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Evolvability, Environments, Embodiment & Emergence in Robotics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456222 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-622-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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Embodied and evolving systems — biological or robotic — are interacting networks of structure, function, information, and behavior. Understanding these complex systems is the goal of the research presented in this book. We address different questions and hypotheses about four essential topics in complex systems: evolvability, environments, embodiment, and emergence. Using a variety of approaches, we provide different perspectives on an overarching, unifying question: How can embodied and evolutionary robotics illuminate (1) principles underlying biological evolving systems and (2) general analytical frameworks for studying embodied evolving systems? The answer — model biological processes to operate, develop, and evolve situated, embodied robots.

Modelling and Simulation of Electrical Energy Systems through a Complex Systems Approach using Agent-Based Models

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ISBN: 9783866449466 Year: Pages: XIV, 181 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000031133 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Complexity science aims to better understand the processes of both natural and man-made systems which are composed of many interacting entities at different scales. A disaggregated approach is proposed for simulating electricity systems, by using agent-based models coupled to continuous ones. The approach can help in acquiring a better understanding of the operation of the system itself, e.g. on emergent phenomena or scale effects; as well as in the improvement and design of future smart grids.

Towards an embodied science of intersubjectivity: Widening the scope of social understanding research

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195299 Year: Pages: 413 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-529-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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An important amount of research effort in psychology and neuroscience over the past decades has focused on the problem of social cognition. This problem is understood as how we figure out other minds, relying only on indirect manifestations of other people's intentional states, which are assumed to be hidden, private and internal. Research on this question has mostly investigated how individual cognitive mechanisms achieve this task. A shift in the internalist assumptions regarding intentional states has expanded the research focus with hypotheses that explore the role of interactive phenomena and interpersonal histories and their implications for understanding individual cognitive processes. This interactive expansion of the conceptual and methodological toolkit for investigating social cognition, we now propose, can be followed by an expansion into wider and deeply-related research questions, beyond (but including) that of social cognition narrowly construed. Our social lives are populated by different kinds of cognitive and affective phenomena that are related to but not exhausted by the question of how we figure out other minds. These phenomena include acting and perceiving together, verbal and non-verbal engagement, experiences of (dis-)connection, management of relations in a group, joint meaning-making, intimacy, trust, conflict, negotiation, asymmetric relations, material mediation of social interaction, collective action, contextual engagement with socio-cultural norms, structures and roles, etc. These phenomena are often characterized by a strong participation by the cognitive agent in contrast with the spectatorial stance typical of social cognition research. We use the broader notion of embodied intersubjectivity to refer to this wider set of phenomena. This Research Topic aims to investigate relations between these different issues, to help lay strong foundations for a science of intersubjectivity – the social mind writ large. To contribute to this goal, we encouraged contributions in psychology, neuroscience, psychopathology, philosophy, and cognitive science that address this wider scope of intersubjectivity by extending the range of explanatory factors from purely individual to interactive, from observational to participatory.

Second Generation General System Theory: Perspectives in Philosophy and Approaches in Complex Systems

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ISBN: 9783038424413 9783038424406 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-29 11:01:38
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Following the classical work of Norbert Wiener, Ross Ashby, Ludwig von Bertalanffy and many others, the concept of System has been elaborated in different disciplinary fields, allowing interdisciplinary approaches in areas such as Physics, Biology, Chemistry, Cognitive Science, Economics, Engineering, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Medicine, Artificial Intelligence, and Philosophy. The new challenge of Complexity and Emergence has made the concept of System even more relevant to the study of problems with high contextuality. This Special Issue focuses on the nature of new problems arising from the study and modelling of complexity, their eventual common aspects, properties and approaches—already partially considered by different disciplines—as well as focusing on new, possibly unitary, theoretical frameworks. This Special Issue aims to introduce fresh impetus into systems research when the possible detection and correction of mistakes require the development of new knowledge. This book contains contributions presenting new approaches and results, problems and proposals. The context is an interdisciplinary framework dealing, in order, with electronic engineering problems; the problem of the observer; transdisciplinarity; problems of organised complexity; theoretical incompleteness; design of digital systems in a user-centred way; reaction networks as a framework for systems modelling; emergence of a stable system in reaction networks; emergence at the fundamental systems level; behavioural realization of memoryless functions.

Projection-Based Clustering through Self-Organization and Swarm Intelligence: Combining Cluster Analysis with the Visualization of High-Dimensional Data

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ISBN: 9783658205393 9783658205409 Year: Pages: 201 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-20540-9 Language: English
Publisher: Springer Grant: Philipps-Universität Marburg
Subject: Mathematics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-06-29 15:12:23
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This book covers aspects of unsupervised machine learning used for knowledge discovery in data science and introduces a data-driven approach to cluster analysis, the Databionic swarm (DBS). DBS consists of the 3D landscape visualization and clustering of data. The 3D landscape enables 3D printing of high-dimensional data structures.The clustering and number of clusters or an absence of cluster structure are verified by the 3D landscape at a glance. DBS is the first swarm-based technique that shows emergent properties while exploiting concepts of swarm intelligence, self-organization and the Nash equilibrium concept from game theory. It results in the elimination of a global objective function and the setting of parameters. By downloading the R package DBS can be applied to data drawn from diverse research fields and used even by non-professionals in the field of data mining.

