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The Tsunami Threat - Research and Technology

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ISBN: 9789533075525 Year: Pages: 730 DOI: 10.5772/573 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:48

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Submarine earthquakes, submarine slides and impacts may set large water volumes in motion characterized by very long wavelengths and a very high speed of lateral displacement, when reaching shallower water the wave breaks in over land - often with disastrous effects. This natural phenomenon is known as a tsunami event. By December 26, 2004, an event in the Indian Ocean, this word suddenly became known to the public. The effects were indeed disastrous and 227,898 people were killed. Tsunami events are a natural part of the Earth's geophysical system. There have been numerous events in the past and they will continue to be a threat to humanity; even more so today, when the coastal zone is occupied by so much more human activity and many more people. Therefore, tsunamis pose a very serious threat to humanity. The only way for us to face this threat is by increased knowledge so that we can meet future events by efficient warning systems and aid organizations. This book offers extensive and new information on tsunamis; their origin, history, effects, monitoring, hazards assessment and proposed handling with respect to precaution. Only through knowledge do we know how to behave in a wise manner. This book should be a well of tsunami knowledge for a long time, we hope.

Children after a Natural disaster

Authors: ---
Book Series: I territori dell'educazione - Open Access ISBN: 9788891767974 Year: Language: English
Publisher: FrancoAngeli
Subject: Education --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-29 11:01:56
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"Catastrophes and natural disasters lead to numerous problems in the education of children and teenagers, who present as the most vulnerable subjects in the communities affected. Often, in these circumstances, adults (educators, teachers, parents) do not know how to respond to their needs, reactions and feelings. What do we need to know about childhood trauma? What answers should we give to children exposed to the effects of catastrophes (mourning, destruction, widespread fears)? What educational activities might support them in their resilience? This book, born from experiences gained in the aftermath of the Amatrice earthquake in Italy in 2016, offers paths, through guidelines and educational activities, to confront together with children and teenagers post-catastrophe situations, the return to school, the intelligent management of emotions, and the maintenance of a sense of community."

Experimentelle Untersuchungen und Bemessungsansätze für faserverstärktes Mauerwerk unter Erdbebenbeanspruchungen

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Book Series: Karlsruher Reihe Massivbau, Baustofftechnologie, Materialprüfung / Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie ; Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt Karlsruhe ISSN: 1869912X ISBN: 9783731503729 Year: Volume: 76 Pages: IX, 301 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000046876 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Several experimental campaigns are conducted to find feasible fiber reinforcements for buildings under earthquake conditions. Therefore tensile tests for the description of the bonding behavior of the fibers, shear tests on three-stone small specimen, small static cyclic shear wall tests, bending tests of wall segments, large format dynamically loaded wall plates and five building experiments were performed under realistic time history acceleration. At the end a calculation method is proposed.

Earthquakes - Forecast, Prognosis and Earthquake Resistant Construction

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Book Series: Earthquakes ISSN: 26319152 ISBN: 9781789239492 9781789239508 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 334 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.71298 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:52

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An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy the whole cities. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can also trigger landslides and occasionally volcanic activity. Earthquakes are caused not only by rupture of geological faults but also by other events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. This book addresses the multidisciplinary topic of earthquake hazards and risk, one of the fastest growing, relevant, and applied fields of research and study practiced within the geosciences and environment. This book addresses principles, concepts, and paradigms of earthquakes, as well as operational terms, materials, tools, techniques, and methods including processes, procedures, and implications.

Earthquakes - Impact, Community Vulnerability and Resilience

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Book Series: Earthquakes ISSN: 26319152 ISBN: 9781789846669 9781789846676 9781789852332 Year: Volume: 2 Pages: 250 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.77465 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 07:51:53

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This book is a collection of scientific papers on earthquake preparedness, vulnerability, resilience, and risk assessment. Using case studies from various countries, chapters cover topics ranging from early warning systems and risk perception to long-term effects of earthquakes on vulnerable communities and the science of seismology, among others. This volume is a valuable resource for researchers, students, non-governmental organizations, and key decision-makers involved in earthquake disaster management systems at national, regional, and local levels.

