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Biosignal processing and computational methods to enhance sensory motor neuroprosthetics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197187 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-718-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Though there have been many developments in sensory/motor prosthetics, they have not yet reached the level of standard and worldwide use like pacemakers and cochlear implants. One challenging issue in motor prosthetics is the large variety of patient situations, which depending on the type of neurological disorder. To improve neuroprosthetic performance beyond the current limited use of such systems, robust bio-signal processing and model-based control involving actual sensory motor state (with biosignal feedback) would bring about new modalities and applications, and could be a breakthrough toward adaptive neuroprosthetics. Recent advances of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) now enable patients to transmit their intention of movement. However, the functionality and controllability of motor prosthetics itself can be further improved to take advantage of BCI interfaces. In this Research Topic we welcome contribution of original research articles, computational and experimental studies, review articles, and methodological advances related to biosignal processing that may enhance the functionality of sensory motor neuroprosthetics. The scope of this topic includes, but is not limited to, studies aimed at enhancing: 1) computational biosignal processing in EMG (Electromyography), EEG (Electroencephalography), and other modalities of biofeedback information;2) the computational method in modeling and control of sensory motor neuroprosthetics;3) the systematic functionality aiming to provide solutions for specific pathological movement disorders;4) human interfaces such as BCI - but in the case of BCI study, manuscripts should be experimental studies which are applied to sensory/motor neuroprosthetics in patients with motor disabilities.

The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker for and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452613 Year: Pages: 169 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-261-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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The sensory and motor cortical homunculi proposed by Walter Penfield were a major landmark for the anatomical mapping of the brain. More than 60 years after, the development of new tools to investigate brain function non-invasively has increased our knowledge about the structure and functions of the primary motor Cortex (M1) beyond motor control in both humans and animals. This book highlights the role of the motor cortex that goes way beyond motor functioning. We were interested in both theoretical and empirical contributions related to electrophysiological, pharmacological, neuroimaging, and neuromodulatory studies exploring the role of M1 on non-motor functions, such as pain, abnormal neuroplasticity that may lead to chronic pain conditions; or the relationship between M1 and mental imagery or emotion. This book is comprised of 15 articles published in this edited volume as a research topic collection in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience titled “The Role of Primary Motor Cortex as a Marker and Modulator of Pain Control and Emotional-Affective Processing.”

Sleep Spindles: Breaking the Methodological Wall

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451166 Year: Pages: 228 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-116-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In the last decade, sleep spindles have attracted steadily increasing attention. This interest is motivated by the many intriguing relationships between spindles and various diseases (e.g., schizophrenia, Parkinson, Alzheimer, autism, mental retardation), recovery processes (e.g., post brain stroke), and cognitive faculties (e.g., memory consolidation, intelligence, dream recall, sleep preservation). Nonetheless, a methodological wall has impeded the study of sleep spindles. Their investigation rests heavily on our ability to reliably and consistently identify spindle patterns from background EEG activity, a task involving many obstacles, including: a fuzzy definition of spindles, low inter-expert agreement on their scoring, lack of consensus on standard techniques for their automated detection, low reproducibility of observed characteristics and correlates, unavailability of large, standardized, high-quality databases, and inconsistencies in the methods used to evaluate the performance of automated detectors. The primary aims of this research topic were to bring together world-class researchers on a project designed to facilitate exchanges on methodological difficulties encountered in assessing sleep spindles and to promote standardized spindle-related resources. In preparing their contributions, authors were encouraged to use existing – or to propose new – publicly available resources for assessing sleep spindles. To allow fair and accurate comparison of reported results, the authors were also encouraged to validate their tools on a common benchmark. A database containing expert spindle scoring (i.e., the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies) was made publicly available for that purpose.

Bridging the gap before and after birth: Methods and technologies to explore the functional neural development in humans

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196876 Year: Pages: 114 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-687-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Infant brain damage is a serious condition that affects millions of babies each year. The period from late gestation to the first year of life is the most critical one for the development of central and autonomous nervous systems. Medical conditions such as preterm birth may compromise brain function and the end result usually is that the baby may experience long-term neurological problems related to a wide range of psychological, physical and functional complications, with consequent life-long burdens for the individuals and their families, and a high socio-economic impact for the health care system and the whole of society. During the last years, several techniques have been employed to monitor the brain functional development in utero and after birth. As well, various analytical methods have been used to understand the functional maturation of the brain and the autonomous nervous system. However, in spite of the rapid improvement of diagnostic methods and procedures, there is still a widely recognized, severe shortage of clinically viable means for the high quality monitoring of the brain function in early life with a direct relevance to acute neurological illness and future neurocognitive outcomes. The studies collected in this e-book document the most recent advancements in monitoring systems, analytical methods and clinical diagnostic procedures that contribute to increase our knowledge of the functional development of the human brain and autonomous nervous system during pregnancy and after birth, with the ultimate goal of reducing fetal impairment and improving healthcare in the neonatal and infant period.

