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Medicinal Effects of Agathosma (Buchu) Extracts

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9781928396826 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.4102/aosis.2019.BK84 Language: English
Publisher: AOSIS
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-05-13 04:45:57
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The research results presented in this book span the quest of Cape Kingdom Nutraceuticals, Prof. Patrick Bouic and Prof. Barbara Huisamen to scientifically validate the health promoting properties of an aqueous extract of the plant Agathosma. To accomplish this, they made use of both in vitro and in vivo models to understand and underscore the anecdotal information of the benefits of this product. Cell based studies highlighted anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects while animal-based studies were utilized to confirm the anti-diabetic effects whilst further elaborating on anti-obesity properties. In addition, technology aimed at small animals were used to follow blood pressure to demonstrate anti-hypertensive effects while ex vivo perfused hearts were studied to show that this extract also protected the heart against an ischaemic incident. In view of the current pandemic of obesity and non-communicable diseases, the research results presented in this book will be of special interest to the scientific community and health practitioners interested in cardiometabolic diseases and nutraceuticals as an alternative treatment option. In view of the failure of many pharmaceuticals to curb non-communicable diseases, these results are deemed of high importance

Wound Care

ISBN: 9783038420446 9783038420453 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:51:13
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Wounds and the many associated problems have challenged health care providers for centuries and today, despite the wealth of knowledge available, neither the incidence nor prevalence of wounds is reducing. Furthermore, in view of our changing demographic profile and the projected increase in the older population it is likely that wound management will become an ever increasing burden to the individual, health care services and society as a whole. The annual incidence of wounds in the EU-27 is approximately 4 million, and between 25% and 50% of acute hospital beds are occupied by patients with a wound, with up to 60% of these representing non-healing wounds (infected surgical wounds, pressure ulcers, leg/foot ulcers) The increasing prevalence and incidence of non-wounds healing is closely linked with quality of care and, as such, these rising figures reduce society’s confidence in the health service’s ability to deliver care that is timely, appropriate and effective. Thus, for those involved in this specialist area of clinical practice, the fundamental goal is to improve clinical outcomes, reduce the burden of wounds and improve health related quality of life.In this Special Issue “Wound Care” in Healthcare, we invited submission of manuscripts exploring contemporary issues in wound care. By devoting a special issue to wound care, we endeavoured to provide readers with a comprehensive reference source, outlining key areas of interest in this important aspect of clinical practice. The response to the call for manuscripts was fantastic and, as a result, we were able to include both original qualitative and quantitative research papers in addition to review papers, thereby providing readers with a wealth of valuable information pertinent to wound care.

Mitochondria: Hubs of Cellular Signaling, Energetics and Redox Balance

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452392 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-239-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Poised at the convergence of most catabolic and anabolic pathways, mitochondria are the center of heterotrophic aerobic life, representing a hub in the overall metabolic network of cells. The energetic functions performed by mitochondria face the unavoidable redox hurdle of handling huge amounts of oxygen while keeping its own as well as the cellular redox environment under control. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in the respiratory chain as a result of the energy supplying function of mitochondria. Originally considered an unavoidable by-product of oxidative phosphorylation, ROS have become crucial signaling molecules when their levels are kept within physiological range. This occurs when their production and scavenging are balanced within mitochondria and cells. Mitochondria-generated hydrogen peroxide can act as a signaling molecule within mitochondria or in the cytoplasm, affecting multiple networks that control, for example, cell cycle, stress response, cell migration and adhesion, energy metabolism, redox balance, cell contraction, and ion channels. However, under pathophysiological conditions, excessive ROS levels can happen due to either overproduction, overwhelming of antioxidant defenses, or both. Under oxidative stress, detrimental effects of ROS include oxidation of protein, lipids, and nucleic acids; mitochondrial depolarization and calcium overload; and cell-wide oscillations mediated by ROS-induced ROS release mechanisms. Mitochondrial dysfunction is central in the pathogenesis of numerous human maladies including cardiomyopathies and neurodegeneration. Diseases characterized by altered nutrient metabolism, such as diabetes and cancer, exhibit elevated ROS levels. These may contribute to pathogenesis by increasing DNA mutation, affecting regulatory signaling and transcription, and promoting inflammation. Under metabolic stress, several ionic channels present in the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes can have pro-life and -death effects. In the present E-book, based on the Frontiers Research Topic entitled: "Mitochondria: Hubs of cellular signaling, energetics and redox balance", we address one of the fundamental questions that the field of ROS biology faces today: how do mitochondria accomplish a reliable energy provision and at the same time keep ROS levels within physiological, non-harming, limits but crucial for cellular signaling function? Additionally, and within the perspective of mitochondria as signaling-energetic hubs in the extensive cellular metabolic network, we ask how can their collective dynamics scale from the subcellular to the cellular, tissue and organ levels to affect function in health and disease.