Evaluation of Building Resilience Under Earthquake Input Using Single, Double and Multiple Impulses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452705 Year: Pages: 61 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-270-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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This eBook is the third in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic or elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions, and includes four original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first eBook and the second eBook are included here. The first article is on the earthquake resilience of residential houses after repeated ground motions with high intensity. The 2016 Kumamoto earthquake brought a significant impact on the earthquake resilience of residential houses under repeated ground motions with high intensity in a few days. The necessary strength upgrade withstanding two repeated high-intensity ground motions was found to be 1.5. The second article is concerned with the smart enhancement of earthquake resilience of building structures under both near-fault and long-duration ground motions. A hybrid system of base-isolation and building connection control was proposed and its earthquake resilience to near-fault and long-duration ground motions was evaluated by a double impulse and a multiple impulse. It was demonstrated that the base-isolation is effective for near-fault ground motions and the building connection system using passive dampers is effective for long-duration ground motions. The third article is related to the robustness evaluation of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings under resonant near-fault ground motions. The robustness function was introduced to evaluate quantitatively the robustness of elastic-plastic base-isolated high-rise buildings. The fourth article is an extension of the previously proposed energy balance approach to a bilinear elastic-plastic single-degree-of-freedom system under a long-duration sinusoidal ground motion. A historical difficulty in nonlinear vibration posed by Caughey (1960) and Iwan (1961) has been overcome in a smart manner after half a century. The approach presented in this eBook, together with the previous eBooks, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability and resilience of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Performance of Innovative Controlled Buildings Under Resonant and Critical Earthquake Ground Motions

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456369 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-636-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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This eBook is the fourth in a series of books on the critical earthquake response of elastic or elastic-plastic structures under near-fault or long-duration ground motions, and includes six original research papers which were published in the specialty section Earthquake Engineering in ‘Frontiers in Built Environment’. Several extensions of the first eBook, the second eBook and the third eBook are included here. The first article is on the comparison of earthquake resilience of various building structures including innovative base-isolation systems and control systems. Pulse-type ground motions and resonant harmonic ground motions are used for investigating the earthquake resilience of those innovative building structures. The second article is concerned with the performance of an innovative seismic response controlled system with shear walls and concentrated dampers in lower stories. The resonant one-cycle sine waves and resonant harmonic waves are used as the input ground motions. The third article is related to the robustness evaluation of a base-isolation building-connection hybrid controlled building structure under the critical long-period and long-duration ground motion. The multi impulse is used as a substitute for a long-period and long-duration ground motion and the model reduction to a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system is conducted to propose a simple response evaluation method. The fourth article is an extension of the previously proposed energy balance approach to a damped bilinear hysteretic SDOF system under a double impulse as a substitute for a near-fault ground motion. The energy absorption through viscous damping is incorporated appropriately in the energy balance and the application of the proposed method to actual recorded ground motions is presented. The fifth article is on the robustness evaluation of base-isolation building-connection hybrid controlled building structures considering uncertainties in deep ground. The earthquake ground motion amplitude at the earthquake bedrock is evaluated by the Boore’s stochastic method in 1983 including the fault rupture and the wave propagation into the earthquake bedrock. Then the phase angle property at the earthquake bedrock is investigated by introducing the concept of phase difference which is defined for each earthquake type. A wave at the ground surface nearly resonant to the base-isolation building-connection hybrid controlled building structure is produced by considering uncertainties in deep ground. The sixth article is concerned with the critical response of nonlinear base-isolated buildings considering soil-structure interaction under a double impulse as a substitute for a near-fault ground motion. The complicated model of a nonlinear base-isolated building on ground is modeled into an SDOF system after a few model reduction processes. The approach presented in this eBook, together with the previous eBooks, is an epoch-making accomplishment to open the door for simpler and deeper understanding of structural reliability and resilience of built environments in the elastic-plastic and nonlinear range.

