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Ontogeny and Phylogeny of Brain Barrier Mechanisms

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198108 Year: Pages: 358 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-810-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The brain functions within an internal environment that is determined and controlled by morphological structures and cellular mechanisms present at interfaces between the brain and the rest of the body. In vertebrates these interfaces are across cerebral blood vessels (blood-brain barrier) choroid plexuses (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) and pia-arachnoid. There is a CSF-brain barrier in the neuroepithelium lining the ventricular system that is only present in embryos. There is now substantial evidence that many brain barrier mechanisms develop early and that in some cases they are functionally more active and even more specialized compared to adult barriers. Therefore barriers in developing brain should be viewed as adapted appropriately for the growing brain and not, as is still widely believed, immature. Considerable advances in our understanding of these barrier mechanisms have come from studies of the developing brain and invertebrates. A striking aspect, to be highlighted in this special edition, is that many of the molecular mechanisms in these very diverse species are similar despite differences in the cellular composition of the interfaces. This Frontiers Topic comprises articles in three sections: Original studies, Reviews and Myths & Misconceptions. Original articles provide new information on molecular and cellular barrier mechanisms in developing brains of primates, including human embryos (Brøchner et al., Ek et al., Errede et al.), rodents (Bauer et al., Liddelow, Strazielle & Ghersi-Egea, Saunders et al., Whish et al.), chick (Bueno et al.) and zebrafish (Henson et al.) as well as studies in drosophila (Hindle & Bainton, De Salvo et al., Limmer et al.). The Reviews section includes evolutionary perspectives of the blood-brain and blood-CSF barriers (Bueno et al., Bill & Korzh). There are also detailed reviews of the current state of understanding of different interfaces and their functional mechanisms in developing brain (Bauer et al., Strazielle & Gjersi-Egea, Liddelow, Richardson et al., Errede et al., Henson et al., Brøchner et al.) and in invertebrates (Hindle & Bainton, De Salvo et al., Limmer et al). Different aspects of the relationship between properties of the internal environment of the brain and its development are discussed. (Stolp & Molnar, Johansson, Prasongchean et al.). A neglected area, namely barriers over the surface of the brain during development is also covered (Brøchner et al.). Clinically related perspectives on barrier disruption in neonatal stroke are provided by Kratzer et al. and other aspects of dysfunction by Morretti et al. and by Palmeta et al. on the continuing problem of bilirubin toxicity. Progress in this field is hampered by many prevailing myths about barrier function, combined with methodologies that are not always appropriately selected or interpreted. These are covered in the Misconceptions, Myths and Methods section, including historical aspects and discussion of the paracellular pathway, a central dogma of epithelial and endothelial biology (Saunders et al.) and a review of markers used to define brain barrier integrity in development and in pathological conditions (Saunders et al.). Use of inappropriate markers has caused considerable confusion and unreliable interpretation in many published studies. Torbett et al. deal with the complexities of the new field of applying proteomics to understanding blood-brain barrier properties as do Huntley at al. with respect to applying modern high throughput gene expression methods (Huntley et al.). The Editorial summarizes the contributions from all authors. This includes mention of some the main unanswered but answerable questions in the field and what the impediments to progress may be.

Bad Bugs in the XXIst Century: Resistance Mediated by Multi-Drug Efflux Pumps in Gram-Negative Bacteria

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199310 Year: Pages: 193 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-931-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The discovery of antibiotics represented a key milestone in the history of medicine. However, with the rise of these life-saving drugs came the awareness that bacteria deploy defence mechanisms to resist these antibiotics, and they are good at it. Today, we appear at a crossroads between discovery of new potent drugs and omni-resistant superbugs. Moreover, the misuse of antibiotics in different industries has increased the rate of resistance development by providing permanent selective pressure and, subsequently, enrichment of multidrug resistant pathogens. As a result, antimicrobial resistance has now become an urgent threat to public health worldwide (http://www.who.int/drugresistance/documents/surveillancereport/en/). The development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in an increasing number of pathogens, including Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Burkholderia, and other Gram-negative bacteria is a most severe issue. Membrane efflux pump complexes of the Resistance-Nodulation-cell Division (RND) superfamily play a key role in the development of MDR in these bacteria. RND pumps, together with other transporters, contribute to intrinsic and acquired resistance to most, if not all, of the antimicrobial compounds available in our drug arsenal. Given the enormous drug polyspecificity of MDR efflux pumps, studies on their mechanism of action are extremely challenging, and this has negatively impacted both the development of new antibiotics that are able to evade these efflux pumps as well as the design of pump inhibitors. The collection of articles in this eBook, published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy, aims to update the reader about the latest advances on the structure and function of RND efflux transporters, their roles in the overall multidrug resistance phenotype of Gram-negative pathogens, and on strategies to inhibit their activities. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms by which RND efflux pumps, alone or synergistically with other efflux pumps, are able to limit the concentration of antimicrobial compounds inside the bacterial cell, may pave the way for new, more directed, inhibitor and antibiotic design to ultimately overcome antimicrobial resistance by Gram-negatives.

