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Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039211715 / 9783039211722 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-172-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The book compiles scientific articles describing advances in nanomaterial synthesis and their application in water remediation. The publications treat diverse problems such as dye degradation, heavy metal ion, as well as radioactive element capture and sequestration. There are 10 original research articles and one review article. The latter proposes graphene/CNT and Prussian blue nanocomposites for radioactive 137-cesium extraction from aqueous media. All reports thoroughly characterize the nanomaterials post-synthesis and describe their catalytic, photocatalytic, or ion exchange activities in contaminated water. The dyes studied in the collection are azo dyes, i.e. methylene blue and orange, rhodamine B, phenolic dyes viz. bromophenol blue, and other dyes with sulfonyl groups. Extraction of radioactive elements, including cationic 137Cs+ and anionic 125I?, is also investigated. The omnipresence of ZnO nanoparticles in everyday products and their effects in wastewater are also evaluated. Layered double hydroxide are capable of capturing Ag ions, which then has a catalytic effect on dye degradation. The nanomaterials considered are varied, viz., graphene, CNT, Prussian blue, nanoporous carbon, layered double hydroxides, magnetite, ferrites, organic powders, polymer membranes, bacteria, and inorganic nanomaterials such as MnO and Ag. The book targets an interdisciplinary readership.

Photovoltaic Materials and Electronic Devices

ISBN: 9783038422167 9783038422174 Year: Pages: XIV, 198 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-15 09:10:33
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Given the state-of-the-art in solar photovoltaic (PV) technology and favorable financing terms, it is clear that PV has already obtained grid parity in specific locations [1]. Advances in the next generation of photovoltaic materials and photovoltaic devices can further reduce costs to enable all of humanity to utilize sustainable and renewable solar power [2]. This Special Issue of Materials will cover such materials, including modeling, synthesis, and evaluation of new materials and their solar cells.Specifically, this Special Issue will focus on five material technologies for advanced solar cells:1. New Concepts in PV Materials: Nanostructured materials, low-dimensional physics, multiple charge generation, up/down converters, thermophotovoltaics, low-cost III-V materials, bandgap engineering, hot-carrier effects, plasmonics, metamorphic materials, perovskite and related novel PV materials, novel light trapping, rectennas, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, and graphene composites.2. Organic PV Materials: Polymer, hybrid and dye sensitized solar cells, high performance contacts, and lifetime degradation and mechanisms.3. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs) Materials: Recent developments in dyes, working electrodes, technologies for device fabrications, and advances in new electrolytes.4. Amorphous, Nanostructured, and Thin Film Silicon PV Materials: Microstructure characterization, light induced degradation (SWE), large area and high deposition rates, novel processing routes, light trapping, multi-layers, and multi-junction devices.5. Passive Materials for all PV: Transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), encapsulation, connections, optics, glass, anti-reflection coatings (ARCs), alternative buffer layer materials, and contacts.

Microbial Fuel Cells 2018

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ISBN: 9783039215355 / 9783039215348 Year: Pages: 84 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-534-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The rapid growth of global energy consumption and simultaneous waste discharge requires more sustainable energy production and waste disposal/recovery technology. In this respect, microbial fuel cell and bioelectrochemical systems have been highlighted to provide a platform for waste-to-energy and cost-efficient treatment. Microbial fuel cell technology has also contributed to both academia and industry through the development of breakthrough sustainable technologies, enabling cross- and multi-disciplinary approaches in microbiology, biotechnology, electrochemistry, and bioprocess engineering. To further spread these technologies and to help the implementation of microbial fuel cells, this Special Issue, entitled “Microbial Fuel Cells 2018”, was proposed for the international journal Energies. This Special Issue mainly covers original research and studies related to the above-mentioned topic, including, but not limited to, bioelectricity generation, microbial electrochemistry, useful resource recovery, system and process design, and the implementation of microbial fuel cells.

Nanoporous Materials and Their Applications

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ISBN: 9783038979685 / 9783038979692 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-969-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book is a special collection of articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of nanoporous materials, such as zeolitic-type materials, mesoporous silica (SBA-15, MCM-41, and KIT-6), mesoporous metallic oxides, metal–organic framework structures (MOFs), and pillared clays, and their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and separation processes. This book presents a global vision of researchers from international universities, research centers, and industries working with nanoporous materials and shares the latest results on the synthesis and characterization of such materials, which have given rise to the special interest in their applications in basic and industrial processes.

Environmental Fate of Emerging Organic Micro-Contaminants

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ISBN: 9783039213672 / 9783039213689 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-368-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences
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The toxicity and fate of pharmaceuticals and other emerging micro-organic contaminants in the natural and built environments have been the focus of much research over the last twenty years. Particular focus has recently centred on the fate of antimicrobial chemicals, including antibiotics and antifungals. The occurrence of such chemicals in the environment is thought to contribute to the selection of resistance in exposed microorganisms.This Special Issue (SI) brings together a broad range of recent advances in the field of emerging micro-organic contaminants, ranging from medicinal contaminants to industrial chemicals in the environment. Notably, these range from chemical extraction and large-scale analysis to adverse effects on non-target aquatic organisms and potential risk to humans via contaminated foodstuffs. Additionally, this Special Issue also presents novel contaminant treatment/degradation methods of both physical and biological nature.

