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Maîtrise des maladies infectieuses

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ISBN: 286883888X Year: Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 11:10:22
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Contrairement à ce que l'on pourrait penser, les maladies infectieuses ne sont pas en voie de disparition, bien au contraire. Apprendre à mieux gérer ce fléau apparaît essentiel à une meilleure gestion des cas.Au cours d'une première partie, l'ouvrage présente la situation actuelle:- l'épidémiologie et la santé publique- les maladies infectieuses en médecine humaine et vétérinaire (passage des barrières d'espèces)- concepts d'émergence et de réémergence- pourquoi il y aura toujours des maladies infectieuses- dynamiques et limites des stratégies de prévention- perception et gestion du risque- succès et échecs dans le contrôle d'une épidémie- l'homme en cause.Une deuxième partie donnera des éléments de réponse au défi:- la recherche fondamentale- l'enseignement.

Malarial Subjects

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Book Series: Science in History ISBN: 9781107172364 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.1017/9781316771617 Language: English
Publisher: Cambridge University Press Grant: Wellcome Trust
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:15
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Malaria was considered one of the most widespread disease-causing entities in the nineteenth century. It was associated with a variety of frailties far beyond fevers, ranging from idiocy to impotence. And yet, it was not a self-contained category. The reconsolidation of malaria as a diagnostic category during this period happened within a wider context in which cinchona plants and their most valuable extract, quinine, were reinforced as objects of natural knowledge and social control. In India, the exigencies and apparatuses of British imperial rule occasioned the close interactions between these histories. In the process, British imperial rule became entangled with a network of nonhumans that included, apart from cinchona plants and the drug quinine, a range of objects described as malarial, as well as mosquitoes. Malarial Subjects explores this history of the co-constitution of a cure and disease, of British colonial rule and nonhumans, and of science, medicine and empire. This title is also available as Open Access.

Magnesium in the Central Nervous System

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ISBN: 9780987073051 Year: Pages: 356 DOI: 10.1017/UPO9780987073051 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-15 03:00:19
License: University of Adelaide Press

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Our understanding of the physiology and biochemistry of the brain has improved dramatically in the last two decades. In particular, the critical role of cations, including magnesium, has become evident, even if incompletely understood at a mechanistic level. The exact role and regulation of magnesium in particular remains elusive, largely because intracelluar levls are so difficult to routinely quantify. Nonetheless, the importance of magnesium to normal central nervous system activity is self-evident given the complicated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain the concentration of this cation within strict limits essential for normal physiology and metabolism.&#xD;&#xD;There is also considerable accumulating evidence to suggest alterations to some brain functions in both normal and pathological conditions may be linked to alterations in local magnesium concentration.&#xD;&#xD;This book, containing chapters written by some of the foremost experts in the field of magnesium research, brings together the latest in experimental and clinical magnesium research as it relates to the central nervous system. It offers a complete and updated view of magnesium’s involvement in central nervous system function and in so doing, brings together two main pillars of contemporary neuroscience research, namely providing an explanation for the molecular mechanisms involved in brain function, and emphasizing the connections between the molecular changes and behaviour.&#xD;&#xD;It is the untiring efforts of those magnesium researchers who have dedicated their lives to unraveling the mysteries of magnesium’s role in biological systems that has inspired the collation of this volume of work.