Mechanisms of Adiponectin Action

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ISBN: 9783039212453 9783039212460 Year: Pages: 222 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-246-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The adipokine adiponectin is very concentrated in plasma, and decreased levels of adiponectin are associated with pathological conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome. When produced in its full-length form, adiponectin self-associates to generate multimeric complexes. The full-length form of adiponectin can be cleaved by the globular form of elastase that is produced locally, and the resulting biological effects are exerted in a paracrine or autocrine manner. The different forms of adiponectin bind to specific receptors consisting of two G-protein-independent, seven-transmembrane-spanning receptors, called AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, while T-cadherin has been identified as a potential receptor for high molecular weight complexes of adiponectin. Adiponectin exerts a key role in cellular metabolism, regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown. However, its biological effects are heterogeneous, involving multiple target tissues. The Special Issue “Mechanisms of Adiponectin Action” highlights the pleiotropic role of this hormone through 3 research articles and 7 reviews. These papers focus on the recent knowledge regarding adiponectin in different target tissues, both in healthy and in diseased conditions.

Microbial Biofilms in Healthcare: Formation, Prevention and Treatment

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ISBN: 9783039284108 9783039284115 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-411-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Biofilms are ubiquitous and their presence in industry can lead to production losses. However, nowhere do biofilms impact human health and welfare as much as those that are found contaminating the healthcare environment, surgical instruments, equipment, and medical implantable devices. Approximately 70% of healthcare-associated infections are due to biofilm formation, resulting in increased patient morbidity and mortality. Biofilms formed on medical implants are recalcitrant to antibiotic treatment, which leaves implant removal as the principal treatment option. In this book, we investigate the role of biofilms in breast and dental implant disease and cancer. We include in vitro models for investigating treatment of chronic wounds and disinfectant action against Candida sp. Also included are papers on the most recent strategies for treating biofilm infection ranging from antibiotics incorporated into bone void fillers to antimicrobial peptides and quorum sensing.

The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior

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ISBN: 9783038978121 9783038978138 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-813-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-13 09:19:27
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Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on beverages and ingestive behavior. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of beverage consumption and post-ingestive consequences. There continues to be much controversy surrounding the influence of beverage choice on health outcomes. Research investigating the impact of beverage choice has on human health and post-ingestive consequences continue to grow. We know from the growing body of literature that beverage choice has a substantial impact on metabolism, food reinforcement and eating behaviors.

Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with Focus on Systemic Inflammation

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ISBN: 9783039282142 9783039282159 Year: Pages: 248 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-215-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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With cardiometabolic diseases still topping the list of mortality causes and in facing the obesity and diabetes epidemic, there remains a great need to better understand the pathophysiological derangements underlying these conditions. During the past years, it has become increasingly appreciated that low grade systemic inflammation is a common hallmark of cardiometabolic disorders—not only concerning diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease but also involving non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Recently developed high-throughput laboratory techniques for lipidomics and metabolomics have enabled researchers to discern novel crosstalk pathways between lipid phenotypes and enhanced chronic inflammation. With this Special Issue of the Journal of Clinical Medicine, entitled “Novel Aspects of Lipoprotein Metabolism with a Focus on Systemic Inflammation”, researchers were invited to submit original papers and reviews on various topics, in particular, at the interface of lipid metabolism and inflammation.