Kidney Inflammation, Injury and Regeneration

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039285389 / 9783039285396 Year: Pages: 496 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-539-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is still associated with high morbidity and mortality incidence rates, and also bears an elevated risk of subsequent chronic kidney disease. Although the kidney has a remarkable capacity for regeneration after injury and may recover completely depending on the type of renal lesions, the options for clinical intervention are restricted to fluid management and extracorporeal kidney support. The development of novel therapies to prevent AKI, to improve renal regeneration capacity after AKI, and to preserve renal function is urgently needed. The Special Issue covers research articles that investigated the molecular mechanisms of inflammation and injury during different renal pathologies, renal regeneration, diagnostics using new biomarkers, and the effects of different stimuli like medication or bacterial components on isolated renal cells or in vivo models. The Special Issue contains important reviews that consider the current knowledge of cell death and regeneration, inflammation, and the molecular mechanisms of kidney diseases. In addition, the potential of cell-based therapy approaches that use mesenchymal stromal/stem cells or their derivates is summarized. This edition is complemented by reviews that deal with the current data situation on other specific topics like diabetes and diabetic nephropathy or new therapeutic targets.

Keywords

kidney injury --- alport syndrome --- modifier gene --- nephrin --- podocin --- glomerular basement membrane --- slit diaphragm --- focal segmental glomerulosclerosis --- inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) --- DSS-colitis --- glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) --- type IV collagen --- type I collagen --- type V collagen --- genotype --- IL-18 --- polymorphism --- renal cell carcinoma --- Taiwan --- mesenchymal stem cells --- acute and chronic kidney disease --- exosome --- natural products --- non-coding RNAs --- microRNAs --- long non-coding RNAs --- renal fibrosis --- biomarkers --- therapeutics targets --- rhabdomyolysis --- pigment nephropathy --- haem --- NLRP3 inflammasome --- acute kidney injury --- hypertension --- kidney --- molecular signaling --- hematuria --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- tubular injury --- AKI --- chronic kidney disease (CKD) --- mesenchymal stromal cells --- extracellular vesicles --- acute kidney injury --- modified-MSCs --- microRNA --- mesenchymal stem cell --- mesodermal stem cell --- renal ischemia-reperfusion --- inflammation --- kidney transplantation --- microRNA --- extracellular vesicles --- exosomes --- B-cell attracting chemokine --- CXCL13 --- kidney transplantation --- allograft rejection --- T cell-mediated rejection --- diabetic nephropathy --- lysophosphatidic acid --- lysophosphatidic acid receptor --- chronic kidney injury --- kidney proximal tubule --- acute kidney failure --- signal transduction --- transcription --- CREB Regulated Transcriptional Coactivators (CRTC) --- cAMP Regulatory Element Binding Protein (CREB) --- Salt Inducible Kinase (SIK) --- Class IIa Histone Deacetylases (HDAC) --- lncRNA --- long non-coding RNA --- miRNA --- kidney --- glomerulus --- podocyte --- acute kidney injury --- AKI --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetic kidney disease --- diabetic nephropathy --- inflammation --- signaling cascade --- ischemia-reperfusion --- acute kidney injury --- stem cell --- conditioned medium --- inflammation --- apoptosis --- necrosis --- regulated necrosis --- kidney injury --- tubular injury --- glomerular injury --- polyunsaturated fatty acids --- omega-3 fatty acid --- inflammatory maker --- C-reactive protein --- interleukin-6 --- LPS-binding protein --- fibrosis --- pericyte --- myofibroblast --- endotoxemia-induced oliguric kidney injury --- arachidonic acid --- cyclooxygenase --- lipoxygenase --- cytochrome P450 --- kidney inflammation --- therapeutic target --- obese kidney fibrosis --- endotoxemia --- ROS --- cPLA2 and COX-2 --- IgA nephropathy --- KIT assay --- KIT-IgA score --- noninvasive --- diagnostics --- prediction --- diabetic kidney diseases --- xanthine oxidase --- glomerular damage --- acute kidney injury --- chronic kidney disease --- renal progenitors --- polyploidization --- diabetic nephropathy --- diabetes mellitus --- GLP-1 receptor agonists --- SGLT2 inhibitors --- molecular mechanisms --- chemerin --- CmklR1 --- 2-kidney-1-clip --- 2k1c --- Thy1.1 nephritis --- renovascular hypertension --- renal inflammation --- renal injury --- renal fibrosis --- inflammation --- ischemia/reperfusion injury --- Farnesiferol B --- Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) --- G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5) --- renal stem cells --- differentiation --- scattered tubular cells --- papilla --- niches --- renal tubular cells --- epithelial cells --- proximal tubule --- cytotoxicity --- injury --- inflammation --- empagliflozin --- dapagliflozin --- kidney --- n/a

