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Nanofibres in Drug Delivery

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9781787350182 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.14324/111.9781787350182 Language: English
Publisher: UCL Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pharmacy and materia medica
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:10
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In recent years there has been an explosion of interest in the production of nanoscale fibres for drug delivery and tissue engineering. Nanofibres in Drug Delivery aims to outline to new researchers in the field the utility of nanofibres in drug delivery, and to explain to them how to prepare fibres in the laboratory.&#xD;&#xD;The book begins with a brief discussion of the main concepts in pharmaceutical science. The authors then introduce the key techniques that can be used for fibre production and explain briefly the theory behind them. They discuss the experimental implementation of fibre production, starting with the simplest possible set-up and then moving on to consider more complex arrangements. As they do so, they offer advice from their own experience of fibre production, and use examples from current literature to show how each particular type of fibre can be applied to drug delivery. They also consider how fibre production could be moved beyond the research laboratory into industry, discussing regulatory and scale-up aspects.&#xD;

Keywords

Nanofibres --- Drugs --- Drug delivery

Aptamer-Nanoparticle Bioconjugates for Drug Delivery (Book chapter)

Book title: The Delivery of Nanoparticles

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9789535106159 Year: DOI: 10.5772/35188 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen Grant: FP7 Ideas: European Research Council - 209842
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:47:59
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Drug delivery systems traditionally relied on passive diffusion mechanisms for targeting and releasing of therapeutically active molecules. The major problems associated with&#xD;&#xD;traditional delivery are poor specificity and dose-limited toxicity. Nanoparticles have found&#xD;&#xD;applicability in the development of novel drug delivery systems by easily overcoming&#xD;&#xD;toxicity problem. However, specificity of delivery has remained as a challenge.&#xD;&#xD;Developments in the methods of reaching to targeted tissue have lead to new and improved&#xD;&#xD;drug delivery platforms. Recently, active targeting has been incorporated by cell specific&#xD;&#xD;ligands such as antibodies, lectins, growth factor receptors. More recently, aptamers gained&#xD;&#xD;popularity in construction of novel actively targeted drug delivery systems (Ozalp et al.,&#xD;&#xD;2011). Considerable proportions of aptamer-based delivery systems have been incorporated&#xD;&#xD;to a variety of nanomaterials in order to improve their specific targeting properties (Chen et&#xD;&#xD;al., 2011; Zhou et al., 2011).

Biomedical Chemistry. Current Trends and Developments

Author:
ISBN: 9783110468755 9783110468878 Year: Pages: 361 DOI: 10.1515/9783110468755 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Biochemistry --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2017-01-18 19:08:48
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Biomedical Chemistry provides readers with an understanding of how fundamental chemical concepts are used to combat some diseases. The authors explain the interdisciplinary relationship of chemistry with biology, physics, pharmacy and medicine. The results of chemical research can be applied to understand chemical processes in cells and in the body, and new methods for drug transportation. Also, basic chemical ideas and determination of disease etiology are approached by developing techniques to ensure optimum interaction between drugs and human cells. This Book is an excellent resource for students and researchers in health-related fields with frontier topics in medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry, organic chemistry and biochemistry.

