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Evolvability, Environments, Embodiment & Emergence in Robotics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456222 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-622-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Embodied and evolving systems — biological or robotic — are interacting networks of structure, function, information, and behavior. Understanding these complex systems is the goal of the research presented in this book. We address different questions and hypotheses about four essential topics in complex systems: evolvability, environments, embodiment, and emergence. Using a variety of approaches, we provide different perspectives on an overarching, unifying question: How can embodied and evolutionary robotics illuminate (1) principles underlying biological evolving systems and (2) general analytical frameworks for studying embodied evolving systems? The answer — model biological processes to operate, develop, and evolve situated, embodied robots.

Modelling and Simulation of Electrical Energy Systems through a Complex Systems Approach using Agent-Based Models

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ISBN: 9783866449466 Year: Pages: XIV, 181 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000031133 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Complexity science aims to better understand the processes of both natural and man-made systems which are composed of many interacting entities at different scales. A disaggregated approach is proposed for simulating electricity systems, by using agent-based models coupled to continuous ones. The approach can help in acquiring a better understanding of the operation of the system itself, e.g. on emergent phenomena or scale effects; as well as in the improvement and design of future smart grids.

Mythocritique : Théorie et parcours

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ISBN: 9782377471164 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.ugaeditions.6426 Language: French
Publisher: UGA Éditions
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:45
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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La mythocritique n'a jamais constitué une école critique. Il s'agit plutôt d'une tendance diffuse dont les origines sont lointaines et qui a trouvé force dans l'entourage de Gilbert Durand. Elle s'est étendue au début du xxie siècle, tant en France qu'à l'étranger, en particulier en Espagne et en Italie. Pierre Brunel, qui a longtemps travaillé et fait travailler sur Mythe et littérature, a voulu rassembler quelques éléments théoriques et rechercher la présence du mythe chez quelques auteurs et dans un certain nombre de textes. Il l'a fait sans esprit de système et avec une volonté d'ouverture, la théorie devant toujours, pour lui, s'effacer devant le texte.

L’espace public

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ISBN: 9782858925322 Year: DOI: 10.4000/books.msha.9991 Language: French
Publisher: Maison des Sciences de l’Homme d’Aquitaine
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:39
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Dans son acception classique, dite républicaine, l'espace public traverse une crise dont beaucoup pensent qu'il ne s'en remettra pas. Menacé aussi dans ses manifestations matérielles par la violence, l'Insécurité et les divers communautarismes ou replis sur soi, l'espace public ne semble plus pouvoir répondre aux attentes dont il avait fait l'objet par l'intermédiaire de l'aménagement. Cet ouvrage prend le contre-pied de ces Interprétations, en montrant que, loin d'avoir perdu de sa pertinence, la préoccupation pour l'espace public demeure essentielle pour affronter les défis posés par la société contemporaine, dans la mesure où la réflexion est constamment ramenée à la spatialité qui en fonde l'Intérêt et la portée. Une approche renouvelée de l'espace public est Ici proposée, qui se déploie en associant étroitement trois composantes : la matérialité, la politique, l'action, car nos analyses ne peuvent plus faire l'économie de les considérer séparément. Sa mise à l'épreuve de grands enjeux contemporains montre que l'on peut parler tout autant de régressions que d'émergences.

Towards an embodied science of intersubjectivity: Widening the scope of social understanding research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195299 Year: Pages: 413 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-529-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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An important amount of research effort in psychology and neuroscience over the past decades has focused on the problem of social cognition. This problem is understood as how we figure out other minds, relying only on indirect manifestations of other people's intentional states, which are assumed to be hidden, private and internal. Research on this question has mostly investigated how individual cognitive mechanisms achieve this task. A shift in the internalist assumptions regarding intentional states has expanded the research focus with hypotheses that explore the role of interactive phenomena and interpersonal histories and their implications for understanding individual cognitive processes. This interactive expansion of the conceptual and methodological toolkit for investigating social cognition, we now propose, can be followed by an expansion into wider and deeply-related research questions, beyond (but including) that of social cognition narrowly construed. Our social lives are populated by different kinds of cognitive and affective phenomena that are related to but not exhausted by the question of how we figure out other minds. These phenomena include acting and perceiving together, verbal and non-verbal engagement, experiences of (dis-)connection, management of relations in a group, joint meaning-making, intimacy, trust, conflict, negotiation, asymmetric relations, material mediation of social interaction, collective action, contextual engagement with socio-cultural norms, structures and roles, etc. These phenomena are often characterized by a strong participation by the cognitive agent in contrast with the spectatorial stance typical of social cognition research. We use the broader notion of embodied intersubjectivity to refer to this wider set of phenomena. This Research Topic aims to investigate relations between these different issues, to help lay strong foundations for a science of intersubjectivity – the social mind writ large. To contribute to this goal, we encouraged contributions in psychology, neuroscience, psychopathology, philosophy, and cognitive science that address this wider scope of intersubjectivity by extending the range of explanatory factors from purely individual to interactive, from observational to participatory.