Keywords

carbamoylation --- chronic kidney disease --- lipoproteins --- infrared spectroscopy --- Breast cancer --- cholesterol --- 27-hydroxycholesterol --- HDL --- LDL --- cholesterol-lowering therapies --- biomarker --- anti-apolipoprotein A-1 antibodies --- renal transplant recipient --- HDL function --- prognosis --- cholesterol --- acute coronary syndrome --- biomarkers --- anti-apolipoprotein A-I autoantibodies --- GRACE score --- C-statistics --- adipose tissue --- ANGPTL3 --- ANGPTL4 --- ANGPTL8 --- lipid metabolism --- cholesterol efflux capacity --- coronary artery calcium score --- obesity --- anti-apoA-1 IgG --- autoantibodies --- cardiovascular disease --- C-reactive protein --- HDL --- paraoxonase-1 --- cardiovascular disease --- myocardial infarction --- diabetic cardiomyopathy --- cytokines --- interleukin 1? --- inflammation --- CANTOS --- canakinumab --- retinol binding protein 4 --- retinol --- lipoprotein subfractions --- large VLDL --- small LDL --- Type 2 diabetes mellitus --- metabolic syndrome --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- betaine --- trimethylamine N-oxide related metabolites --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- anti-apolipoprotein A-1 IgG --- familial hypercholesterolemia --- cholesterol homeostasis --- foam cells --- miR-33a --- TLR2/4 --- passive diffusion --- microvesicles --- inflammation --- lipoproteins --- LDL cholesterol --- microparticles --- cardiovascular disease --- platelets --- endothelial cells --- leukocytes --- atherothrombosis --- HDL --- lipids --- inflammation --- atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) --- cardiovascular events --- GlycA --- non-alcoholic fatty liver --- sodium intake --- insulin resistance --- fatty liver index --- hepatic steatosis index --- HOMA-IR --- gut microbiota --- lipoprotein metabolism --- metabolic disorder --- adiponectin --- free thiols --- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- phospholipid transfer protein activity --- triglycerides --- type 2 diabetes mellitus --- large very low density lipoproteins --- ANGPTL8 --- visceral adipose tissue (VAT) --- obesity --- endothelial cells

Molecular Computing and Bioinformatics

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ISBN: 9783039211951 9783039211968 Year: Pages: 390 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-196-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This text will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in the area of molecular computing and bioinformatics. Molecular computing and bioinformatics have a close relationship, paying attention to the same object but working towards different orientations. The articles will range from topics such as DNA computing and membrane computing to specific biomedical applications, including drug R&D and disease analysis.

Keywords

prostate cancer --- Mycoplasma hominis --- endoplasmic reticulum --- systems biology --- protein targeting --- biomedical text mining --- big data --- Tianhe-2 --- parallel computing --- load balancing --- bacterial computing --- bacteria and plasmid system --- Turing universality --- recursively enumerable function --- miRNA biogenesis --- structural patterns --- DCL1 --- protein–protein interaction (PPI) --- clustering --- protein complex --- penalized matrix decomposition --- avian influenza virus --- interspecies transmission --- amino acid mutation --- machine learning --- Bayesian causal model --- causal direction learning --- K2 --- brain storm optimization --- line graph --- Cartesian product graph --- join graph --- atom-bond connectivity index --- geometric arithmetic index --- P-glycoprotein --- efflux ratio --- in silico --- machine learning --- hierarchical support vector regression --- absorption --- distribution --- metabolism --- excretion --- toxicity --- image encryption --- chaotic map --- DNA coding --- Hamming distance --- Stenotrophomonas maltophilia --- iron acquisition systems --- iron-depleted --- RAST server --- NanoString Technologies --- siderophores --- gene fusion data --- gene susceptibility prioritization --- evaluating driver partner --- gene networks --- drug-target interaction prediction --- machine learning --- drug discovery --- microRNA --- environmental factor --- structure information --- similarity network --- bioinformatics --- identification of Chinese herbal medicines --- biochip technology --- DNA barcoding technology --- DNA strand displacement --- cascade --- 8-bit adder/subtractor --- domain label --- Alzheimer’s disease --- gene coding protein --- sequence information --- support vector machine --- classification --- adverse drug reaction prediction --- heterogeneous information network embedding --- stacking denoising auto-encoder --- meta-path-based proximity --- Panax ginseng --- oligopeptide transporter --- flowering plant --- phylogeny --- transcription factor --- multiple interaction networks --- function prediction --- multinetwork integration --- low-dimensional representation --- dihydrouridine --- nucleotide physicochemical property --- pseudo dinucleotide composition --- RNA secondary structure --- ensemble classifier --- diabetes mellitus --- hypoxia-inducible factor-1? --- angiogenesis --- bone formation --- osteogenesis --- protein transduction domain --- membrane computing --- edge detection --- enzymatic numerical P system --- resolution free --- molecular computing --- molecular learning --- DNA computing --- self-organizing systems --- pattern classification --- machine learning --- laccase --- Brassica napus --- lignification --- stress --- molecular computing --- bioinformatics --- machine learning --- protein --- DNA --- RNA --- drug --- bio-inspired

Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field

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ISBN: 9783039218486 9783039218493 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-849-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Development of strategies to assist the movement of poorly permeable molecules across biological barriers has long been the goal of drug delivery science. In the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in advanced drug delivery systems that aim to address this issue. However, most proprietary delivery technologies that have progressed to clinical development are based on permeation enhancers (PEs) that have a history of safe use in man. This Special Issue entitled “Transmucosal Absorption Enhancers in the Drug Delivery Field” aims to present the current state-of-the-art in the application of PEs to improve drug absorption. Emphasis is placed on identification of novel permeation enhancers, mechanisms of barrier alteration, physicochemical properties of PEs that contribute to optimal enhancement action, new delivery models to assess PEs, studies assessing safety of PEs, approaches to assist translation of PEs into effective oral, nasal, ocular and vaginal dosage forms and combining PEs with other delivery strategies.

Keywords

absorption enhancers --- sugar-based surfactants --- biocompatibility studies --- transmucosal drug delivery --- intestinal permeation enhancers --- sodium cholate (NaC) --- N-dodecyl-?-D-maltoside (DDM) --- small intestine --- enterocyte --- brush border --- tryptophan --- oral delivery --- insulin --- GLP-1 --- intestinal absorption --- amino acid --- cell-penetrating peptide --- combined microsphere --- chitosan --- cyclodextrin --- nasal delivery --- nose to brain transport --- penetration enhancer --- nasal formulation --- in vivo studies --- nose to brain delivery --- antiepileptic drug --- drug delivery --- block copolymers --- thermogel system --- chitosan derivatives --- amphiphilic polymers --- polymeric micelles --- quaternization --- curcumin --- intestinal delivery --- mucoadhesiveness --- cervicovaginal tumors --- cationic functionalization --- imatinib --- nanocrystals --- in situ hydrogel --- bioenhancer --- cytochrome P450 --- drug absorption enhancer --- efflux --- metabolism --- P-glycoprotein --- pharmacokinetic interaction --- tight junction --- Aloe vera --- gel --- whole leaf --- absorption enhancement --- Caco-2 --- confocal laser scanning microscopy --- F-actin --- FITC-dextran --- tight junctions --- transepithelial electrical resistance --- permeation enhancer --- oral delivery --- formulation --- permeability --- safety --- simulated intestinal fluid --- hydrophobization --- epithelium --- compound 48/80 --- chitosan --- nanoparticles --- mast cell activator --- vaccine adjuvant --- nasal vaccination --- absorption enhancer --- antimicrobial peptide --- Caco-2 --- claudin --- cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) --- drug delivery --- intestinal epithelial cells --- KLAL --- PN159 --- tight junction modulator --- oral macromolecule delivery --- oral peptides --- sodium caprate --- salcaprozate sodium --- epithelial permeability --- epithelial transport --- nasal permeability --- nose-to-brain --- simvastatin --- nanocapsules --- mucoadhesion --- CNS disorders --- chitosan --- nasal --- pulmonary --- drug administration --- absorption enhancers --- nanoparticle --- and liposome --- absorption enhancer --- gemini surfactant --- intestinal absorption --- poorly absorbed drug --- Caco-2 cells --- PTH 1-34 --- teriparatide --- nasal delivery --- pharmacokinetics --- osteoporosis --- man --- sheep --- clinical trial --- preclinical --- Caco-2 --- intestinal absorption --- nanomedicine --- nanoparticle --- oral delivery --- transferrin --- ocular drug delivery --- cornea --- penetration enhancers --- ocular conditions --- ophthalmology --- permeation enhancers --- absorption modifying excipients --- oral delivery --- nasal delivery --- ocular delivery --- vaginal delivery --- transmucosal permeation

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