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Cartographie des émotions

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ISBN: 9782878545920 9782878549638 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-23 16:18:13
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Ce volume étudie les différents liens entre langues et émotions que ce soit dans les commentaires sportifs, les textes classiques ou les films. Les contributions ici réunies proposent une définition et une catégorisation des affects afin de mieux comprendre les enjeux linguistiques et sociolinguistiques de l’expression des émotions. This volume studies the different links between languages and emotions, whether in sports commentary, classical texts or films. The contributions gathered here p...

Brain and Art

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193608 Year: Pages: 440 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-360-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Could we understand, in biological terms, the unique and fantastic capabilities of the human brain to both create and enjoy art? In the past decade neuroscience has made a huge leap in developing experimental techniques as well as theoretical frameworks for studying emergent properties following the activity of large neuronal networks. These methods, including MEG, fMRI, sophisticated data analysis approaches and behavioral methods, are increasingly being used in many labs worldwide, with the goal to explore brain mechanisms corresponding to the artistic experience. The 37 articles composing this unique Frontiers Research Topic bring together experimental and theoretical research, linking state-of-the-art knowledge about the brain with the phenomena of Art. It covers a broad scope of topics, contributed by world-renowned experts in vision, audition, somato-sensation, movement, and cinema. Importantly, as we felt that a dialog among artists and scientists is essential and fruitful, we invited a few artists to contribute their insights, as well as their art. Joan Miró said that “art is the search for the alphabet of the mind.” This volume reflects the state of the art search to understand neurobiological alphabet of the Arts. We hope that the wide range of articles in this volume will be highly attractive to brain researchers, artists and the community at large.

Emotion and Behavior

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199655 Year: Pages: 131 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-965-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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In this Research Topic, several groups of researchers from both social and biological psychology summarize their findings addressing the relation between emotion and behavior. The Reflective-Impulsive Model (RIM) (Strack & Deutsch, 2004; 2014 in press) serves as a general orientation and provides a link to integrate the results from seemingly divergent perspectives. The contributions focuses on different types of emotional behaviors, like facial expressions and impulsive reactions. They address the central issue of approach vs. avoidance and include clinical topics like addiction and fear. Methodologically, the contributions are predominantly experimental and are partly based on manipulations in the context of virtual reality.

Keywords

emotion --- Behavior --- impulsive --- reflective --- approach --- avoidance

Hemispheric Bases for Emotion and Memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194599 Year: Pages: 97 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-459-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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It has become clear that the two halves of the cortex differ in their contributions to both affective and memory processes. Still, the exact nature of the interrelationships among hemispheric function, emotion, and memory remains elusive. For example, controversy remains regarding differential hemispheric involvement in emotion, motivation, and affective style. Regarding memory, although evidence suggests differences in the manner in which the hemispheres interact may be related to memory retrieval, it is still not certain which factors involved in retrieval encourage or inhibit hemispheric communication. The goal of this Research Topic was to bring together diverse scientific perspectives on lateralized brain mechanisms underlying emotion, motivation, and memory. A range of international experts with diverse backgrounds, theoretical perspectives, and experimental methods contributed to the Topic. These contributions inform our understanding of lateralized affective and cognitive processes by providing thorough reviews of our current state of knowledge based on previous literature, by sharing intriguing new empirical findings, and by proposing theoretical models with testable frameworks to stimulate future research.

Keywords

lateralization --- hemisphere --- memory --- emotion --- affect --- handedness --- caffeine

The Animal Rights Struggle

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ISBN: 9789089648495 Year: DOI: 10.5117/9789089648495 Language: Undetermined
Publisher: Amsterdam University Press
Added to DOAB on : 2017-02-02 11:01:19
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From the beginning of the 19th century to the present day, a host of campaigners have denounced the mistreatment of animals. Relying on a comparison between the British and French experiences, the present work retraces the various strands of the animal protection movement, from their origins to their continuing impact on current debates. Inextricably linked to the rise of philanthropy, and well established long before the birth of the ecology movement, the story of the collective mobilizations behind the struggle for animal rights sheds light on several crucial processes in our social and political history: changes in sensibilities and socially approved emotions; the definition of what constitutes legitimate violence; the establishment of norms designed to change what constitutes morally acceptable practices; rivalry between elites having differing conceptions of the forms authority should take; the influence of religious belief on militant activities; and the effects of gender discrimination.

