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Telemedicine in Low-Resource Settings

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195053 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-505-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Telemedicine networks to support healthcare workers in resource-limited settings (often for humanitarian purposes) have evolved over the last decade or so in a largely autonomous way. Communication between them has been informal and relatively limited in scope. This situation could be improved by developing a comprehensive approach to the collection and dissemination of information.A recent review identified seven telemedicine networks, each of which had been in operation for at least five years and which provided store-and-forward telemedicine services to doctors in low- and middle-income countries. These networks provide clinically useful services and improved healthcare access. However, like much of telemedicine, the formal evidence for their cost-effectiveness remains weak.Topics of current research interest therefore include the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine in resource-limited settings. Outcomes data (and methods for gathering it) such as patient quality of life following a telemedicine episode, the knowledge-gain of healthcare staff involved in telemedicine, and staff recruitment and retention in rural areas are also of interest. Finally, there is little published information about the performance of these telemedicine networks (and methods for measuring it), about how best to manage them, and about how to share resources between them.A collection of articles reporting the current evidence supporting the use of telemedicine in resource-limited settings would build the evidence base and should provide a focus for future research. It would also serve to raise the profile of this potentially important research field.

REDD+ Crossroads Post Paris: Politics, Lessons and Interplays

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038427070 9783038427087 Year: Pages: 414 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-08 13:02:47
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Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks, and sustainably managing forests (REDD+), has become a reference framework for national forest governance across many tropical and sub-tropical forest countries. These countries have used international funding to re-organize forest and conservation policy around the idea of mitigating climate change, including the development of carbon accounting protocols and national REDD+ strategies. In parallel, international conservation organizations have promoted small-scale pilot project activities, in order to capture the economic value of any resulting land-use emission reductions, mostly through voluntary carbon markets.This collection contributes with new evidence to the burgeoning research on REDD+. The first section of the collection includes eight articles that explore the politics of REDD+ design, which analyze how various governments have designed and rolled out their REDD+ strategies, and how and why a range of public and private actors become (or not) involved in such processes. These contributions explore which rationales, techniques, views and values are being contested and constructed in the design of REDD+ national strategies, which conflicts have emerged and why, or how coordination across competing actors and interests has been pursued. The second section encompasses six articles that examine the lessons of REDD+ early actions, which describe or quantify the effects of such interventions on local environments and participants’ socio-economic status and cultural contexts. Finally, the third section includes five articles that explore the interplays between REDD+ and other land-use policy domains, which focus on the synergies and contradictions between the aims and policy programs conforming REDD+ national strategies and other land-use policies. Specifically, these contributions explore if REDD+ is able to improve forest sector regulations in host countries and to to align other development and land-use planning policies with REDD+ objectives and aspirations.

The Principle of Loyalty in EU Law

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ISBN: 9780199683123 Year: DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199683123.001.0001 Language: English
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Subject: Law --- Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2014-03-03 22:50:21
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The book offers the first treatment in English to provide a thorough examination of the legal duties falling under the principle of loyalty in EU public law. Despite its seemingly innocuous wording, in what is now Article 4 (3) TEU, the principle of sincere cooperation has had a significant impact in deepening the reach of EU law within the Member States. The principle has been central to the development of Union law since the 1960s, and is still being relied on by the European Court of Justice to often-controversial effect. Providing a thorough discussion of the principle of loyalty in EU law, this book introduces a novel classification of the very diverse roles loyalty plays in the EU. It distinguishes between the effects loyalty prescribes for interlocking the legal orders of the Member States with Union law (cohesion), its application in preventing and resolving conflicts between the Union and the Member States (cooperation), and the loyalty principle's role in the shaping of EU law (construction). It addresses important and yet unresolved questions pertaining to loyalty, such as its relation to the principles of solidarity, effectiveness, fidelity, pre-emption, the Union interest, institutional balance, and the unity of international representation. The book explains why the principle of loyalty has been neglected in the prevailing narratives about the constitutionalization of EU law, places it in its international context, examining how it has influenced EU law and the comparisons that can be drawn with national and international principles of law.

Veiklos tyrimas organizacijoje. Socialinių paslaugų senyvo amžiaus žmonėms atvejis