Unraveling Neuroprotective and Neurodegenerative Signals in Neurodegeneration

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199563 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-956-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Proteinopathy is a collective term used to classified neurodegenerative diseases associated with the progressive accumulation of toxic protein molecules in specific brain regions. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a well-known proteinopathy characterize by the accumulation of A peptides and tau proteins. The accumulation of these toxic molecules in the brain starts many years before any clinical presentation, being the onset in the range of 65 to 72 years of age. Therefore, age is considered a risk factor due, in part, to the loss of molecular competence to clear the brain from these toxic protein molecules. This fact, supported by years of research, demonstrates that brain cells activate a neuroprotective mechanism upon detection of a pathobiological signal that (if the detrimental conditions persist) precedes the activation of the neurodegeneration pathway. The progressive brain region specific neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases also indicates that the transition from neuroprotection to neurodegeneration is individually triggered in cells of the affected brain region. Thus, molecular understanding of the pathophysiology associated with proteinopathies needs to take in consideration this intricate transition process, especially when genomics and proteomics approaches are used. Research directed to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases uncovered the putative role of different molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration. Among the molecular mechanisms identified are proteolysis, epigenetics, microRNA, transcriptional regulation, innate and adaptive immune system, phagocytosis and autophagocytosis, exo/endocytosis, unfolded protein response, cytoskeleton defects, unregulated signaling molecules (i.e. kinases and phosphatases), trafficking molecules, cell cycle, neurogenesis/neurodevelopment, among others. Interestingly, all these molecular mechanisms have been identified through the analysis of tissue from animal models or human post-mortem pathologically confirmed cases, but their specific role in neurodegeneration is still unclear. Thus, it is plausible to consider that all these pathways play a role at a particular phase of the neurodegeneration process or, simply, are drive by the agonal state of the tissue examined. Hence, an important conundrum that researchers face today is the use of heterogeneous brain tissue samples in the quest to identify biomarkers associated with the pathogenesis or pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. At this junction of the neurodegeneration field, this research topic aim to critically assess the current literature on molecular mechanisms associated with neurodegeneration and the approaches used to dissect their putative pathophysiological role. The studies could include the interplay between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative signals in neurodegeneration, dissecting the molecular role of identified biomarkers, bioinformatics tools that facilitate data mining, dissecting pathways or molecular mechanisms, stages of protein aggregation (oligomers vs tangles; who did it?), aging brain and brain fitness (A natural selection process), adaptive protein response to environmental insults and cellular signals, expression profile associated with neurological disorders and health. Therefore, this Research Topic is expected to cover a wide range of subjects related to unravel the interplay between neuroprotective and neurodegenerative signals in neurodegeneration.

The role of viable but non-infectious developmental forms in chlamydial biology

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193219 Year: Pages: 119 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-321-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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The chlamydiae are Gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacteria with a complex developmental cycle comprising a metabolically less-active, infectious stage, the elementary body (EB), and a metabolically more active stage, the reticulate body (RB). They are responsible for many acute and chronic diseases in humans and animals. In order to play a causative role in chronic diseases, chlamydiae would need to persist and to re-activate within infected cells/tissues for extended periods of time. Persistence in vitro is defined as viable but non-cultivable chlamydiae involving morphologically enlarged, aberrant, and nondividing RBs, termed aberrant bodies (AB). In vitro, alterations of the normal developmental cycle of chlamydiae can be induced by the addition of Interferon-? (IFN-?), tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) and penicillin G exposure as well as amino acid or iron deprivation, monocyte infection and co-infection with viruses. In vivo, key questions include whether or not ABs occur in infected patients and animals and whether such ABs can contribute to prolonged, chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and scarring through continuing stimulation of the host immune system known from diseases such as trachoma, pelvic inflammatory disease, reactive arthritis and atherosclerosis. To date, the direct causal role in the pathogenesis of chlamydial infection and persistence in vivo has been questioned since there was no tractable animal model of chlamydial persistence so far. A very recent study was able to establish an experimental animal model of in vivo persistence, when C. muridarum vaginally-infected mice were gavaged with amoxicillin. Amoxicillin treatment induced C. muridarum to enter the persistent state in vivo. Recent in vivo data from patients indicate that viable but non-infectious developmental stages are present in the genital tract of chronically-infected women and that the gastrointestinal tract might be a reservoir for persistent chlamydial infections at other sites.

Clinical use of biomarkers in neurodegenerative disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194001 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-400-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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The prevalence of neurodegenerative disorders is increasing dramatically and one of the major challenges today is the need of early and accurate diagnosis, the other is the need of more effective therapies -in turn the development of such therapies also requires early and accurate diagnosis-. The main hope for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis comes from the use of biomarkers. Much research is being done trying to solve the many interrogates related to the role of biomarkers in clinical practice, including the early diagnosis, differential diagnosis and follow-up of neurodegenerative disorders. This is a field where translational research is intense enough to make this topic interesting for basic researchers and clinicians. Indeed, the amount and quality of articles received in response to the call for contributions was very good. This eBook contains a good amount of high quality articles devoted to diverse techniques across several neurodegenerative disorders from different perspectives, including original reports, reviews, methods reports and opinion letters on biochemical biomarkers in biological fluids, neuroimaging techniques and multidimensional approaches linking clinical findings with biomarkers. The disorders covered are also diverse: Alzheimer’s disease, Frontotemporal Dementia, Dementia with Lewy Bodies, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease among others. As we can learn from articles in this Research Topic, biomarkers are allowing us to expand the knowledge on the biological and anatomical basis of neurodegenerative diseases and to implement diagnostic techniques in clinical practice and clinical trials.