New Directions in Dental Anthropology: Paradigms, methodologies and outcomes

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ISBN: 9780987171870 Year: Pages: 147 DOI: 10.1017/9780987171870 Language: English
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Anthropology
Added to DOAB on : 2012-05-14 07:35:12
License: University of Adelaide Press

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This book contains papers arising from a symposium held during a combined meeting of The International Union of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences (IUAES), The Australian Anthropological Society (AAS) and The Association of Social Anthropologists of Aotearoa New Zealand at the University of Western Australia from July 5-8th, 2011. It follows on from a recently published Special Issue Supplement of Archives of Oral Biology, Volume 54, December 2009 that contains papers from an International Workshop on Oral Growth and Development held in Liverpool in 2007 and edited by Professor Alan Brook. Together, these two publications provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art approaches to study dental development and variation, and open up opportunities for future collaborative research initiatives, a key aim of the International Collaborating Network in Oro-facial Genetics and Development that was founded in Liverpool in 2007.

The aim of the symposium held at The University of Western Australia in 2011 was to emphasise some of the powerful new strategies offered by the science of dental anthropology to elucidate the historical lineage of human groups and also to reconstruct environmental factors that have acted on the teeth by analysing dental morphological features. In recent years, migration, as well as increases and decreases in the size of different human populations, have been evident as a result of globalisation. Dental features are also changing associated with changes in nutritional status, different economic or social circumstances, and intermarriage between peoples. Dental anthropological studies have explored these changes with the use of advanced techniques and refined methodologies. New paradigms are also evolving in the field of dental anthropology.

When considered together with the recent special issue of Archives of Oral Biology that highlighted the importance of research approaches focused at both the molecular and phenotypic levels, it is clear that we have now reached a very exciting stage in our ability to address key questions and issues about the normal and abnormal development of the dentition, as well as the diseases that commonly affect our teeth and gums.

Contemporary Natural Philosophy and Philosophies - Part 1

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ISBN: 9783038978220 / 9783038978237 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-823-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Modern information communication technology eradicates barriers of geographic distances, making the world globally interdependent, but this spatial globalization has not eliminated cultural fragmentation. The Two Cultures of C.P. Snow (that of science–technology and that of humanities) are drifting apart even faster than before, and they themselves crumble into increasingly specialized domains. Disintegrated knowledge has become subservient to the competition in technological and economic race leading in the direction chosen not by the reason, intellect, and shared value-based judgement, but rather by the whims of autocratic leaders or fashion controlled by marketers for the purposes of political or economic dominance. If we want to restore the authority of our best available knowledge and democratic values in guiding humanity, first we have to reintegrate scattered domains of human knowledge and values and offer an evolving and diverse vision of common reality unified by sound methodology. This collection of articles responds to the call from the journal Philosophies to build a new, networked world of knowledge with domain specialists from different disciplines interacting and connecting with other knowledge-and-values-producing and knowledge-and-values-consuming communities in an inclusive, extended, contemporary natural–philosophic manner. In this process of synthesis, scientific and philosophical investigations enrich each other—with sciences informing philosophies about the best current knowledge of the world, both natural and human-made—while philosophies scrutinize the ontological, epistemological, and methodological foundations of sciences, providing scientists with questions and conceptual analyses. This is all directed at extending and deepening our existing comprehension of the world, including ourselves, both as humans and as societies, and humankind.

Keywords

n/a --- compositional hierarchy --- development --- dissipative structures --- final cause --- internalism --- Second Law of thermodynamics --- subsumptive hierarchy --- agonism --- apophasis --- autocatalysis --- centripetality --- contingency --- endogenous selection --- heterogeneity --- indeterminacy --- process --- mathematics --- physics --- philosophical foundations --- natural philosophy --- the logic of nature --- ontology --- epistemology --- in the name of nature --- philosophy of information --- natural philosophy --- metaphysics --- physics --- problem of induction --- physicalism --- theoretical unity --- philosophy of science --- scientific method --- scientific progress --- pessimistic induction --- awareness --- cognition --- computation --- cybernetics --- differentiation --- fitness --- holographic encoding --- memory --- perception --- quantum information --- signal transduction --- spatial representation --- thermodynamics --- unitarity --- Leibniz --- monad --- internal quantum state --- relational biology --- reflexive psychology --- self --- induction --- naturalism --- evidence and justification --- epistemic norms --- induction and concept formation --- induction and discovery of laws --- natural philosophy --- R.M. Unger --- L. Smolin --- Aristotle --- F.W.J. Schelling --- Naturphilosophie --- A.N. Whitehead --- Ivor Leclerc --- dialectics --- discourse --- discursive space --- information --- knowledge --- humanistic management --- language --- natural philosophy --- subjective experience --- process --- dual aspects --- consciousness --- information-theory --- theoretical biology --- 1st-person and 3rd-person perspectives --- hylomorphism --- mind --- form --- matter --- neurodynamics --- natural philosophy --- philosophy of science --- Jungian psychology --- depth psychology --- analytical psychology --- phenomenological psychology --- evolutionary psychology --- active imagination --- Aristotle’s four causes --- aesthetics in science --- philosophy as a way of life --- common good --- contradiction --- ethics --- information --- logic --- naturalization --- realism --- science --- synthesis --- natural philosophy --- philosophy of nature --- naturalism --- unity of knowledge --- qualitative ontology --- intentionality --- dispositions --- qualia --- abduction --- agent-based reasoning --- creativity --- eco-cognitive model --- eco-cognitive openness --- fallacies --- errors of reasoning --- third-way reasoning --- naturalization of logic --- causality --- embodiment --- measurement --- regulation --- retrocausality --- second-person description --- symmetry breaking --- temporality --- natural philosophy --- cosmology --- emptiness --- vacuum --- void --- dark energy --- space flight --- exoplanet --- big freeze --- big crunch --- everyday lifeworld --- digitization --- computability --- complexity --- reverse mathematics --- quantum computing --- real computing --- theory of everything --- acategoriality --- state-space approach --- mental representation --- dual-aspect monism --- exceptional experiences --- intentionality --- mind-matter relations --- category theory --- memory evolutive system --- emergence --- emergentist reductionism --- anticipation --- creativity --- info-computational model

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