Biomarkers in Drug Hypersensitivity

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452262 Year: Pages: 104 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-226-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Biomarkers, especially those based on pharmacogenomics testing, have proved to be extremely useful for type A adverse drug reactions. Clinical practice guidelines based on biomarker testing are presently being developed and updated for type A adverse drug reactions. In contrast, little attention has been paid to the potential use of biomarkers in type B adverse reactions, characterized by the occurrence of reactions not directly related to the pharmacological properties of the drug. Drug-induced hypersensitivity belongs to those type B reactions. Drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions involve complex mechanisms that include, among others, the metabolic activation and haptenization of drug metabolites. Hence, factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of drug and metabolites may contribute to the development of some drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions. This implies that processes such as ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) that are typically involved in type A adverse drug reactions, may have a role in hypersensitivity reactions too. In addition to metabolic activation, several signal transduction pathways participate and modulate the development and the clinical presentation of drug hypersensitivity. The diverse mechanisms underlying such drug-hypersensitivity reactions lead to four major groups of reactions according to the Gell and Coombs classification: immediate, cytotoxic, immune complex and delayed. The enormous complexity of drug-hypersensitivity reactions is a consequence of the variety of mechanisms involved, which may be related, among others, to drug metabolism, generation of antigenic signals, stimulation and maturation of dendritic cells, presentation of haptens and mechanisms of cytotoxicity. In addition, a plethora of possible clinical presentations exists, including urticaria, angioedema, anaphylaxis, cytopenias, nephritis, serum sickness, vasculitis, contact dermatitis, drug rash, eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. The rapid progress in the field in recent years indicates that the combination of several disciplines is essential to understand the mechanisms involved in this particular, and not completely understood, type of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this Research Topic is to present insights obtained from both basic and clinical scientists, which may include studies related to the identification, validation, refinement and clinical implementation of biomarkers for drug-induced hypersensitivity. The Topic aims to include recent findings related, but not limited to, potential phenomic, genomic, proteomic, metabolomic and signal transduction biomarkers. These biomarkers could eventually be used in clinical practice and/or these might contribute, as a proof of concept, to our understanding of the complex events leading to drug hypersensitivity reactions. In addition the Topic will cover recent developments and methodological advances in the diagnosis, prevention and therapeutic management of drug-induced hypersensitivity.

Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism in Canada: The Current Landscape

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427971 9783038427988 Year: Pages: VIII, 302 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-798-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-06 13:44:18
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Canadian Pharmaceutical Scientists have a rich history of ground-breaking research in pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism undertaken throughout its Pharmacy and Medical Schools and within the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. The principle of drug Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) is the foundational basis of rationale drug-design, and pharmacotherapy. The study of ADME and its descriptive quantitative analysis is the basis of pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetics is fundamental in the development of a new chemical entity into a marketable product and is essential in understanding the bioavailability, bioequivalence and biosimilarities of drugs. Pharmacokinetics and drug development studies facilitate an understanding of organ-based functionality. Population pharmacokinetic variability and the modeling of drug concentrations has significant utility in translating individual response in a target patient population.This special issue serves to highlight and capture the contemporary progress and current landscape of pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism within the prevailing Canadian context. We invite articles on all aspects of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism studies highlighting the world-class research currently undertaken in Canada for this special issue.

Computational and Experimental Approaches in Multi-Target Pharmacology

Author:
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452521 Year: Pages: 122 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-252-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The next frontier in pharmacology is the development of multi-target strategies in which pathological processes are controlled by pharmacologically manipulating them at many different points at once. Designing multi-target strategies will require deep understanding of the complex physiology that underlies pathological processes. It will also require the development of single drugs with multiple targets, or combinations of drugs with compatible pharmacokinetics that work synergistically to maximize desirable effects while minimizing unwanted side effects. This e-Book contains ten original articles, each addressing a different aspect of this challenge. Together they open new perspectives and show the way forward in the development of multi-target therapeutics.

Marine Compounds and Cancer

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427650 9783038427667 Year: Pages: VI, 112 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-26 13:37:12
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In Western countries, cancer is among the most frequent causes of death. Despite striking advances in cancer therapy, especially by the so called “targeted agents”, there is still an urgent need for new drugs in oncology. Hope comes from the marine environment, which is a rich source of natural compounds showing anti-cancer activity. To date, four marine cytotoxic substances, namely cytarabine, trabectidine, eribulin, and monomethyl auristatin E (as a drug-antibody conjugate named vedotin) have made it into clinical routine. Many more are in all phases of clinical testing, and a plethora of substances has already been examined for in vitro and in vivo activity.Interestingly, more and more precise research tools allow the dissection of the molecular mode of action of these cytotoxic substances, thereby uncovering the specific drug targets in cancer cells. This development will blur the edges between “targeted” and “untargeted” therapy, and will hopefully lead to a more directed use of cancer medicine (based on a molecular rationale of activity) in the future.This Topical Collection will cover the whole scope from agents with cancer-preventive activity, to novel and previously characterized compounds with anti-cancer activity, both in vitro and in vivo, and the latest status of clinical development from drug trials. Of note, compounds possessing pro-carcinogenic activity or mediating cancer cell survival are also within the scope of this Topical Collection. In addition, a special focus will be placed on current shortfalls and possible strategies to overcome obstacles in the area of marine anti-cancer drug development.

Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma

ISBN: 9783906980461 9783906980584 Year: Pages: 156 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-01-12 11:17:42
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Soft tissue and bone sarcomas disproportionately affect children, adolescents, and young adults. Although considered a rare disease, sarcomas continue to have a devastating effect on these patients and their loved ones, and their impact on our society far exceed their relatively low prevalence. Because of its rarity and heterogeneity, clinical decision making on management of sarcomas are often individualized and without a consensus treatment strategy. Furthermore, research to improve clinical outcomes are particularly challenging as sizeable studies are hard to produce. By improving our knowledge about the molecular biology of sarcomas, we hope to identify new treatment strategies and targets for further drug development. [...]

Neuroactive metabolites of ethanol: a behavioral and neurochemical synopsis

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193752 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-375-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Ethanol is a very elusive drug, which has mechanisms of action that are diverse and relatively non-selective. Moreover, ethanol has been demonstrated to be a biologically active substance by itself, but also a pro-drug of the neuroactive metabolites, acetaldehyde and acetate. Acetaldehyde has traditionally been known as a toxic substance with several effects on multiple systems. However, in the last few decades evidence has accumulated to reveal the specific and, in some instances, distinct neural actions of acetaldehyde and acetate that are in part responsible for some of the observed psychoactive effects of ethanol. The present issue will address these challenges to provide an up-to-date synopsis of the behavioral and neurophysiological impact of the two direct metabolites of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate. In doing so, this issue will present human and rodent evidence on their behavioral and neurophysiological impact, either when administered alone as drugs, or when metabolically-derived from their parent compound. Emphasis will be placed to stress the importance of the different enzymatic systems that intervene to produce these metabolites, either peripherally and/or directly in the brain. Similarly, this Research Topic will be aimed at addressing some of the possible mechanisms of action of acetaldehyde and acetate in different brain areas and in different intracellular systems. Furthermore, the issue will lay out some of the suggested mechanisms of action of ethanol and of its metabolites by which they form adducts with other molecules and neurotransmitters such as dopamine and opioids (which lead to salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, respectively), and their impact on the synthesis and actions of neuromodulators such as adenosine and the cannabinoid system.

Keywords

Ethanol --- Catalase --- acetate --- Dopamine --- Salsolinol --- Opioids --- Addiction --- Drug abuse

PAIN - Novel targets and new technologies

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193943 Year: Pages: 95 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-394-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Therapeutics --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The problem of clinical pain management is complex and far-reaching, as it encompasses many different types of pain, such as arthritis, musculoskeletal conditions, neuropathic pain, and visceral pain. It is widely known that many of the well-established analgesic pathways are centrally based, involving spinal and supraspinal sites. However, pain can also be effectively controlled by peripheral pathways. The analgesics market is growing and the driving forces are the aging population and need for better therapeutic benefits. There are various analgesic products that are available that can be administered by various routes, yet research is active in identifying new technologies for better drug targeting and novel targets to gain improved therapeutic efficiency. This e-Book "PAIN - Novel targets and new technologies" has brought together experts in the field of pain at the physiological, pharmacological and pharmaceutical levels to discuss novel pain targets and new pain technologies across the various types of pain. This information is presented as novel research findings, short communications and review articles. The goal of this e-Book is to generate further collaborative discussion on the future and direction of pain therapies.

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