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Beyond Price: Essays on Birth and Death

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ISBN: 9781783741687 9781783741694 Year: Pages: 232 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0061 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-16 16:50:15
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In nine lively essays, bioethicist J. David Velleman challenges the prevailing consensus about assisted suicide and reproductive technology, articulating an original approach to the ethics of creating and ending human lives. He argues that assistance in dying is appropriate only at the point where talk of suicide is not, and he raises moral objections to anonymous donor conception. In their place, Velleman champions a morality of valuing personhood over happiness in making end-of-life decisions, and respecting the personhood of future children in making decisions about procreation. These controversial views are defended with philosophical rigor while remaining accessible to the general reader. Written over Velleman's 30 years of undergraduate teaching in bioethics, the essays have never before been collected and made available to a non-academic audience. They will open new lines of debate on issues of intense public interest.

Julius Carl Ertel. Ein Hamburger Industrieller

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Book Series: Mäzene für Wissenschaft ISBN: 9783943423389 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.MFW.19.175 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: Agriculture (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:17
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Julius Carl Ertel held a special position as director and later as sole owner of a copper smelter in the commercial and trading city of Hamburg. Born in Wroclaw, he came to the Hanseatic city at the age of 26. Together with Rudolph Bieber, he founded Ertel, Bieber & Co. in 1872. The company had its facilities in the middle of the harbour area. However, Ertel gained its decisive importance through the extensive connections he made with numerous other companies throughout Germany. In the supervisory boards of these companies, he played an active role in building up the expanding economy of the Gründerzeit. Ertel was not a man who pushed himself into the foreground. This early donor of the Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung acted as a networker in the modern sense of the word

Die Begründer der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Stiftung

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Book Series: Mäzene für Wissenschaft ISBN: 9783943423235 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.MFW.1.17 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:17

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According to a senior citizen of a trading company in Hamburg, if he is too stupid for sugar, let him study,"" Obviously, such an environment did not particularly appreciate science. Nevertheless, Senator Werner von Melle succeeded in collecting a sum of almost four million marks from many foresighted Hamburg citizens, so that the Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung (Hamburg Scientific Foundation) was able to come into being on 12 April 1907. This first volume of the series ""Patrons for Science"" honours in short biographies all personalities who have been involved in the foundation's founding phase, either financially or through their participation on the board of trustees. Many of them have become well-known far beyond Hamburg, others have been completely forgotten.The book is introduced by the essay "Current Past" which embeds the founders of the foundation in the cultural and scientific-political context of Hamburg around the turn of the century. After its first publication in 2007, this volume is now in its 2nd edition completely revised and available in colour.

Adolph Lewisohn. Kupfermagnat im "Goldenen Zeitalter"

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Book Series: Mäzene für Wissenschaft ISBN: 9783943423044 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.MFW.13.135 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:18

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"New York's most valuable vitizen" - this honorary title was given to Adolph Lewisohn. When he was born in Hamburg in 1849 as the son of Orthodox Jews and successful merchants, a career as a merchant was put in his cradle. In search of personal freedom he persuaded his strict father in 1867 to let him go to New York. The fact that Lewisohn, as an industrialist in the USA, will generate millions of euros in only twenty years' time would have seemed like a fairy tale to the young migrant. With dedication, foresight and flexibility he builds a copper empire. For four decades he then supports countless charitable projects with millions of euros. The Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung (Hamburg Scientific Society) also owes him one of the biggest donations it received when it was founded. This is the first biography of this exceptionally successful businessman, art collector and international philanthropist.

Keywords

Hamburg --- News York --- 19th century --- industry --- copper --- Adolph Lewisohn --- donor --- patron

Gustav Amsinck. Ein Hamburger Großkaufmann in New York

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Mäzene für Wissenschaft ISBN: 9783937816920 Year: DOI: 10.15460/HUP.MFW.11.116 Language: German
Publisher: Hamburg University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:18

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In 1857, the young Hamburg merchant Gustav Amsinck set off for the United States. In the booming metropolis of New York, he expanded his brother's "goods commission and banking business" with skill, diligence and a wealth of ideas. Under his aegis, G. Amsinck & Co. survived revolts in South America, attempts to defraud, and shipwrecks. In addition to its core business which consisted especially of sugar and coffee trading the merchant banker also invested in new barrel tyre patents, prefabricated houses and was involved in the construction of the Panama Canal. Privately, Gustav Amsinck appreciates the beautiful arts and traveling. When the Hamburgische Wissenschaftliche Stiftung came into being in 1907, he was one of its most important donors. This biography traces the rise of this man, who achieved prestige and wealth with Hanseatic merchants' virtues in the land of unlimited possibilities.