Selected Papers from the 8th Symposium on Micro-Nano Science and Technology on Micromachines

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038977285 / 9783038977292 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-729-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue presents selected papers from the 8th

Afforestation and Reforestation: Drivers, Dynamics, and Impacts

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783039214471 / 9783039214488 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-448-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Forestry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Afforestation/reforestation (or forestation) has been implemented worldwide as an effective measure towards sustainable ecosystem services and addresses global environmental problems such as climate change. The conversion of grasslands, croplands, shrublands, or bare lands to forests can dramatically alter forest water, energy, and carbon cycles and, thus, ecosystem services (e.g., carbon sequestration, soil erosion control, and water quality improvement). Large-scale afforestation/reforestation is typically driven by policies and, in turn, can also have substantial socioeconomic impacts. To enable success, forestation endeavors require novel approaches that involve a series of complex processes and interdisciplinary sciences. For example, exotic or fast-growing tree species are often used to improve soil conditions of degraded lands or maximize productivity, and it often takes a long time to understand and quantify the consequences of such practices at watershed or regional scales. Maintaining the sustainability of man-made forests is becoming increasingly challenging under a changing environment and disturbance regime changes such as wildland fires, urbanization, drought, air pollution, climate change, and socioeconomic change. Therefore, this Special Issue focuses on case studies of the drivers, dynamics, and impacts of afforestation/reforestation at regional, national, or global scales. These new studies provide an update on the scientific advances related to forestation. This information is urgently needed by land managers and policy makers to better manage forest resources in today’s rapidly changing environments.

Thin Films for Energy Harvesting, Conversion, and Storage

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039217243 / 9783039217250 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-725-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Chemical Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Efficient clean energy harvesting, conversion, and storage technologies are of immense importance for the sustainable development of human society. To this end, scientists have made significant advances in recent years regarding new materials and devices for improving the energy conversion efficiency for photovoltaics, thermoelectric generation, photoelectrochemical/electrolytic hydrogen generation, and rechargeable metal ion batteries. The aim of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for research scientists and engineers in these areas to demonstrate and exchange their latest research findings. This thematic topic undoubtedly represents an extremely important technological direction, covering materials processing, characterization, simulation, and performance evaluation of thin films used in energy harvesting, conversion, and storage.

Carotenoids

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ISBN: 9783039218646 / 9783039218653 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-865-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of natural pigments, consisting of more than 750 compounds. They are mostly yellow, orange, or red in color, due to the system of conjugated double bonds. This structural element is also responsible for the good antioxidant properties of many carotenoids. Carotenoids have shown numerous biological activities (not only as provitamin A), e.g., preventive properties of fruits and vegetables. As lipophilic compounds, their uptake and storage in the body are dependent on various conditions. In vitro and in vivo data showed stimulating and inhibitory effects of matrix compounds on bioaccessibility and bioavailability of carotenoids.

Keywords

?-carotene --- lycopene --- antioxidants --- free radicals --- ageing --- fruit --- vegetables --- ?-carotene --- HIV --- nelfinavir --- interaction --- pharmacokinetics --- carotenoids --- astaxanthin --- oxidative stress --- antioxidant --- chelating compound --- metal ions --- antireductant --- antiradical --- cationic lipid --- carotenoid --- antisense oligonucleotide --- exon skipping --- Duchenne muscular dystrophy --- ?-carotene --- lutein --- chlorophyll --- spent coffee grounds --- soil amendment --- lettuce --- accelerated solvent extraction --- pressurized fluid extraction --- ethanol --- carrots --- ?-carotene --- antioxidants --- marine carotenoids --- inflammation --- oxidative stress --- cardiovascular disease --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- antioxidant synergism --- antioxidant antagonism --- free radical kinetics --- dye-sensitized solar cells --- carotenoid and chlorophyll derivatives --- singlet-triplet annihilation --- carotenoids --- xanthophylls --- fluorocarotenoids --- chlorocarotenoids --- bromocarotenoids --- iodocarotenoids --- silicon carotenoids --- nitrogen carotenoids --- sulfur carotenoids --- selenium carotenoids --- iron carotenoids --- carotenoids --- xanthophylls --- cancer chemoprevention --- mechanisms --- B16F10 --- ?-carotene --- PC-3 --- SK-Hep-1 --- VEGF --- oxidative stress --- ROS --- RNS --- antioxidants --- carotenoids --- cardiovascular disease --- carotenoids --- hydrophilic --- esterification --- PEG conjugates --- cycloaddition --- carotenoid --- stability --- feed processing --- storage --- carotenoids --- extraction --- solubility --- injection solvent --- liquid chromatography

Graphene and Other 2D Layered Nanomaterial-Based Films: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219025 / 9783039219032 Year: Pages: 138 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-903-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Organic Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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This book is dedicated to highlighting some relevant advances in the field of thin films and coatings based on two-dimensional crystals and layered nanomaterials. Due to their layered structure, graphene and a variety of new 2D inorganic nanosystems, called “graphene analogues”, have all attracted tremendous interest due to their unprecedented properties/superior performance, and may find applications in many fields from electronics to biotechnology. These two-dimensional systems are ultrathin and, hence, tend to be flexible, also presenting distinctive and nearly intrinsic characteristics, including electronic, magnetic, optical, thermal conductivity, and superconducting properties. Furthermore, the combination of different structures and synergetic effects may open new and unprecedented perspectives, making these ideal advanced materials for multifunctional assembled systems. As far as the field of coatings is concerned, new layered nanostructures may offer unique and multifunctional properties, including gas barrier, lubricant, conductive, magnetic, photoactive, self-cleaning, and/or antimicrobial surfaces. This book contains new findings on the synthesis and perspectives of multifunctional films that are at the forefront of the science and coating technologies.

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