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The role of the immune system in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193523 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-352-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Neurology --- Science (General) --- Public Health --- Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main causes of morbidity and mortality in diabetes are macrovasular and microvascular complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy, and retinopathy. As the definition of atherosclerosis as a chronic, smoldering, inflammatory disease has gained general acceptance, the attention of researchers has focused on the triggers of chronic vascular inflammation. The oxidation and other forms of modification of lipids and lipoproteins have emerged as a major pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis, with a significant interaction with the immune system. Modified lipoproteins by themselves are proinflammatory through the activation of the innate immune system as a consequence of the interaction with scavenger receptors and/or toll-like receptors expressed by a variety of cell types, including phagocytic cells and dendritic cells. A variety of modified forms of LDL (mLDL), including oxidized, malondialdehyde-modified, and Advanced Glycation End-product-modified LDL induce autoimmune responses in humans. Those modifications seem enhanced in diabetes, and the progression of atherosclerosis is accelerated in diabetic patients. The immune response to all forms of mLDL results in both activation of T cells in the arterial wall and in an autoimmune response characterized by the formation of IgG antibodies. Both arms of the immune response are believed to play a role in vascular inflammation. While the cell response is likely to activate resident macrophages, the humoral immune response results in the production of IgG antibodies that bind to specific epitopes in modified forms of LDL, generate immune complexes both intra- and extravascularly, and those complexes are able to activate the classical pathway of the complement system as well as phagocytic cells via Fc? receptors. In vitro studies suggest that the pro-inflammatory activity of immune complexes containing mLDL is several-fold higher than that of the modified LDL molecules by themselves. Clinical studies have provided significant support to the pathogenic role of immune complexes containing modified LDL in the development of atherosclerotic complications in patients with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. At the same time, there is increasing evidence that the formation of immune complexes containing modified forms of LDL may also be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy. These are areas in which more research is needed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms activated by those immune complexes. Of interest is the fact that animal models have suggested the possibility of modifying the adaptive humoral immune response in ways that would result in slowing down, and perhaps prevent, the atherosclerotic process. This possibility is sufficiently alluring as to justify increased research efforts, both in animal models (including diabetic animals) and translational clinical studies. The manipulation of the T regulatory population is another area of potential translational impact, which has hardly been explored. Indeed at this point of time, what seems to be a high priority is an increased and open interchange of information among investigators, trying to reach a better general understanding and integration of knowledge generated from a variety of approaches and perspectives. This Research Topic provided an optimal platform for this open interchange of information. We encouraged interested scientists to submit mini-reviews, methods papers, review articles, perspectives and original research articles covering this topic in all its diversity to facilitate the communication of perspectives and new information between scientists interested in understanding the multiple implications of the involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.

New Translational Insights on Metabolic Syndrome: Obesity, Hypertension, Diabetes and Beyond

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199242 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-924-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) can be considered as a clustering of several risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which could lead to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). There are several underlying causes for MetS including overweight, physical inactivity and genetic factors. However, the underlying mechanisms that leads to MetS are still poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this E-book is to provide a space where researchers holding different backgrounds could shed some light onto the pathophysiology of different risk factors involved in MetS, mostly from translational research worldwide.

Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195718 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-571-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Biology --- Science (General) --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new class of transcripts that are in general longer than 200 nucleotides and that have no protein-coding potential. The vast majority of vertebrate genomes encode diverse and complex lncRNAs that play regulatory roles at almost every step of gene expression. Recently, increasing evidence has implicated lncRNAs in the pathogenesis of various human diseases. The purpose of the Research Topic, "Emerging roles of long noncoding RNAs in neurological diseases and metabolic disorders", is to bring together leading researchers in the field who, through contributing to an organized and comprehensive collection of peer-reviewed articles, provide a broad perspective on the latest advances in the field. A number of interesting and cutting-edge areas will be covered as below, but this list is not exclusive:- The methodologies and technologies of identifying and studying lncRNAs - LncRNAs in gene-specific transcription - LncRNAs in epigenetic regulation - LncRNAs in post-transcriptional regulation - LncRNAs in disease - Mapping of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with disease.

Dietary Pattern and Health

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ISBN: 9783038425953 9783038425960 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: X, 310 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-596-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 09:33:34
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Topics have a clear focus on overall dietary patterns and health outcomes. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:* Dietary patterns and chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and mental health problems.* Dietary patterns and mortality* Dietary patterns and pregnancy outcomes* Association between dietary patterns and cognition* The mechanisms linking dietary patterns and chronic diseases.

Dietary Pattern and Health

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ISBN: 9783038425878 9783038425885 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: XII, 274 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-02 15:53:45
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Topics have a clear focus on overall dietary patterns and health outcomes. Potential topics may include, but are not limited to:* Dietary patterns and chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes, asthma, cardiovascular diseases, and mental health problems.* Dietary patterns and mortality* Dietary patterns and pregnancy outcomes* Association between dietary patterns and cognition* The mechanisms linking dietary patterns and chronic diseases.

Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes

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ISBN: 9783038429166 9783038429159 Year: Pages: XII, 296 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 17:31:13
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We are experiencing a worldwide epidemic of diabetes. Diabetes mellitus has become a major public health burden. Approximately seven million people develop diabetes in both developed and developing countries every year, with the most dramatic increases occurring in Type 2 Diabetes. Especially alarming, is the rising incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in obese children before puberty. In April 2017, a Special Issue of Nutrients entitled “Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes” closed with 19 published papers—eight original studies on humans, five on animals, one brief report and five reviews. The focus of the issue was on nutrition, diet factors, whole foods, broad dietary and lifestyle strategies, dietary patterns, intensive personalized treatments, nutritional prevention programs, and food policies that can be used in the development, treatment, and prevention of DM2.Nutrition and Diet Factors in Type 2 Diabetes is written for clinical and academic nutritionists, for registered dietitians, health professionals, graduate students, and for everybody with deeper interest in diabetes care. Studies and reviews presented here demonstrate that diabetes research is extensive and vibrant and the prevention, treatment and reversal of diabetes are achievable, economical, powerful, and possible.

Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455140 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-514-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine --- Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook contains a collection of peer-reviewed original and review articles published in either Frontiers in Endocrinology or Frontiers in Physiology focused on the research topic Optimizing Exercise for the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197101 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-710-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has advanced considerably in the last few years. Much has been learned about the natural history, the relative lack of significance of microalbuminuria in reflecting underlying pathological change, questionable effects of ACEs and ARBs on the progression of nephropathy, the emergence of new biomarkers such as Cystatin and the role of cytokines, inflammatory molecules and adhesion molecules. Podocytes, the cells with limited ability to replenish and to repair, play a pivotal role in glomerular filtration. In recent years these cells have become the focus for research on pathogenesis of DN as well as other nephropathies. A recent review from the NIH has identified new insights into the pathophysiology, the genetics and the role of the podocytes and some of the important new metabolic pathways such as mTOR or autophagy which may be targeting the podocyte. Knowledge is emerging about the role of podocyte as a part of immune system and about the role of growth factors and cytokines in regulation of podocyte functions. Presented in this e-book articles highlight recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney pathology and the role of podocytes in this process.

Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: Underlying Mechanisms and Potential Targets

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194681 Year: Pages: 115 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-468-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Pancreatic Cancer has been and still is one of the deadliest types of human malignancies. The annual mortality rates almost equal incidence rates making this disease virtually universally fatal. The 5-year survival of patients with pancreatic cancer is a dismal 5% or less. Therapeutic strategies are extremely limited with gemcitabine extending the survival by a disappointing few weeks. The failure of several randomized clinical trials in the past decade investigating the therapeutic efficacy of different mono- and combination therapies reflects our limited knowledge of pancreatic cancer biology. In addition, biomarkers for early detection are sorely missing. Several pancreatic cancer risk factors have been identified. Unfortunately, the underlying mechanisms linking these risk factors to cancer development are poorly understood. Well known possible and probable risk factors for the development of pancreatic cancer are age, smoking, chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and type-2 diabetes mellitus. Age is certainly of the most important risk factors as most cases of pancreatic cancer occur in the elderly population. Smoking ten cigarettes a day increases the risk by 2.6 times and smoking a pack per day increases it by 5 folds. Chronic pancreatitis increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by up to 13 times. Patients with hereditary forms of chronic pancreatitis have an even higher risk. Obesity, a growing global health problem, increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by about 1.5 fold. Type-2 diabetes mellitus is also associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer by at least two-fold. The more recent the onset of diabetes, the stronger the correlation with pancreatic cancer is. In addition, heavy alcohol drinking, a family history of the disease, male gender and African American ethnicity are other risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by several genetic alterations including mutations in the Kras proto-oncogene and mutations in the tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16. While Kras mutations are currently thought as early events present in a certain percentage of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs), known precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, mutations in tumor suppressor genes, e.g. p53, seem to accumulate later during progression. In addition, several intracellular signaling pathways are amplified or enhanced, including the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling modules. Overall, these genetic alterations lead to enhanced and sustained proliferation, resistance to cell death, invasive and metastatic potential, and angiogenesis, all hallmarks of cancers. The scope of this Research Topic is to collect data and knowledge of how risk factors increase the risk of initiation/progression of pancreatic cancer. Of particular interest are potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms and driving signaling pathways will ultimately allow the development of targeted interventions to disrupt the risk factor-induced cancer development. This Research Topic is interested in a broad range of risk factors, including genetic and environmental, and welcomes original papers, mini and full reviews, and hypothesis papers. Manuscripts that address the effect of combination of risk factors on pancreatic cancer development and progression are of great interest as well.

Obesity and Diabetes: Energy Regulation by Free Fatty Acid Receptors

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197477 Year: Pages: 45 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-747-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Food intake regulates energy balance and its dysregulation leads to metabolic disorder, such as obesity and diabetes. During feeding, free fatty acids (FFAs) are not only essential nutrients but also act as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Recently, several orphan G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that act as FFA receptors (FFARs) have been identified; GPR40/FFAR1, GPR119, and GPR120 are activated by medium- and long-chain FFAs. GPR84 is activated by medium-chain FFAs. GPR41/FFAR3 and GPR43/FFAR2 are activated by short-chain FFAs. These FFARs have come to be regarded as new drug targets for metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, because a number of pharmacological and physiological studies have shown that these receptors are primarily involved in the energy metabolism in various tissues; insulin secretion, gastrointestinal hormone secretion, adipokine secretion, regulation of inflammation, regulation of autonomic nervous system, relation to gut microbiota, and so on. This Research Topic provides a comprehensive overview of the energy regulation by free fatty acid receptors and a new prospect for treatment of metabolic disorder such as obesity and type 2 diabetes.

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