Antibody Repertoire and Graft Outcome Following Solid Organ Transplantation

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452415 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-241-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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The first real major breakthrough that laid the basis of HLA antibody detection in the field of solid organ transplantation, came with the introduction of the complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) test in 1964 by Terasaki and McClelland. Since then, methods for antibody detection have evolved remarkably from conventional cell-based assays to the current advanced solid phase systems on the Luminex platform, with increasing degree of sensitivity and specificity. The latter have been indispensable for more accurate identification of donor specific HLA antibodies in broadly reactive allo antisera, and to guide donor selection and kidney paired exchange programs through virtual crossmatching, in addition to serving as excellent tools for initiating pre-transplant desensitization and post- transplant antibody monitoring. Consensus is evolving on the optimal routine employment of these methods in donor selection strategies along with an understanding of the clinical relevance of antibodies detected by each of them. The immunoassays based on the Luminex platform and flow cytometric beads are however unable to discriminate complement fixing from non-complement fixing HLA antibodies. This is important because the former are considered clinically more pertinent in the peri-transplant period. The C1q assay which is a modification of the solid phase assay based on Luminex single antigen beads, which can be used effectively to monitor high dose IVIG desensitization is essentially a surrogate complement fixing assay, retaining the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of the Luminex platform. Currently, information obtained from these assays is preliminary and much needs to be done to standardize technologies and set a consensus ‘MFI cut off’ for antibody positivity. Besides the overriding influence of anti-HLA antibodies on overall solid organ graft survival, immune response to non-HLA antigens has become a topic of substantial interest in recent years. An ever expanding list of non-HLA antigens has been implicated in graft rejection for various organs, of which the most noted are the Major Histocompatibility Complex class I chain-related molecule A (MICA), Vimentin, Myosin, Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), Tubulin and Collagen. MICA is one of the most polymorphic and extensively studied non-HLA antigenic targets especially in renal transplantation. Although there are clear indications of MICA antibodies being associated with adverse graft outcome, to date a definitive consensus on this relationship has not been agreed. Because MICA molecules are not expressed constitutively on immunocompetent cells such as T and B lymphocytes, it is of utmost importance to address the impact of MICA donor specific antibodies (DSA) as compared to those that are non- donor specific (NDSA) on graft outcome. The soluble isoform of MICA molecule (sMICA) that is derived from the proteolytic shedding of membrane bound molecules has the potential to engage the NK-cell activating receptor NKG2D and down-regulate its expression. Consequent to the interaction of NKG2D by sMICA, the receptor ligand complex is endocytosed and degraded and thus suppresses NKG2D mediated lysis of the target by NK cells. Thus interaction between NKG2D and sMICA leads to expansion of immunosuppressive/anergic T cells thereby resulting in suppression of NKG2D mediated host innate immunity. These concept support the possible involvement of an immunosuppressive role for sMICA during allotransplantation as shown recently for heart transplantation. This research topic focuses on the clinical utility of investigating the complete antibody repertoire in solid organ transplantation.

Catalytic Processes for The Valorisation of Biomass Derived Molecules

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039219148 9783039219155 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-915-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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In the last decades, inedible lignocellulosic biomasses have attracted significant attention for being abundant resources that are not in competition with agricultural land or food production and, therefore, can be used as starting renewable material for the production of a wide variety of platform chemicals. The three main components of lignocellulosic biomasses are cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, complex biopolymers that can be converted into a pool of platform molecules including sugars, polyols, alchols, ketons, ethers, acids and aromatics. Various technologies have been explored for their one-pot conversion into chemicals, fuels and materials. However, in order to develop new catalytic processes for the selective production of desired products, a complete understanding of the molecular aspects of the basic chemistry and reactivity of biomass derived molecules is still crucial. This Special Issue reports on recent progress and advances in the catalytic valorization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin model molecules promoted by novel heterogeneous systems for the production of energy, fuels and chemicals.

Human Milk and Lactation

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ISBN: 9783039289233 / 9783039289240 Year: Pages: 368 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-924-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Human milk is uniquely tailored to meet infants’ specific nutritional requirements. However, it is more than just “milk”. This dynamic and bioactive fluid allows mother–infant signalling over lactation, guiding the infant in the developmental and physiological processes. It exerts protection and life-long biological effects, playing a crucial role in promoting healthy growth and optimal cognitive development. The latest scientific advances have provided insight into different components of human milk and their dynamic changes over time. However, the complexity of human milk composition and the synergistic mechanisms responsible for its beneficial health effects have not yet been unravelled. Filling this knowledge gap will shed light on the biology of the developing infant and will contribute to the optimization of infant feeding, particularly that of the most vulnerable infants. Greater understanding of human milk will also help in elucidating the best strategies for its storage and handling. The increasing knowledge on human milk’s bioactive compounds together with the rapidly-advancing technological achievements will greatly enhance their use as prophylactic or therapeutic agents. The current Special Issue aims to welcome original works and literature reviews further exploring the complexity of human milk composition, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects associated with breastfeeding, and the factors and determinants involved in lactation, including its promotion and support.