Safety and Microbiological Quality

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214914 9783039214921 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-492-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods covers complementary aspects of such products. Food fermentation is primary intended to improve food preservation, thereby modifying food properties. However, the management of chemical and microbiological hazards is a leading aspect for innovative processing in this domain. Similarly, microbiological quality in fermented foods is of peculiar importance: all microorganisms with a positive effect, including probiotic bacteria, fermentative bacteria, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, can be relevant. The fitness of pro-technological microorganisms impacts nutritional quality, but also sensory properties and processing reliability. This book provides a broad view of factors which determine the safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods. A focus is made on the interconnection between starter properties and the expectations related to a probiotic effect. All chapters underline the involvement of fermented foods towards better resource management and increasing food and nutritional security, especially in developing countries.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Diseases of Aging

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ISBN: 9783039213276 9783039213283 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-328-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This collection of review articles authored by international experts pulls together current information about the role of mitochondria in aging and diseases of aging. Mitochondria are vitally important cellular organelles and undergo their own aging process becoming less efficient in aged animals including humans. These changes have wide-ranging significance contributing to immune dysfunction (autoimmunity and immune deficiency), inflammation, delayed healing, skin and retinal damage, cancer and most of the degenerative diseases of aging. Mitochondrial aging predisposes to drug toxicity in the geriatric population and to many of the features of normal aging. The research detailed in this book summarizes current understanding of the role of mitochondria in the complex molecular changes of aging, moving on to specific diseases of aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important target for development of treatments for aging and disease. The last article details how exercise is a treatment and combats many features of the aging process.

Keywords

aging --- mitochondria --- inflammation --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- immunosenescence --- cell danger response --- healing cycle --- mitochondria --- purinergic signaling --- metabokines --- sphingolipids --- integrated cell stress response --- de-emergence --- crabtree effect --- pasteur effect --- coenzyme Q10 --- aging --- age-related diseases --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- mitochondria --- skin --- ageing --- reactive oxygen species --- photoageing --- 25(OH)D --- 1,25(OH)2D --- aging --- cytokines --- inflammation --- morbidity and mortality --- prevention --- reactive oxygen species --- ultraviolet --- aging --- mitochondria --- retina --- optic nerve --- diabetic retinopathy --- age-related macular degeneration --- glaucoma --- drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity --- polypharmacy --- aging --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- insulin resistance --- type 2 diabetes --- mitochondrial transfer --- exosomes --- mitochondrial --- genetic mutations --- cardiovascular disease --- heart failure --- cardiomyopathy --- mitochondria --- cancer --- nucleotide metabolism --- DNA damage --- NAD+ --- mitochondria --- ALS --- axonal transport --- mitophagy --- SOD1 --- Miro1 --- PINK1 --- Parkin --- multiple sclerosis --- mitochondria --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- Parkinson’s disease --- mitochondria --- ageing --- neurodegenerative disease --- Alzheimer’s disease --- eIF2? --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- proteostasis --- stress response --- aging --- exercise --- mitochondria --- aerobic --- ROS --- inflammation --- senescence --- lysosome --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- n/a