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9786094672019 Year: Pages: 200 p. Language: Lithuanian
Publisher: Vytautas Magnus University
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-01 12:35:23
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The aim of the study presented in the monograph is to reveal peculiarities, methodological strengths and limitations of participatory action research (PAR) in social service organizations. PAR is analysed as a methodological approach which involves scholars and research participants into a process of reflection, knowledge production and construction of new meanings. PAR application area is quite broad – this strategy is applied in communities, business, education, health and welfare organizations in order to increase involvement of citizens as well as their empowerment in communities and organizations. While highlighting originality and singularity of PAR in organizations, authors of the study discuss notions, definitions and distinctive features of PAR. The scholars distinguish novelty, empowering nature, methodological nuances and criticism toward PAR. The monograph presents models, the process, and stages of PAR. Based on PAR implementation in social service organizations, a need for movement from action to reflection and empowerment of research participants to take the responsibility of the changes in organizations is emphasized. The research sheds a light on psychosocial functioning of organizations as well as their readiness for change. Results and insights drawn by the research create preconditions to increase efficiency and effectiveness of organizations. The investigation presented in the monograph was implemented in social service organizations which provide services for the elderly. Lithuanian population is aging, therefore agencies which provide elderly care should be able to respond to changes in the market and satisfy clients` needs. This is relevant for profit organizations and business enterprises which become more active in the social service sector offering their activities for older people. This study presents the situation of older people in European Union and Lithuania. An overview of theoretical resources is carried out by revealing factors of organizational effectiveness and readiness for changes, concepts and typologies of organizational cultures, elements which are related to psychosocial functioning of organizations: job satisfaction, management, conflicts and their solutions, teamwork and stress at work. Recognition which embraces processes on micro, mezzo and macro levels is another concept that is discussed and analysed in the study. The research presented in the monograph included several stages. In the first stage of the research, a qualitative interpretative study was carried out by interviewing representatives of focus group. The researchers disclosed practical experiences, ideas, achievements, challenges and concerns, questions and tensions that arose in the organizations. 4 institutions participated in the research in this stage – 2 public organizations of home care and 2 private organizations of institutional long-term care. In the second stage of the investigation, a quantitative research was conducted to identify tendencies of readiness for change in social service organizations. 401 respondents from municipal and state organizations and 109 respondents from private agencies (510 in total) participated in the survey. In this stage of the research, objectives were: 1) to identify main factors and elements which determine the functioning of public and private agencies for social services; 2) to reveal differences between public and private organizations of social services; 3) to analyse attitude of employees working in public and private organizations toward development of organizations and to evaluate factors which foster agencies‘ development; 4) to delineate issues which are important and relevant for each organization and its psycho-social functioning. The third stage of the research was dedicated to construct a new knowledge on changes to be initiated in the organizations. 2 case studies were conducted by applying a constructivist version of grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006). The first case study was carried out in municipal organizations of home social services for the elderly. The second case study was conducted in public agencies which provide institutional long-term services for the elderly. The main techniques and methods of this research were individual interviews, interviews with focus groups and group discussions as well as methodological seminars to get a feedback from research participants. Five managers and 38 employees participated in the study. The research has empowered the authors to provide methodological recommendations for the implementation of PAR in organizations. The study actualized principles and elements of successful implementation of PAR in agencies of social services – a need to reflect processes and get a feedback in organizations, foster creativity and reciprocity in relationships between researchers and research participants at organizations, support trust and respect, avoid harm and disrespect.

Towards Elimination of Dog Mediated Human Rabies

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452996 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-299-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Public Health --- Animal Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Rabies is an ancient zoonotic viral disease that still exerts a high impact on human and animal health. The disease is almost 100% fatal after clinical signs appear, and it kills tens of thousands of people per year worldwide, particularly in Africa and many parts of Asia. Although the disease in humans can be prevented by timely post-exposure prophylaxis, its access and affordability is limited in rabies endemic countries. With 99% of infections in humans caused by rabid domestic dog bites, controlling the infection in this reservoir population has been proven to be most effective to reduce and eliminate human rabies cases. In this context, this Research Topic invited contributions on the control and elimination of dog mediated human rabies. Publications on epidemiological, educational, policy-related and economic aspects of dog and human rabies surveillance, implementation of control in dogs and humans and scientific documentation of success stories were consolidated. We hope that these articles contribute to reaching the ambitious goal, set by key players in global health, of the elimination of dog mediated human rabies by 2030.

Mutation Breeding in Chickpea: Perspectives and Prospects for Food Security

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ISBN: 9788376560717 9783110374254 Year: Pages: 148 DOI: 10.2478/9788376560717 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Botany --- Plant Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2014-11-17 10:29:09
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The book by M. Imran Kozgar aims to cover the problems of mutation breeding in pulse crops in the light of issues related to food insecurity and malnutrition, which according to FAO are the major threats at the present time. So far the research on induction of mutation in pulse crops is negligible compared to cereal crops, though the pulse crops and especially the chickpea are the largest grown crops in India. The main objective of the book is to reveal and explore the possibility of inducing genetic variability in early generations of mutated chickpea, describe the positive aspects of mutagenic treatments, evaluate the content of mineral elements (iron, manganese, zinc and copper) and physiological parameters of isolated high yielding mutant lines. The author hopes that his book will help to advance studies on pulse crops, and that in the long term it will help to reduce the food insecurity and malnutrition problems presently persisting in various developing countries, including India.