Keywords

human milk --- preterm --- term --- infants --- lipids --- fatty acids --- human milk fortification --- docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) --- mothers’ own milk --- donor human milk --- arachidonic acid (ARA) --- eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) --- bioactive factors --- carotenoids --- dietary intake --- high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) --- human milk --- lactation --- maternal diet --- prospective study --- Human Milk --- Preterm infant --- Phospholipids --- Lipidomics --- Milk Fat Globule Membrane --- breastfeeding --- late preterm --- protective factors --- promotion of breastfeeding --- breastfeeding support --- mammary gland --- immune-active proteins --- proteases --- protease inhibitors --- digestive tract --- antenatal --- expressing --- pregnancy --- video instruction --- colostrum --- breastfeeding --- online --- clinical trial --- lactation --- infants --- breastfeeding --- lactating women --- human milk benefits --- colostrum --- milk therapy --- bioactive factors --- 2?-fucosyllactose (2?FL) --- 3?-sialyllactose (3?SL) --- disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT) --- human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) --- milk group --- secretor --- Lewis --- lactation --- preterm --- adipokines --- antioxidants --- breastfeeding --- cytokines --- growth factors --- human milk --- preterm --- term --- neonate --- infant --- macronutrients --- protein --- fat --- lactose --- nutrition --- passive immunization --- maternal immunoglobulins --- lactation --- prematurity --- flu vaccine --- human milk --- human milk --- omega-3 fatty acids --- docosahexaenoic acid --- eicosapentaenoic acid --- ?-linolenic acid --- dietary intake --- food frequency questionnaire --- vitamin D deficiency --- supplementation --- breastfeeding --- mothers --- infants --- human milk --- targeted metabolomics --- amino acids --- lipid metabolites --- LC-MS --- flow injection analysis --- human milk --- protein --- glycoprotein --- endogenous peptide --- breastfeeding --- hormones --- adipokines --- breast milk --- growth --- body composition --- term infant --- human milk --- term --- preterm --- calcium --- phosphorus --- magnesium --- zinc --- iron --- copper --- iodine --- selenium --- potassium --- sodium --- n-9 fatty acid --- nervonic acid --- human milk fat --- infant formula --- lactational stage --- donor human milk --- high pressure processing --- carotenoids --- antioxidant capacity --- lipids --- bile salt stimulated lipase --- preterm --- retinol --- ?-tocopherol --- inadequate intake --- nutritional status --- breast milk --- undernourishment --- dietary assessment --- multiple source method --- human milk --- celiac disease --- hormones --- fatty acids --- duration of lactation --- country --- carbohydrate --- fat --- breastfeeding difficulties --- early breastfeeding cessation --- term infants --- breastfeeding support --- human milk --- donor milk --- choline --- phosphocholine --- storage --- pasteurization --- milk banking --- pumping --- breastfeeding --- lactation --- n/a

Religion, Welfare and Social Service Provision. Common Ground

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ISBN: 9783038977605 9783038977612 Year: Pages: 276 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-761-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Religion
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Religion, Welfare, and Social Service Provision: Common Ground delves deeply into the partnerships forged between religious communities, government agencies and nonprofits to deliver social services to the needy. These pages offer a considered examination of how local faith entities have served those in their midst, and how the provision of those services has been impacted by evolving social policies. This foundational volume brings together the work of more than two dozen leading researchers, each providing long overdue scholarly inquiry into religiously affiliated helping and the many possibilities that it holds for effective cooperation.

Influenza Virus and Vaccination

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ISBN: 9783039288175 / 9783039288182 Year: Pages: 130 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-818-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The influenza virus poses a threat to human health and is responsible for global epidemics every year. In addition to seasonal infections, influenza can cause occasional pandemics of great consequence when novel viruses are introduced into humans. Despite the implementation of comprehensive vaccination programs, influenza viruses continue to pose an important and unpredictable global public health threat. They are one of the most significant causes of morbidity and mortality each year and have a significant economic impact. In recent years, research has been conducted to find alternative approaches to influenza vaccine development, including the generation of universal vaccines. Notably, significant progress in the field of influenza infection, transmission, and immunity have contributed to our understanding of influenza biology, and to expanding the technological approaches for the generation of more efficient strategies against influenza infections. Moreover, highly remarkable developments have been made in the implementation of new methodologies to evaluate the efficiency of vaccines and improve them for use on domestic animals such as poultry, horses, dogs or pigs. This enables us to decrease the exposure of humans to potentially pandemic viruses. The articles in this Special Issue will address the importance of influenza to human health and the advances in influenza research that have led to the development of better therapeutics and vaccination strategies.

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