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Nanofibres in Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9781787350182 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787350182 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:10
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In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in the production of nanoscale fibres for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Nanofibres in Drug Delivery aims to outline to new researchers in the field the utility of nanofibres in drug delivery, and to explain to them how to prepare fibres in the laboratory.&#xD;&#xD;The book begins with a brief discussion of the main concepts in pharmaceutical science. The authors then introduce the key techniques that can be used for fibre production and explain briefly the theory behind them. They discuss the experimental implementation of fibre production, starting with the simplest possible set-up and then moving on to consider more complex arrangements. As they do so, they offer advice from their own experience of fibre production, and use examples from current literature to show how each particular type of fibre can be applied to drug delivery. They also consider how fibre production could be moved beyond the research laboratory into industry, discussing regulatory and scale-up aspects.&#xD;

Keywords

Nanofibres --- Drugs --- Drug delivery

Aptamer-Nanoparticle Bioconjugates for Drug Delivery (Book chapter)

Book title: The Delivery of Nanoparticles

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535106159 Year: DOI: 10.5772/35188 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 209842
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:59
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Drug delivery systems traditionally relied on passive diffusion mechanisms for targeting and releasing of therapeutically active molecules. The major problems associated with&#xD;&#xD;traditional delivery are poor specificity and dose-limited toxicity. Nanoparticles have found&#xD;&#xD;applicability in the development of novel drug delivery systems by easily overcoming&#xD;&#xD;toxicity problem. However, specificity of delivery has remained as a challenge.&#xD;&#xD;Developments in the methods of reaching to targeted tissue have lead to new and improved&#xD;&#xD;drug delivery platforms. Recently, active targeting has been incorporated by cell specific&#xD;&#xD;ligands such as antibodies, lectins, growth factor receptors. More recently, aptamers gained&#xD;&#xD;popularity in construction of novel actively targeted drug delivery systems (Ozalp et al.,&#xD;&#xD;2011). Considerable proportions of aptamer-based delivery systems have been incorporated&#xD;&#xD;to a variety of nanomaterials in order to improve their specific targeting properties (Chen et&#xD;&#xD;al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2011).

PAIN - Novel targets and new technologies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193943 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-394-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The problem of clinical pain management is complex and far-reaching, as it encompasses many different types of pain, such as arthritis, musculoskeletal conditions, neuropathic pain, and visceral pain. It is widely known that many of the well-established analgesic pathways are centrally based, involving spinal and supraspinal sites. However, pain can also be effectively controlled by peripheral pathways. The analgesics market is growing and the driving forces are the aging population and need for better therapeutic benefits. There are various analgesic products that are available that can be administered by various routes, yet research is active in identifying new technologies for better drug targeting and novel targets to gain improved therapeutic efficiency. This e-Book "PAIN - Novel targets and new technologies" has brought together experts in the field of pain at the physiological, pharmacological and pharmaceutical levels to discuss novel pain targets and new pain technologies across the various types of pain. This information is presented as novel research findings, short communications and review articles. The goal of this e-Book is to generate further collaborative discussion on the future and direction of pain therapies.

Novel Molecular Approaches to Target Microbial Virulence

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110449501 9783110449617 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.1515/9783110449501 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biotechnology --- Microbiology --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-06 13:06:10
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Microbial infections still represent one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Irrational usage of antimicrobials has lead to increased resistance, causing clinical, social and economical disabilities. Therefore, one of the major challenges of scientists is to develop novel alternative methods to handle infections and reduce resistance and other side effects produced by the actual therapies. The aim of this book is to offer a perspective on novel approaches to handle infections by using naturally-derived products in order to modulate the virulence of pathogens, without the risk of developing resistance. We intend to highlight the utility of microbial, vegetal and animal–derived compounds with potential antimicrobial activity by exploiting their effect on microbial virulence. Furthermore, this book aims to reveal the potential to assimilate recent bio-technological findings, like the usage of nanotechnology as efficient shuttles for stabilizing, improved targeting and the controlled release of natural products in order to efficiently fight infections.