Brain-Computer Interfaces for Human Augmentation

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ISBN: 9783039219063 / 9783039219070 Year: Pages: 128 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-907-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The field of Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs) has grown rapidly in the last few decades, allowing the development of faster and more reliable assistive technologies based on direct links between the brain and an external device. Novel applications of BCIs have also been proposed, especially in the area of human augmentation, i.e., enabling people to go beyond human limitations in sensory, cognitive and motor tasks. Brain-imaging techniques, such as electroencephalography, have been used to extract neural correlates of various brain processes and transform them, via machine learning, into commands for external devices. Brain stimulation technology has allowed to trigger the activation of specific brain areas to enhance the cognitive processes associated to the task at hand, hence improving performance. BCIs have therefore extended their scope from assistive technologies for people with disabilities to neuro-tools for human enhancement. This Special Issue aims at showing the recent advances in BCIs for human augmentation, highlighting new results on both traditional and novel applications. These include, but are not limited to, control of external devices, communication, cognitive enhancement, decision making and entertainment.

Diet in Brain Health and Neurological Disorders: Risk Factors and Treatments

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ISBN: 9783039216505 / 9783039216512 Year: Pages: 68 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-651-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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The role of nutrition in health and disease has been appreciated from time immemorial. Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates wrote “Let food by thy medicine and medicine be thy food.” In the 12th century, the great philosopher and physician Moses Maimonides wrote “any disease that can be treated by diet should be treated by no other means.” Now, in the 21st century, we are bombarded by claims in the media of “superfoods,” wondrous nutritional supplements, and special diets that promise to cure or prevent disease, improve health and restore functioning. Much of the focus has been on neurological disease, brain health and psychological functioning (behavior, cognition, and emotion). The hyperbole aside, there has been considerable progress in the past decade in our understanding of the contribution of specific nutrients and dietary patterns to brain development, physiology, and functioning. This Special Issue of Brain Sciences is devoted to the latest research on the role of nutritional deficiencies and excesses in the genesis of brain dysfunction, and use of diet for the prevention and treatment of brain and mental disorders. Basic laboratory and clinical research studies of the immature, adult, and aged nervous system are all welcome.

The Impact of Beverages on Ingestive Behavior

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ISBN: 9783038978121 9783038978138 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-813-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-05-13 09:19:27
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Nutrients is planning a Special Issue focusing on beverages and ingestive behavior. This Special Issue will focus on research related to all aspects of beverage consumption and post-ingestive consequences. There continues to be much controversy surrounding the influence of beverage choice on health outcomes. Research investigating the impact of beverage choice has on human health and post-ingestive consequences continue to grow. We know from the growing body of literature that beverage choice has a substantial impact on metabolism, food reinforcement and eating behaviors.

Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry

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ISBN: 9783038979388 / 9783038979395 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-939-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sleep-related symptoms are common in the majority of psychiatric diagnostic categories. The overlap of sleep and psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated in numerous studies. The understanding of sleep and child psychiatry has progressively evolved in the last decade and newer insights have developed regarding the complex interaction between sleep and psychopathology. This collection of articles represents updates on sleep and psychiatric disorders with medical and neurological co-morbidities in children and adolescents.

Entropy Measures for Data Analysis: Theory, Algorithms and Applications

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ISBN: 9783039280322 / 9783039280339 Year: Pages: 260 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-033-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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Entropies and entropy-like quantities play an increasing role in modern non-linear data analysis. Fields that benefit from this application range from biosignal analysis to econophysics and engineering. This issue is a collection of papers touching on different aspects of entropy measures in data analysis, as well as theoretical and computational analyses. The relevant topics include the difficulty to achieve adequate application of entropy measures and the acceptable parameter choices for those entropy measures, entropy-based coupling, and similarity analysis, along with the utilization of entropy measures as features in automatic learning and classification. Various real data applications are given.

Keywords

experiment of design --- empirical mode decomposition --- signal analysis --- similarity indices --- synchronization analysis --- auditory attention --- entropy measure --- linear discriminant analysis (LDA) --- support vector machine (SVM) --- auditory attention classifier --- electroencephalography (EEG) --- vague entropy --- distance induced vague entropy --- distance --- complex fuzzy set --- complex vague soft set --- entropy, entropy visualization --- entropy balance equation --- Shannon-type relations --- multivariate analysis --- machine learning evaluation --- data transformation --- sample entropy --- treadmill walking --- center of pressure displacement --- dual-tasking --- analog circuit --- fault diagnosis --- cross wavelet transform --- Tsallis entropy --- parametric t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding --- support vector machine --- information transfer --- Chinese stock sectors --- effective transfer entropy --- market crash --- system coupling --- cross-visibility graphs --- image entropy --- geodesic distance --- Dempster-Shafer evidence theory --- uncertainty of basic probability assignment --- belief entropy --- plausibility transformation --- weighted Hartley entropy --- Shannon entropy --- learning --- information --- novelty detection --- non-probabilistic entropy --- learning systems --- permutation entropy --- embedded dimension --- short time records --- signal classification --- relevance analysis --- global optimization --- meta-heuristic --- firefly algorithm --- cross-entropy method --- co-evolution --- symbolic analysis --- ordinal patterns --- Permutation entropy --- conditional entropy of ordinal patterns --- Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy --- algorithmic complexity --- information entropy --- particle size distribution --- selfsimilar measure --- simulation --- data analysis --- entropy --- entropy measures --- automatic learning

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