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Forest Management and Water Resources in the Anthropocene

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ISBN: 9783038425755 9783038425762 Year: Pages: VIII, 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-576-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-06 12:44:47
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Decades of research has provided a depth of understanding on the relationships among forests and water, and how these relationships change in response to climate variability, disturbance, and forest management. This understanding has facilitated a strong predictive capacity and the development of best management practices to protect water resources with active management. Despite this understanding, the rapid pace of changes in climate, disturbance regimes, invasive species, human population growth, and land use expected in the 21st century is likely to create substantial challenges for watershed management that may require new approaches, models, and best management practices. These challenges are likely to be complex and large scale, involving a combination of direct effects and indirect biophysical watershed responses, as well as socioeconomic impacts and feedbacks. We explore the complex relationships between forests and water in a rapidly changing environment, examine the trade-offs and conflicts between water and other resources, and examine new management approaches for sustaining water resources in the future.

Plants' Responses to Novel Environmental Pressures

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454020 Year: Pages: 351 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-402-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Plants have been exposed to multiple environmental stressors on long-term (seasonal) and short-term (daily) basis since their appearance on land. However, the frequency and the intensity of stress events have increased much during the last three decades because of climate change. Plants have developed, however, a multiplicity of modular and highly integrated strategies to cope with challenges imposed by novel, usually harsher environments. These strategies include migration, acclimation and adaptation. Twelve articles in this research topic exactly focus on the relative significance of these response mechanisms for the successful acclimation of plants to a wide range of novel environmental pressures. Four articles , additionally, explore how plants respond to severe stress conditions resulting from the concurrent action of multiple stressors. Ten articles mostly examine how morpho-anatomical, physiological and biochemical-related traits integrate when plants suffer from ‘novel’ threats, such as solid, gaseous, and electromagnetic pollutants. Suitable physiological indicators for developing conservation strategies are described in the last two works. This research topic highlights that bottom-up, as well as, top-down approaches will be necessary to develop in near future in the study of plants´ responses to environmental pressures.

Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention

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ISBN: 9783038973744 9783038973751 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-375-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-26 10:26:46
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Due to the considerable impacts of hydrological hazards on water resources, natural environments, and human activities, as well as on human health and safety, climate variability and climate change have become key issues for the research community. In fact, a warmer climate, with its heightened climate variability, will increase the risk of hydrological extreme phenomena, such as droughts and floods. The Special Issue “Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention” presents a collection of scientific contributions that provides a sample of the state-of-the-art and forefront research in this field. In particular, innovative modelling methods for flood hazards, regional flood, and drought analysis and the use of satellite and climate data for drought analysis were the main research and practice targets that the papers published in this Special Issue aimed to address.

Plant Life of Southwestern Australia. Adaptations for Survival

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ISBN: 9783110370195 Year: Pages: 268 DOI: 10.1515/9783110370195 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Ecology --- Plant Sciences --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 11:48:03
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Southwestern Australia is unique as it contains the world`s most nutrient-impoverished soils, experiences a prolonged-summer period and the vegetation is extremely fire-prone. It is also world-renowned for its relative high level of flora biodiversity. This book focuses on the diverse range of morphological and physiological adaptations evolved by the flora to survive in the harsh Mediterranean-type climate.

Plants; Stress & Proteins

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452675 Year: Pages: 323 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-267-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Biotic and abiotic stress factors deliver a huge impact on plant life. Biotic stress factors such as damage through pathogens or herbivore attack, as well as abiotic stress factors like variation in temperature, rainfall and salinity, have placed the plant kingdom under constant challenges for survival. As a consequence, global agricultural and horticultural productivity has been disturbed to a large extent. Being sessile in nature, plants cannot escape from the stress, and instead adapt changes within their system to overcome the adverse conditions. These changes include physiological, developmental and biochemical alterations within the plant body which influences the genome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the plant. Since proteins are the ultimate players of cellular behavior, proteome level alterations during and recovery period of stress provide direct implications of plant responses towards stress factors. With current advancement of modern high-throughput technologies, much research has been carried out in this field. This e-book highlights the research and review articles that cover proteome level changes during the course or recovery period of various stress factors in plant life. Overall, the chapters in this e-book has provided a wealth of information on how plants deal with stress from a proteomics perspective.

Harvesting Plant and Microbial Biodiversity for Sustainably Enhanced Food Security

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454440 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-444-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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The World population will reach 9 billion by 2050, with the majority of this growth occurring in developing countries. On the other hand, one in nine of the World's population suffers from chronic hunger, the vast majority of which live in developing countries. We therefore need to find new and sustainable solutions to feed this increasing population and alleviate the predicted negative impact of global changes on crop production. This e-Book deals with new strategies to improve food security and livelihoods in rural communities, reduce vulnerability, increase resilience and mitigate lthe impact of climate change and land degradation on agriculture. This collection of 18 articles addresses the major abiotic factors limiting crop production worldwide, how to characterize and exploit the available plant biodiversity to increase production and sustainability in agrosystems, and the use of beneficial microbes to improve production and reduce the use of fertilizers and pesticides.

