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Chapter 7. Where is My State? Citizenship as a Factor in Yugoslavia’s Disintegration (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 119-132 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-008 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:02:17
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Chapter 7 shows that citizenship has to be counted as one of the crucial factors of Yugoslavia’s disintegration. The fundamental questions of citizenship related to the very definition of membership in a political community as well as the citizenship contract by which citizen exchanges his loyalty and duties for the rights and protection by his political community and its institutions (state) influenced critically the democratization process and Yugoslavia’s disintegration. At the crucial junction, in the context of imminent redefinition and possible collapse of federal Yugoslavia, between early 1990 and early 1992, citizens were asking themselves these basic questions: To what political community do I belong? or, to whom do I owe my loyalty? And, finally, who (what state?) guarantees, or promises to guarantee my rights – starting with human, civic and political rights, employment and property … – and, last but not least, security? The ethnonational conception of citizenship, the chapter argues, finally prevailed and fuelled conflicts over the redefinition of borders within which the ethnonational states were to be formed on the basis of absolute majorities of the core ethnonational groups.

Chapter 8. Enemies (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 133-148 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-009 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-30 11:01:51
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Chapter 8 shows the connection between a certain vision of citizenship – in this context, ethnonationally defined – and violence, and how citizenship is crucial though under-researched trigger of violence. To examine why and how this violence happened, and what was the role of citizenship, the chapter examines the whole post-socialist post-partition European states. It argues that the fate of many citizens of the former socialist federations in the context of their imminent disintegration was determined by their answers to the following questions: Did the incipient states (republics) and the federal centre accept the separation and the existing borders? Did all groups and all regions accept independence and the authorities of the new states? The analysis of the possible answers to these questions across post-socialist Europe brings us to three decisive triggers of violence: citizenship, borders and territories, and, finally in the early 1990s, the role of the military apparatus of defunct federations. One could safely conclude that there is an intimate historic affinity between citizenship and war. From the antique city-states where full citizenship status was acquired by serving in war (Anderson 1996: 28, 33; Pocock 1998), via the traditional military draft for men (and in some places for women) to contemporary practices that enable immigrants and foreigners serving in the armed forces, such as the US army or in the Légion étrangère, an easier access to citizenship. There is a historic relationship between ‘blood’, either inherited or spilled (one’s own or of other people), and citizenship. However, violence related to citizenship is not only physical but often invisible. It is the violence of administrative decisions, hierarchy of different statuses, ‘wrong’ passports and ‘papers’ or deprivations of citizenship. In the following chapter, I will also tackle the issue of physically invisible but nonetheless effective violence caused by the post-Yugoslav citizenship regimes. In this chapter though, I will turn to the outbreak of that ‘visible’ violence that spread across almost all corners of the former Yugoslavia. To examine why and how this violence happened, and what was the role of citizenship, we need to cast the net more widely all over post-socialist post-partition European states.

Chapter 5. The Bridges Over the Miljacka (Book chapter)

Book title: Nations and Citizens in Yugoslavia and the Post-Yugoslav States

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ISBN: 9781474221559 Year: Pages: 89-100 DOI: 10.5040/9781474221559.ch-006 Language: English
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic Grant: H2020 European Research Council - 230239
Subject: Political Science --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-31 11:01:54
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or 'conglomerate' – all occurring in Yugoslavia from mid-1960s at a sometimes vertiginous pace – seem to be interactive parts of the same puzzle. Nevertheless, immediately after the war it appeared that resurrected Yugoslavia and strong patriotism of the national-liberation struggle had given a new impetus to Yugoslavism – this time in a federalist form meant to dissociate the idea from the bitter experiences of pre-war unitarism. Although Yugoslavism itself went through curious re-definitions and had to compete with communist internationalism between 1945 and 1948, socialist nation-building Yugoslavism would be seen and promoted throughout the 1950s as something of uncontested worth. Having described earlier the birth and evolution of Yugoslavism between the mid-nineteenth century and the Second World War, we should recount here its last chapters.

Sustainability of Fossil Fuels

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ISBN: 9783039212194 / 9783039212200 Year: Pages: 284 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-220-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The energy and fuel industries represent an extensive field for the development and implementation of solutions aimed at improving the technological, environmental, and economic performance of technological cycles. In recent years, the issues of ecology and energy security have become especially important. Energy is firmly connected with all spheres of human economic life but, unfortunately, it also has an extremely negative (often fatal) effect on the environment and public health. Depletion of energy resources, the complexity of their extraction, and transportation are also problems of a global scale. Therefore, it is especially important nowadays to try to take care of nature and think about the resources that are necessary for future generations. For scientific teams in different countries, the development of sustainable and safe technologies for the use of fuels in the energy sector will be a challenge in the coming decades

Keywords

coal --- slurry fuel --- combustion --- forest fuels --- biomass --- anthropogenic emission concentration --- municipal solid waste --- coal processing waste --- oil refining waste --- waste management --- composite fuel --- energy production --- fuel activation --- waste-derived fuel --- coal-water slurry --- laser pulse --- syngas --- aerosol --- two-component droplet --- heating --- evaporation --- explosive breakup --- disintegration --- droplet holder material --- hydraulic fracturing --- water retention in shale --- anionic surfactant --- shale gas --- supercritical CO2 --- tectonic coal --- pore structure --- methane desorption --- embedded discrete fracture model --- fractured reservoir simulation --- matrix-fracture transmissibility --- combustion --- methane hydrate --- hydrate dissociation --- PTV method --- transport of tracers --- linear drift effect --- convection–diffusion equation --- enhanced oil recovery --- closed-form analytical solution --- methane --- combustion mechanism --- mechanism reduction --- skeletal mechanism --- Bunsen burner --- covert fault zone --- genetic mechanism --- Qikou Sag --- structure evolution --- oil-controlling mode --- Riedel shear --- Mohr–Coulomb theory --- slurry fuel --- ignition --- combustion --- combustion chamber --- soaring of fuel droplets --- trajectories of fuel droplets --- decorated polyacrylamide --- physical properties --- displacement mechanism --- flow behavior --- enhanced recovery --- injection mode --- coal consumption forecasting --- support vector machine --- improved gravitational search algorithm --- grey relational analysis --- dual string completion --- gas lift --- gas lift rate --- split factor --- gas robbing --- gas lift optimization

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