Diagnosis and Management of Pediatric Diseases

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ISBN: 9783039219667 9783039219674 Year: Pages: 146 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-967-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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A screenshot of some the most rapidly evolving fields in Neonatology and Pediatrics with articles reviewing some metabolic dysregulations as well as non-oncologic diseases that may occur in infancy, childhood, youth. The illustrative material with original photographs and drawings highlighting some pathogenetic concepts are keystones of this book.

Recent Development of Electrospinning for Drug Delivery

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039281404 9783039281411 Year: Pages: 206 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-141-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Several promising techniques have been developed to overcome the poor solubility and/or membrane permeability properties of new drug candidates, including different fiber formation methods. Electrospinning is one of the most commonly used spinning techniques for fiber formation, induced by the high voltage applied to the drug-loaded solution. With modifying the characteristics of the solution and the spinning parameters, the functionality-related properties of the formulated fibers can be finely tuned. The fiber properties (i.e., high specific surface area, porosity, and the possibility of controlling the crystalline–amorphous phase transitions of the loaded drugs) enable the improved rate and extent of solubility, causing a rapid onset of absorption. However, the enhanced molecular mobility of the amorphous drugs embedded into the fibers is also responsible for their physical–chemical instability. This Special Issue will address new developments in the area of electrospun nanofibers for drug delivery and wound healing applications, covering recent advantages and future directions in electrospun fiber formulations and scalability. Moreover, it serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress in electrospinning techniques, with particular attention to the industrial feasibility of developing pharmaceutical dosage forms. All aspects of small molecule or biologics-loaded fibrous dosage forms, focusing on the processability, structures and functions, and stability issues, are included.

Keywords

electrospinning --- gentamicin sulfate --- polylactide-co-polycaprolactone --- drug release kinetics --- tissue engineering --- growth factor --- diabetic --- wound healing --- nanocomposite --- electrospinning --- coaxial spinning --- core-sheath nanofibers --- biomedical --- drug delivery --- electrospinning --- scale-up --- processability --- biopharmaceuticals --- oral dosage form --- grinding --- aceclofenac --- nanofiber --- electrospinning --- scanning electron microscopy --- fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- differential scanning calorimetry --- nanotechnology --- biotechnology --- probiotics --- Lactobacillus --- Lactococcus --- electrospinning --- nanofibers --- drying --- local delivery --- viability --- antibacterial activity --- bacterial bioreporters --- drug release --- electrospinning --- microfibers --- nanofibers --- UV imaging --- wetting --- in situ drug release --- nanofibers --- electrospinning --- poorly water-soluble drug --- piroxicam --- hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose --- polydextrose --- scanning white light interferometry --- nanotechnology --- nanofibers --- traditional electrospinning --- ultrasound-enhanced electrospinning --- drug delivery system --- haemanthamine --- plant-origin alkaloid --- electrospinning --- amphiphilic nanofibers --- self-assembled liposomes --- physical solid-state properties --- drug release --- electrospinning --- PCL --- gelatin --- clove essential oil --- antibacterial --- biocompatibility --- artificial red blood cells --- electrospinning and electrospray --- pectin --- oligochitosan --- hydrogel --- microcapsules --- electrospinning --- wound dressings --- solvent casting --- 3D printing --- polymeric carrier --- n/a