Rocks in the Water, Rocks in the Sun: A Memoir from the Heart of Haiti

Authors: ---
Book Series: Our Lives: Diary, Memoir, and Letters ISSN: 19216661 ISBN: 9781771990110 9781771990127 9781771990134 9781771990141 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.15215/aupress/9781771990110.01 Language: English
Publisher: Athabasca University Press
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-09 23:04:46
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When Joegodson Déralciné was still a small child, his parents left rural Haiti to resettle in the rapidly growing zones of Port-au-Prince. As his family entered the city in 1986, Duvalier and his dictatorship exited. Haitians, once terrorized under Duvalier’s reign, were liberated and emboldened to believe that they could take control of their lives. But how? Joining hundreds of thousands of other peasants trying to adjust to urban life, Joegodson and his family sought work and a means of survival. But all they found was low-waged assembly plant jobs of the sort to which the repressive Duvalier regime had opened Haiti’s doors—the combination of flexible capital and cheap labour too attractive to multinational manufacturers to be overlooked. With the death of his mother, Joegodson was placed in his uncle’s care, and so began a childhood of starvation, endless labour, and abuse.In honest, reflective prose, Joegodson—now a father himself— allows us to walk in the ditches of Cité Soleil, to hide from the macoutes under the bed, to feel the ache of an empty stomach. But, most importantly, he provides an account of life in Haiti from a perspective that is rarely heard. Free of sentimentality and hackneyed clichés, his narrative explores the spirituality of Vodou, Catholicism, and Protestantism, describes the harrowing day of the 2010 earthquake and its aftermath, and illustrates the inner workings of MINUSTAH. Written with Canadian historian Paul Jackson—Joegodson telling his story in Creole, Jackson translating, the two of them then reviewing and reworking—the memoir is a true collaboration, the struggle of two people from different lands and vastly different circumstances to arrive at a place of mutual understanding. In the process, they have given us an unforgettable account of a country determined to survive, and on its own terms.

Holy Hip Hop in the City of Angels

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ISBN: 9780520296206 9780520968790 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.35 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: Social Sciences --- Religion --- Music
Added to DOAB on : 2017-09-08 11:01:39
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In the 1990s, Los Angeles was home to numerous radical social and environmental eruptions. In the face of several major earthquakes and floods, riots and economic insecurity, police brutality and mass incarceration, some young black Angelenos turned to holy hip hop—a movement merging Christianity and hip hop culture—to “save” themselves and the city. Converting street corners to open-air churches and gangsta rap beats into anthems of praise, holy hip hoppers used gospel rap to navigate complicated social and spiritual realities and to transform the Southland’s fractured terrains into musical Zions. Armed with beats, rhymes, and bibles, they journeyed through black Lutheran congregations, prison ministries, African churches, reggae dancehalls, hip hop clubs, Nation of Islam meetings, and Black Lives Matter marches. Zanfagna’s fascinating ethnography provides a contemporary and unique view of black LA, offering a much-needed perspective on how music and religion intertwine in people’s everyday experiences.

Individui, comunità e istituzioni in emergenza

Authors: ---
Book Series: I territori dell'educazione - Open Access ISBN: 9788891767967 Year: Language: Italian
Publisher: FrancoAngeli
Subject: Education --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-11 11:01:03
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Starting from the experiences of the "Velino for Children" project, which has worked in the Lazio territories hit by the earthquakes of 2016-2017, this book focuses on the models of psycho-socio-pedagogical intervention (at school, in the family, in institutions that support communities, etc.) that can work for the promotion of individual and community resilience. For this reason, the work is aimed at all those actors (administrators, managers, service coordinators, teachers, educators, social workers, psychologists) who, within the emergencies, are committed to favoring the processes of recovery and of social and educational reconstruction.&#xD;

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