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism in Canada: The Current Landscape

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427971 9783038427988 Year: Pages: VIII, 302 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-798-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:44:18
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Canadian Pharmaceutical Scientists have a rich history of ground-breaking research in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism undertaken throughout its Pharmacy and Medical Schools and within the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The principle of drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) is the foundational basis of rationale drug-design, and pharmacotherapy. The study of ADME and its descriptive quantitative analysis is the basis of pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics is fundamental in the development of a new chemical entity into a marketable product and is essential in understanding the bioavailability, bioequivalence and biosimilarities of drugs. Pharmacokinetics and drug development studies facilitate an understanding of organ-based functionality. Population pharmacokinetic variability and the modeling of drug concentrations has significant utility in translating individual response in a target patient population.This special issue serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress and current landscape of pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism within the prevailing Canadian context. We invite articles on all aspects of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism studies highlighting the world-class research currently undertaken in Canada for this special issue.

Nanocolloids for Nanomedicine and Drug Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038974277 / 9783038974284 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-428-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:56:21
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This Special Issue highlights novel nanocolloids like magnetic nanoparticles, nanomicelles, nanoliposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoclays, stimulating novel interests and ideas in research groups involved in the development of novel nanotools within the different areas of nanomaterials. The publication of original articles contributes to scientific progress in the area of personalized medicine and further stimulates the entering into clinical praxis of such new nanosystems.

Ways to improve tumor uptake and penetration of drugs into solid tumors

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193509 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-350-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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The main scope of this topic is to give an update on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches to enhance uptake and penetration of cancer drugs into tumors. Inadequate accumulation of drugs in tumors has emerged over the last decade as one of the main problems underlying therapeutic failure and drug resistance in the treatment of cancer. Insufficient drug uptake and penetration is causally related to the abnormal tumor architecture. Thus, poor vascularization, increased resistance to blood flow and impaired blood supply represent a first obstacle to the delivery of antitumor drugs to tumor tissue. Decreased or even inverted transvascular pressure gradients compromise convective delivery of drugs. Eventually, an abnormal extracellular matrix offers increased frictional resistance to tumor drug penetration. Abnormal tumor architecture also changes the biology of tumor cells, which contributes to drug resistance through several different mechanisms. The variability in vessel location and structure can make many areas of the tumor hypoxic, which causes the tumor cells to become quiescent and thereby resistant to many antitumor drugs. In addition, the abnormally long distance of part of the tumor cell population from blood vessels provides a challenge to delivering cancer drugs to these cells. We have recently proposed additional mechanisms of tumor drug resistance, which are also related to abnormal tumor architecture. First, increased interstitial fluid pressure can by itself induce drug resistance through the induction of resistance-promoting paracrine factors. Second, the interaction of drug molecules with vessel- proximal tumor cell layers may also induce the release of these factors, which can spread throughout the cancer, and induce drug resistance in tumor cells distant from blood vessels. As can be seen, abnormal tumor architecture, inadequate drug accumulation and tumor drug resistance are tightly linked phenomena, suggesting the need to normalize the tumor architecture, including blood vessels, and/or increase the accumulation of cancer drugs in tumors in order to increase therapeutic effects. Indeed, several classes of drugs (that we refer to as promoter drugs) have been described, that promote tumor uptake and penetration of antitumor drugs, including those that are vasoactive, modify the barrier function of tumor vessels, debulk tumor cells, and overcome intercellular and stromal barriers. In addition, also non-pharmacologic approaches have been described that enhance tumor accumulation of effector drugs (e.g. convection-enhanced delivery, hyperthermia, etc.). Some drugs that have already received regulatory approval (e.g. the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab) exert antitumor effects at least in part through normalization of the tumor vasculature and enhancement of the accumulation of effector drugs. Other drugs, acting through different mechanisms of action, are now in clinical development (e.g. NGR-TNF in phase II/III studies) and others are about to enter clinical investigation (e.g. JO-1).

Cancer Nanotheranostics: What Have We Learned So Far?