The Future of Hyperspectral Imaging

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ISBN: 9783039218226 9783039218233 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-823-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Keywords

hyperspectral imaging --- Raman --- fluorescence --- sorting --- quality control --- black polymers --- PZT --- classification --- machine learning --- alternating direction method of multipliers --- Cramer–Rao lower bound --- forward observation model --- linear mixture model --- maximum likelihood --- multiband image fusion --- total variation --- fingerprints --- blood detection --- age determination --- hyperspectral imaging --- lossless compression --- multitemporal hyperspectral images --- information theoretic analysis --- predictive coding --- hyperspectral imaging --- plant phenotyping --- disease detection --- spectral tracking --- time series --- hyperspectral imaging --- principal component analysis --- oxygen saturation --- wound healing --- diabetic foot ulcer --- Raman spectroscopy --- chemical imaging --- compressive detection --- spatial light modulators (SLM) --- digital micromirror device (DMD) --- digital light processor (DLP) --- optimal binary filters --- Chemometrics --- multivariate data analysis --- compressive sensing --- hyperspectral imaging --- multiplexing system --- liquid crystal --- three-dimensional imaging --- integral imaging --- remote sensing --- point target detection --- CS-MUSI --- hyperspectral --- video --- imaging --- coastal dynamics --- moving vehicle imaging --- bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) --- hemispherical conical reflectance factor (HCRF) --- stereo imaging --- digital elevation model --- Virginia Coast Reserve Long Term Ecological Research (VCR LTER) --- Hyperspectral imaging --- painting samples --- retouching pigments --- watercolours --- multivariate analysis --- potatoes --- sprouting --- primordial leaf count --- hyperspectral imaging --- spectroscopy --- fusion --- wavelength selection --- PLSR --- interval partial least squares --- deep learning --- hyperspectral imaging --- neural networks --- machine learning --- image processing --- hyperspectral imaging --- medical imaging by HSI --- HSI for biology --- remote sensing --- hyperspectral microscopy --- fluorescence hyperspectral imaging --- Raman hyperspectral imaging --- infrared hyperspectral imaging --- statistical methods for HSI --- hyperspectral data mining and compression --- statistical methods for HSI --- hyperspectral data mining and compression

Nutrition and Eye Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219902 9783039219919 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-991-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36 million are classified as blind. Visual impairment is more frequent in the elderly, with cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounting for over 50% of cases globally. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both conditions, and consequently the role of nutritional factors, in particular carotenoids and micronutrient antioxidants, have been investigated as possible preventative or therapeutic strategies. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ophthalmic conditions in the world. DES occurs where the eye does not produce enough tears and/or the tears evaporate too quicklyleading to discomfort and varying degrees of visual disturbance. There has recently been a great deal of interest in the potential for oral or topical supplementation with essential fatty acids (EFAs), specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as an adjunct to conventional treatments for DES. The objective of this Special Issue on ‘Nutrition and Eye Health’ is to publish papers describing the role of nutrition in maintaining eye health and the use of nutritional interventions to prevent or treat ocular disease. A particular (but not exclusive) emphasis will be on papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) relating to cataract, AMD and DES.

Keywords

lutein --- RR-zeaxanthin --- mesozeaxanthin (RS zeaxanthin) --- light damage --- photoreceptor degeneration --- oxidative stress --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- electroretinography --- advanced glycation end products --- chyrsin --- diabetic retinopathy --- endoplasmic reticulum --- retinal pigment epithelium --- visual cycle --- cataract --- phytoconstituents --- lens --- preclinical models --- drug discovery --- age-related macular degeneration --- gut-retina axis --- gut microbiota --- dietary habits --- micronutrients --- fish oil --- omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids --- personalised medicine --- Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 --- retina --- light --- macrophage --- saffron --- Crocus Sativus L. --- crocin --- crocetin --- supplements --- anti-oxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- AMD --- diabetes --- glaucoma --- retina --- oxidative stress --- inflammation --- microvascular lesions --- neoangiogenesis --- polyphenols --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- saponins --- rosmarinic acid --- sinapic acid --- lenses --- estrogen-deficient rats --- oxidative stress --- reduced glutathione --- omega-3 --- fatty acid --- diet --- dietary assessment --- clinical survey --- eye disease --- dry eye --- age-related macular degeneration --- food frequency questionnaire --- CODS --- clinical practice guidelines --- systematic reviews --- age-related macular degeneration --- nutritional supplements --- diet --- nutrition --- AGREE II --- Cucurbita argyrosperma --- corneal chemical burn --- angiogenesis --- corneal neovascularization (CNV) --- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) --- interleukin-1? (IL-1?) --- cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) --- nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) --- dietary antioxidants --- antioxidant supplements --- lens --- cataract --- n/a

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