Second Generation General System Theory: Perspectives in Philosophy and Approaches in Complex Systems

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783038424413 9783038424406 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-29 11:01:38
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Following the classical work of Norbert Wiener, Ross Ashby, Ludwig von Bertalanffy and many others, the concept of System has been elaborated in different disciplinary fields, allowing interdisciplinary approaches in areas such as Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Cognitive Science, Economics, Engineering, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Medicine, Artificial Intelligence, and Philosophy. The new challenge of Complexity and Emergence has made the concept of System even more relevant to the study of problems with high contextuality. This Special Issue focuses on the nature of new problems arising from the study and modelling of complexity, their eventual common aspects, properties and approaches—already partially considered by different disciplines—as well as focusing on new, possibly unitary, theoretical frameworks. This Special Issue aims to introduce fresh impetus into systems research when the possible detection and correction of mistakes require the development of new knowledge. This book contains contributions presenting new approaches and results, problems and proposals. The context is an interdisciplinary framework dealing, in order, with electronic engineering problems; the problem of the observer; transdisciplinarity; problems of organised complexity; theoretical incompleteness; design of digital systems in a user-centred way; reaction networks as a framework for systems modelling; emergence of a stable system in reaction networks; emergence at the fundamental systems level; behavioural realization of memoryless functions.

Projection-Based Clustering through Self-Organization and Swarm Intelligence: Combining Cluster Analysis with the Visualization of High-Dimensional Data

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ISBN: 9783658205393 9783658205409 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-20540-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature Grant: Philipps-Universität Marburg
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 15:12:23
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This book covers aspects of unsupervised machine learning used for knowledge discovery in data science and introduces a data-driven approach to cluster analysis, the Databionic swarm (DBS). DBS consists of the 3D landscape visualization and clustering of data. The 3D landscape enables 3D printing of high-dimensional data structures.The clustering and number of clusters or an absence of cluster structure are verified by the 3D landscape at a glance. DBS is the first swarm-based technique that shows emergent properties while exploiting concepts of swarm intelligence, self-organization and the Nash equilibrium concept from game theory. It results in the elimination of a global objective function and the setting of parameters. By downloading the R package DBS can be applied to data drawn from diverse research fields and used even by non-professionals in the field of data mining.

Script Effects as the Hidden Drive of the Mind, Cognition, and Culture

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Book Series: Literacy Studies ISBN: 9783030551520 Year: Pages: 251 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-55152-0 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Nature
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-19 00:19:36
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This open access volume reveals the hidden power of the script we read in and how it shapes and drives our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures. Expanding on the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (i.e., the idea that language affects the way we think), this volume proposes the “Script Relativity Hypothesis” (i.e., the idea that the script in which we read affects the way we think) by offering a unique perspective on the effect of script (alphabets, morphosyllabaries, or multi-scripts) on our attention, perception, and problem-solving. Once we become literate, fundamental changes occur in our brain circuitry to accommodate the new demand for resources. The powerful effects of literacy have been demonstrated by research on literate versus illiterate individuals, as well as cross-scriptal transfer, indicating that literate brain networks function differently, depending on the script being read. This book identifies the locus of differences between the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, and between the East and the West, as the neural underpinnings of literacy. To support the “Script Relativity Hypothesis”, it reviews a vast corpus of empirical studies, including anthropological accounts of human civilization, social psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, applied linguistics, second language studies, and cross-cultural communication. It also discusses the impact of reading from screens in the digital age, as well as the impact of bi-script or multi-script use, which is a growing trend around the globe. As a result, our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures are now growing closer together, not farther apart. ; Examines the origin, emergence, and co-evolution of written language, the human mind, and culture within the purview of script effects Investigates how the scripts we read over time shape our cognition, mind, and thought patterns Provides a new outlook on the four representative writing systems of the world Discusses the consequences of literacy for the functioning of the mind

