l'Homme à l'Eau Potable et à l'Assainissement à l’intention des Praticiens) and Spanish (Manual Sobre los Derechos Humanos al Agua Potable y Saneamiento para Profesionales).&#xD;&#xD;The Manual highlights the human rights principles and criteria in relation to drinking water and sanitation. It explains the international legal obligations in terms of operational policies and practice that will support the progressive realisation of universal access.&#xD;&#xD;The Manual introduces a human rights perspective that will add value to informed decision making in the daily routine of operators, managers and regulators. It also encourages its readership to engage actively in national dialogues where the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation are translated into national and local policies, laws and regulations. Creating such an enabling environment is, in fact, only the first step in the process towards progressive realisation. Allocation of roles and responsibilities is the next step, in an updated institutional and operational set up that helps apply a human rights lens to the process of reviewing and revising the essential functions of operators, service providers and regulators.&#xD;&#xD;Contents&#xD;&#xD;Introduction; Main operational principles; Setting the scene – context and contents of the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation; Translating the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation into operational terms; Creating the enabling environment; . Incorporating HRWS into the essential functions of service providers; Addressing sensitive practices, dealing with challenges and avoiding pitfalls."&#xD;

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