Wound Care

ISBN: 9783038420446 9783038420453 Year: Volume: 1 Pages: 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-22 06:51:13
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Wounds and the many associated problems have challenged health care providers for centuries and today, despite the wealth of knowledge available, neither the incidence nor prevalence of wounds is reducing. Furthermore, in view of our changing demographic profile and the projected increase in the older population it is likely that wound management will become an ever increasing burden to the individual, health care services and society as a whole. The annual incidence of wounds in the EU-27 is approximately 4 million, and between 25% and 50% of acute hospital beds are occupied by patients with a wound, with up to 60% of these representing non-healing wounds (infected surgical wounds, pressure ulcers, leg/foot ulcers) The increasing prevalence and incidence of non-wounds healing is closely linked with quality of care and, as such, these rising figures reduce society’s confidence in the health service’s ability to deliver care that is timely, appropriate and effective. Thus, for those involved in this specialist area of clinical practice, the fundamental goal is to improve clinical outcomes, reduce the burden of wounds and improve health related quality of life.In this Special Issue “Wound Care” in Healthcare, we invited submission of manuscripts exploring contemporary issues in wound care. By devoting a special issue to wound care, we endeavoured to provide readers with a comprehensive reference source, outlining key areas of interest in this important aspect of clinical practice. The response to the call for manuscripts was fantastic and, as a result, we were able to include both original qualitative and quantitative research papers in addition to review papers, thereby providing readers with a wealth of valuable information pertinent to wound care.

Today’s Nutrition and Tomorrow’s Public Health: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198184 Year: Pages: 83 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-818-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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At the dawn of the third millennium, we are confronted with a disturbing phenomenon: although global life expectancy still increases, this is not the case for healthy life expectancy! The explanation of this seemingly contradiction is mainly due to the rising prevalence of the new pandemia of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Even in low and middle income countries, the improvement in healthcare status and life expectancy is paralled by the increase of NCDs, as in all countries worldwide. Since the United Nations General Assembly held in New York in 2011, many publications have emphasized the close link between NCDs and nutrition. The NCDs epidemic forces us to reconsider the public health perspectives. Many governments, non-governmental organizations and other institutions are actively involved in educational nutrition programs and campaigns; however their efforts seldom obtain the results hoped for. It is extremely difficult to induce changes in lifestyle and behavior that have built up over a long period of time. However, it becomes urgent to adapt to our changing life-environment where traditional wisdom and intuitive choices are giving way to individual thinking and search for (often uncontrolled) information. This engenders a number of unprecedented challenges and it calls for a re-appraisal of the existing paradigms to achieve an adequate management of the upstream determinants of health instead of a (pre)dominant medical and hospital-centric approach. In the era of personalized healthcare, it is time to empower policy makers, professionals and citizens for achieving an evidence-based change in the health-disease interface and decision-making process for public health interventions. The scientific and professional society Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) has recognized nutrition as a health technology by creating a Interest Group (IG) dedicated to research on methodologies and assessments of nutrition-related public health, while taking into account contextual factors (ethical, legal, social, organizational, economic, ...) in order to generate meaningful outcomes for establishing evidence-based health policies. This Research Topic aims to elaborate on some of the potential hurdles which have to be overcome for the sake of sustainable healthcare provisions anywhere in the world, such as shortcomings in methodological approaches, regulatory frameworks, gaps between evidence, its hierarchy and final recommendations for public health management.

Neonatal Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects

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ISBN: 9783039210480 / 9783039210497 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-049-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs) are potentially life-threatening malformations that remain a significant cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Failure to diagnose these conditions shortly after birth may result in acute cardiovascular collapse and death. The identification of CCHDs by routine newborn clinical examination is routine in many countries, but consistently misses over a third of cases, and, although antenatal ultrasound screening can be very effective in early diagnosis, the provision and accuracy of ultrasound screening is highly variable. As most CCHDs present with mild cyanosis (hypoxaemia), which is frequently clinically undetectable, pulse oximetry is a rapid, simple, painless method of accurately identifying hypoxaemia, which has gained popularity as a screen for CCHD. This Special Issue of the International Journal of Neonatal Screening, devoted to ""Neonatal Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects (CCHDs)"", will consider the evidence for CCHD screening with pulse oximetry, the acceptability and cost-effectiveness of this intervention, the additional non-cardiac conditions which it may also identify, and international experiences of introducing CCHD screening across the globe.

Multiscale and Innovative Kinetic Approaches in Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211791 / 9783039211807 Year: Pages: 214 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-180-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Kinetics and reactor modeling for heterogeneous catalytic reactions are prominent tools for investigating and understanding catalyst functionalities at nanoscale and the related rates of complex reaction networks. This book illustrates some examples related to the transformation of simple to more complex feedstocks, including different types of reactor designs, i.e., steady-state, transient plug flow reactors, and TAP reactors for which there is sometimes a strong gap in the operating conditions from ultra-high-vacuum to high-pressure conditions. In conjunction, new methodologies have emerged, giving rise to more robust microkinetics models. As exemplified, they include the kinetics and the dynamics of the reactors and span a large range of length and time scales. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide contributions that can illustrate recent advances and novel methodologies for elucidating the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions and the necessary multiscale approach for optimizing the reactor design. This book is dedicated to postgraduate and scientific researchers, and experts in heterogeneous catalysis. It may also serve as a source of original information for the elaboration of lessons on catalysis for Master students.

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