New Directions in Dental Anthropology: Paradigms, methodologies and outcomes

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9780987171870 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.1017/9780987171870 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-14 07:35:12
License: University of Adelaide Press

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This book contains papers arising from a symposium held during a combined meeting of The International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES), The Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) and The Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand at the University of Western Australia from July 5-8th, 2011. It follows on from a recently published Special Issue Supplement of Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 54, December 2009 that contains papers from an International Workshop on Oral Growth and Development held in Liverpool in 2007 and edited by Professor Alan Brook. Together, these two publications provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to study dental development and variation, and open up opportunities for future collaborative research initiatives, a key aim of the International Collaborating Network in Oro-facial Genetics and Development that was founded in Liverpool in 2007. The aim of the symposium held at The University of Western Australia in 2011 was to emphasise some of the powerful new strategies offered by the science of dental anthropology to elucidate the historical lineage of human groups and also to reconstruct environmental factors that have acted on the teeth by analysing dental morphological features. In recent years, migration, as well as increases and decreases in the size of different human populations, have been evident as a result of globalisation. Dental features are also changing associated with changes in nutritional status, different economic or social circumstances, and intermarriage between peoples. Dental anthropological studies have explored these changes with the use of advanced techniques and refined methodologies. New paradigms are also evolving in the field of dental anthropology. When considered together with the recent special issue of Archives of Oral Biology that highlighted the importance of research approaches focused at both the molecular and phenotypic levels, it is clear that we have now reached a very exciting stage in our ability to address key questions and issues about the normal and abnormal development of the dentition, as well as the diseases that commonly affect our teeth and gums.

Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Aging and Diseases of Aging

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ISBN: 9783039213276 9783039213283 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-328-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This collection of review articles authored by international experts pulls together current information about the role of mitochondria in aging and diseases of aging. Mitochondria are vitally important cellular organelles and undergo their own aging process becoming less efficient in aged animals including humans. These changes have wide-ranging significance contributing to immune dysfunction (autoimmunity and immune deficiency), inflammation, delayed healing, skin and retinal damage, cancer and most of the degenerative diseases of aging. Mitochondrial aging predisposes to drug toxicity in the geriatric population and to many of the features of normal aging. The research detailed in this book summarizes current understanding of the role of mitochondria in the complex molecular changes of aging, moving on to specific diseases of aging. Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important target for development of treatments for aging and disease. The last article details how exercise is a treatment and combats many features of the aging process.

Keywords

aging --- mitochondria --- inflammation --- innate immunity --- adaptive immunity --- immunosenescence --- cell danger response --- healing cycle --- mitochondria --- purinergic signaling --- metabokines --- sphingolipids --- integrated cell stress response --- de-emergence --- crabtree effect --- pasteur effect --- coenzyme Q10 --- aging --- age-related diseases --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- mitochondria --- skin --- ageing --- reactive oxygen species --- photoageing --- 25(OH)D --- 1,25(OH)2D --- aging --- cytokines --- inflammation --- morbidity and mortality --- prevention --- reactive oxygen species --- ultraviolet --- aging --- mitochondria --- retina --- optic nerve --- diabetic retinopathy --- age-related macular degeneration --- glaucoma --- drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity --- polypharmacy --- aging --- mitochondrial dysfunction --- insulin resistance --- type 2 diabetes --- mitochondrial transfer --- exosomes --- mitochondrial --- genetic mutations --- cardiovascular disease --- heart failure --- cardiomyopathy --- mitochondria --- cancer --- nucleotide metabolism --- DNA damage --- NAD+ --- mitochondria --- ALS --- axonal transport --- mitophagy --- SOD1 --- Miro1 --- PINK1 --- Parkin --- multiple sclerosis --- mitochondria --- neuroinflammation --- neurodegeneration --- Parkinson’s disease --- mitochondria --- ageing --- neurodegenerative disease --- Alzheimer’s disease --- eIF2? --- metabolism --- mitochondria --- proteostasis --- stress response --- aging --- exercise --- mitochondria --- aerobic --- ROS --- inflammation --- senescence --- lysosome --- autophagy --- mitophagy --- n/a

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