From Ptolemaus to Copernicus: The Evolving System of Gluten-Related Disorder

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ISBN: 9783038427315 9783038427322 Year: Pages: VIII, 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-732-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-16 09:08:33
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Gluten is the major protein of wheat and other cereals (rye and barley); it is responsible for triggering celiac disease (CD) in genetically predisposed individuals. Until a few years ago, CD was the major (if not the only) well-known gluten-related disorder. However, in recent years, it has become clear that gluten proteins may activate different pathological mechanisms, leading to a wide spectrum of human diseases, including non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS), gluten ataxia, neuro-psychiatric disorders, and many others. Conceptually, we have therefore moved from a Ptolemaic to a Copernican system, i.e., CD is no longer the “center of the universe”, but is just one of the possible worlds of gluten intolerance. Many other gluten planets do indeed exist and deserve the attention of researchers and clinicians alike.Although different gluten-related disorders show specific epidemiological, pathophysiological, and clinical aspects, these conditions share a trigger and treatment: the gluten-free diet. For a very long time, awareness of these disorders has been limited and, therefore, the epidemiology of gluten-related disorders is still a “work in progress”. Current research strives to clarify the boundaries between these entities, their disease mechanisms, and how a proper diagnosis can be implemented.

Structure, Chemical Analysis, Biosynthesis, Metabolism, Molecular Engineering and Biological Functions of Phytoalexins

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ISBN: 9783038427551 9783038427568 Year: Pages: 206 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-03-16 13:34:06
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Ever since the concept of phytoalexins was proposed by Müller and Borger in 1940, these compounds have attracted considerable attention due to the central role they play in the defense mechanisms of various plants. Besides displaying antifungal activity in numerous plant–pathogen interactions, phytoalexins have been implicated in human health and disease as antioxidant, anticancer and cardioprotective agents as well as being supposed to act positively in neurodegenerative illnesses. More than 25 years after the work of Siemann and Creasy which established a relationship between the concentration of the phytoalexin resveratrol in wine and the beneficial effects of wine consumption on health, the relevant literature on phytoalexins and their role in health and disease has increased tremendously. Knowledge on phytoalexins relies on fields as diverse as organic synthesis, analytical chemistry, plant molecular pathology, biocontrol, biochemistry and various aspects of biomedicine and biotechnology. It is almost impossible to review all of these aspects and, therefore, an attempt is made in the present book to illustrate some of them with a particular emphasis on the induction mechanisms of phytoalexin biosynthesis, methods for their analysis in complex matrices, fungal metabolism and phytoalexin bioactivity. This book will serve as a resource for teachers, researchers and students concerned with the study of phytoalexins.

Magnesium Intake and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038973348 9783038973355 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-335-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 10:43:14
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ca. 200 words; this text will present the book in all promotional forms (e.g. flyers). Please describe the book in straightforward and consumer-friendly terms.[Magnesium is universally recognized as an essential nutrient for human life and health. Indeed, magnesium plays an important physiologic role in every organ of the human body. Disturbances of Mg homeostasis have been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases, and Mg supplementation has been evaluated in numerous large-scale clinical trials. The World Health Organization has listed magnesium as among those essential nutrients that are consumed in suboptimal amounts by the general population. In particular, this occurs in Western ("Westernized") countries, where a modest to mild Mg2+ deficiency is thought to be common. The consequences of suboptimal Mg intake are largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the link between magnesium intake, its systemic homeostasis, and human pathophysiology is therefore much needed. Here, we have invited the experts to contribute original research or review articles that may help elucidate the pathophysiology of Mg and its underlying molecular mechanisms.]

Beten, Impfen, Sammeln - Zur Viehseuchen- und Schädlingsbekämpfung in der Frühen Neuzeit Graduiertenkolleg Interdisziplinäre Umweltgeschichte

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783938616956 Year: DOI: 10.17875/gup2007-482 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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The collection covers the presentations held at the workshop on „Challenge: Securing Resources - Animal Diseases and Pest Control in the 18th and 19 Century“ held in Goettingen on 21 and 22 June 2006 by the graduate school „Interdisciplinary Environmental History, Natual Environment and Society in Central Europe“, which is funded by the German Research Foundation, and operative since July 1 2004 at the Georg-August University in Goettingen.

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