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197767 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-776-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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After a quarter of century of rapid technological advances, research has revealed the complexity of cancer, a disease intimately related to the dynamic transformation of the genome. However, the full understanding of the molecular onset of this disease is still far from achieved and the search for mechanisms of treatment will follow closely. It is here that Nanotechnology enters the fray offering a wealth of tools to diagnose and treat cancer. In fact, the National Cancer Institute predicts that over the next years, nanotechnology will result in important advances in early detection, molecular imaging, targeted and multifunctional therapeutics, prevention and control of cancer. Nanotechnology offers numerous tools to diagnose and treat cancer, such as new imaging agents, multifunctional devices capable of overcome biological barriers to deliver therapeutic agents directly to cells and tissues involved in cancer growth and metastasis, and devices capable of predicting molecular changes to prevent action against precancerous cells. Nanomaterials-based delivery systems in Theranostics (Diagnostics & Therapy) provide better penetration of therapeutic and diagnostic substances within the body at a reduced risk in comparison to conventional therapies. At the present time, there is a growing need to enhance the capability of theranostics procedures where nanomaterials-based sensors may provide for the simultaneous detection of several gene-associated conditions and nanodevices with the ability to monitor real-time drug action. These innovative multifunctional nanocarriers for cancer theranostics may allow the development of diagnostics systems such as colorimetric and immunoassays, and in therapy approaches through gene therapy, drug delivery and tumor targeting systems in cancer. Some of the thousands and thousands of published nanosystems so far will most likely revolutionize our understanding of biological mechanisms and push forward the clinical practice through their integration in future diagnostics platforms. Nevertheless, despite the significant efforts towards the use of nanomaterials in biologically relevant research, more in vivo studies are needed to assess the applicability of these materials as delivery agents. In fact, only a few went through feasible clinical trials. Nanomaterials have to serve as the norm rather than an exception in the future conventional cancer treatments. Future in vivo work will need to carefully consider the correct choice of chemical modifications to incorporate into the multifunctional nanocarriers to avoid activation off-target, side effects and toxicity. Moreover the majority of studies on nanomaterials do not consider the final application to guide the design of nanomaterial. Instead, the focus is predominantly on engineering materials with specific physical or chemical properties. It is imperative to learn how advances in nanosystem’s capabilities are being used to identify new diagnostic and therapy tools driving the development of personalized medicine in oncology; discover how integrating cancer research and nanotechnology modeling can help patient diagnosis and treatment; recognize how to translate nanotheranostics data into an actionable clinical strategy; discuss with industry leaders how nanotheranostics is evolving and what the impact is on current research efforts; and last but not least, learn what approaches are proving fruitful in turning promising clinical data into treatment realities.

Advances in Marine Chitin and Chitosan

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038421306 9783038421290 Year: Pages: XIV, 470 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-129-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:15:59
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Recently, biomass-based polymers from renewable resources have received increasing focus owing to the depletion of petroleum resources. Natural polysaccharides such as cellulose,hemicellulose, and starch are among the candidates from natural resources for biomass polysaccharide products including bioplastics. Although several kinds of neutral or anionicpolysaccharides such as chitin, alginic acid, hyaluronic acid, heparin, and chondroitin sulfate exist in nature, natural cationic polysaccharides are quite limited. Chitin is second only tocellulose as the most natural abundant polysaccharide in the world. Chitosan, the product from the N-deacetylatation of chitin, appears to be the only natural cationic polysaccharide.Therefore, chitin and chitosan due to their unique properties are expected to continue to offer a vast number of possible applications for not only chemical or industrial use, but alsobiomedicine. The research history on chitins, one of the most major and abundant natural polysaccharides on earth, started around 1970. Since the 1980s, chitin and chitosan research(including D-glucosamine, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and their oligomers) has progressed significantly over several stages in both fundamental research and industrial fields.

Polymer Micelles

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038428077 9783038428084 Year: Pages: VIII, 220 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biochemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 15:30:28
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Classically, polymer micelles have been defined as aggregates formed by the self-association of amphiphilic polymers due to the hydrophobic interactions between polymer molecules in water. Practical applications of polymer micelles include as carriers in drug delivery systems, as solubilizers, and as associative thickeners. Polymer micelles that do not fall within the classical definition have recently been reported and reflect important developments in synthesis and analysis. For example, hydrophobic interactions are the classic force driving polymer association, whereas recently, micelles have been formed through interactions such as electrostatics, hydrogen bonds, and coordination bonds. Intermolecular association results in the formation of polymer micelles that are similar to micelles formed from low molecular weight surfactants, whereas unimolecular micelles formed by intramolecular association within a single polymer chain have also been reported, as have stimuli-responsive polymer micelles. It is therefore important to constantly update the information available and our knowledge of polymer micelles. This special issue covers synthesis, characterization, solution properties, association behavior, simulation, and the application of polymer micelles and polymer aggregates. The aim of this issue is to expand our knowledge of polymer micelles by gathering together the latest basic and applied information regarding these supramolecular structures.

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