South Africa’s water governance hydraulic mission (1912–2008) in a WEF-Nexus context

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ISBN: 9781928396741 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.4102/aosis.2018.BK75 Language: English
Publisher: AOSIS
Subject: Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 11:21:03
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Geologists, physicists and ecologists currently promote the idea of a post-Holocene epoch – the Anthropocene. As a result of constant innovation and modernisation in the fields of engineering, natural science, management studies and environmental studies there has been a growing awareness of the intrinsic interaction between humankind and the environment. Humankind has become part of the environmental dynamics, to the extent that they are literally able to change ecosystems. Nowhere is the impact more evident than in the anthropogenic engagement with the hydrosphere – from the smallest pool of water to the earth’s atmosphere. Comprehensive infrastructure development in water and sanitation, the growing trend to seek additional resources in the form of groundwater, desalinated seawater, and recycled wastewater, as well as special attention being given to capturing and preserving rainwater, bear evidence of a timely response to climate change, population growth and rapid development in many water-stressed regions of the world. &#xD;&#xD;The purpose of the book is to provide a historical overview of the manner in which South Africa’s water resources have been governed from a time when the Union of South Africa was formed, in 1910, up to 2008, a time of a growing global awareness of the potential impact that climate change may have on water resources in a key region of southern Africa, notable for increasing levels of aridity and more erratic rainfall patterns. This focus on the history of water affairs in South Africa makes it possible for scholars to comprehend the contemporary transitions made in the country’s water governance system since the establishment in 2014 of the Department of Water and Sanitation. The focus is on the Water–Energy–Food nexus, a strategy which holistically contemplates the governance and use of water from the perspective of the interconnection between water, energy and food as resources.&#xD;

Ecophysiology of root systems-environment interaction

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192854 Year: Pages: 316 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-285-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:07
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There is a scarcity of detailed information regarding the ecophysiology of root systems and the way root system functioning is affected by both internal and external factors. Furthermore, global climate change is expected to increase the intensity of climate extremes, such as severe drought, heat waves and periods of heavy rainfall; in addition other stresses such as salinization of soils are increasing world-wide. Recently an increasing awareness has developed that understanding plant traits will play a major role in breeding of future crop plants. For example, there is increasing evidence that the traits of root systems are defined by the properties of individual roots. However, further knowledge on the functional importance of root segments and the molecular/physiological mechanisms underlying root system functioning and persistence is needed, and would specifically allow modifying (crop) root system functionality and efficiency in the future. Another major gap in knowledge is localized at the root-soil interface and in regard to the potential adaptive plasticity of root-rhizosphere interactions under abiotic stress and/or competition. It is currently unknown whether adaptations in microbe communities occur, for example due to modified exudation rates, and what are the subsequent influences on nutrient mobilization and uptake. Furthermore, uncovering the mechanisms by which roots perceive neighboring roots may not only contribute to our understanding of plant developmental strategies, but also has important implications on the study of competitive interactions in natural communities, and in optimizing plant performance and resource use in agricultural and silvicultural systems. In this Research Topic, we aimed to provide an on-line, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of the field of root ecology and physiology, with special focus on the translation of root structure to function, and how root systems are influenced by interplay with internal and external factors such as abiotic stress, microbes and plant-plant interaction. We welcomed original research papers, but reviews of specific topics, articles formulating opinions or describing cutting-edge methods were also gladly accepted.

Earth Observation for Water Resource Management in Africa

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038421535 9783038421542 Year: Pages: XVIII, 538 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-154-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 14:55:31
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Reliable access to water, managing the spatial and temporal variability of water availability, ensuring the quality of freshwater and responding to climatological changes in the hydrological cycle are prerequisites for the development of countries in Africa. Water being an essential input for biomass growth and for renewable energy production (e.g. biofuels and hydropower schemes) plays an integral part in ensuring food and energy security for any nation. Water, as a source of safe drinking water, is furthermore the basis for ensuring the health of citizens and plays an important role in urban sanitation.The concept of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is seen as an opportunity to help manage water variability and the wide spread water scarcity in Africa. One key component missing from IWRM in Africa is the limited knowledge of the available extent and quality of water resources at basin level. Earth Observation (EO) technology can help fill this information gap by assessing and monitoring water resources at adequate temporal and spatial scales. The goal of this Special Issue is to understand and demonstrate the contribution which satellite observations, consistent over space and time, can bring to improve water resource management in Africa. Possible EO products and applications range from catchment characterization, water quality monitoring, soil moisture assessment, water extent and level monitoring, irrigation services, urban and agricultural water demand modeling, evapotranspiration estimation, ground water management, to hydrological modeling and flood mapping/forecasting. Some of these EO applications have already been developed by African scientists within the 10 year lifetime of the TIGER initiative: Looking after Water in Africa (http://www.tiger.esa.int), whose contributions are intended to be the starting point of this Special Issue and is only one example of the wide range of activities in the field. Contributions from the entire African and international scientific community dealing with the challenges of water resource management in Africa are the target of the special issue.

Food for Africa

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ISBN: 9781920499815 9781775820482 Year: Language: English
Publisher: UCT Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 102948
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 11:21:02
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Jennifer Thomson, one of the world’s leading scientific advisors on genetic engineering, traces through anecdote and science the development of a hotly contended area of research, from the dawn of genetic engineering in the USA in 1974, through the early stages of its uptake in South Africa to the current situation in which approximately 80% of maize in South Africa is genetically modified for drought resistance. Through her own story of how she came to choose GM as a career and her path-breaking involvement in the development of GM research, she describes the spread of this technology into other parts of Africa and her venture into unknown territory to develop crops resistant to drought, insects and viruses, a journey in which she came up against the multinational Monsanto. The book describes a remarkable personal and scientific evolution and looks to a future in which staple crops may be grown in difficult conditions by smallholder farmers and help Africans achieve food security.

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