Affective Sciences through the Chemical Senses

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450787 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-078-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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In people's minds, smells, flavors and affective phenomena are perceived as closely linked. But is it genuinely the case? The scientific study of this question is a rapidly expanding field, both in healthy and in clinical populations. Although still under-studied in comparison to other sensory modalities, chemical senses have proven to bring unique knowledge in the understanding of affective phenomena. In this context, this Research Topic is aimed to offer a snapshot of the present knowledge and questions raised in this field. Topics include, but are not limited to: affects elicited by odors and/or flavors in different individuals, contexts or cultures; emotional potency of odors in guiding human behavior and cognition (e.g. attention, memory formation, decisions and choices, withdrawal and approach behavior); affects communicated by body odors; affect regulation disorders and chemosensory perception. Studies on the biological underpinnings of these effects are also included.

Values of Happiness

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ISBN: 9780986132575 Year: Language: English
Publisher: HAU Books Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 101667
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-20 11:02:36
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How people conceive of happiness reveals much about who they are and the values they hold dear. Drawing on ethnographic insights from diverse field sites around the world, this book offers a unique window onto the ways in which people grapple with fundamental questions about how to live and what it means to be human. Developing a distinctly anthropological approach concerned less with gauging how happy people are than with how happiness figures as an idea, mood, and motive in everyday life, the book explores how people strive to live well within challenging or even hostile circumstances. The contributors explore how happiness intersects with dominant social values as well as an array of aims and aspirations that are potentially conflicting, demonstrating that not every kind of happiness is seen as a worthwhile aim or evaluated in positive moral terms.

Keywords

Anthropology --- Happiness --- Well-Being --- Value --- Prosperity --- Emotion

The Social Nature of Emotions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199099 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-909-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Emotion is a defining aspect of the human condition. Emotions pervade our social and professional lives, they affect our thinking and behavior, and they profoundly shape our relationships and social interactions. Emotions have traditionally been conceptualized and studied as individual phenomena, with research focusing on cognitive and expressive components and on physiological and neurological processes underlying emotional reactions. Over the last two decades, however, an increasing scholarly awareness has emerged that emotions are inherently social – that is, they tend to be elicited by other people, expressed at other people, and regulated to influence other people or to comply with social norms (Fischer & Manstead, 2008; Keltner & Haidt, 1999; Parkinson, 1996; Van Kleef, 2009). Despite this increasing awareness, the inclusion of the social dimension as a fundamental element in emotion research is still in its infancy (Fischer & Van Kleef, 2010). We therefore organized this special Research Topic on the social nature of emotions to review the state of the art in research and methodology and to stimulate theorizing and future research. The emerging field of research into the social nature of emotions has focused on three broad sets of questions. The first set of questions pertains to how social-contextual factors shape the experience, regulation, and expression of emotions. Studies have shown, for instance, that the social context influences the emotions people feel and express (Clark, Fitness, & Brissette, 2004; Doosje, Branscombe, Spears, & Manstead, 2004; Fischer & Evers, 2011). The second set of questions concerns social-contextual influences on the recognition and interpretation of emotional expressions. Studies have shown that facial expressions are interpreted quite differently depending on the social context (e.g., in terms of status, culture, or gender) in which they are expressed (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002; Hess & Fischer, 2013; Mesquita & Markus, 2004; Tiedens, 2001). The third set of questions has to do with the ways in which people respond to the emotional expressions of others, and how such responses are shaped by the social context. Studies have shown that emotional expressions can influence the behavior of others, for instance in group settings (Barsade, 2002; Cheshin, Rafaeli & Bos, 2011; Heerdink, Van Kleef, Homan, & Fischer, 2013), negotiations (Sinaceur & Tiedens, 2006; Van Kleef, De Dreu, & Manstead, 2004), and leadership (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005; Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010). This Research Topic centers around these and related questions regarding the social nature of emotions, thereby highlighting new research opportunities and guiding future directions in the field. We bring together a collection of papers to provide an encyclopedic, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of theorizing and research on the social nature of emotion. The state of the art work that is presented in this e-book helps advance the understanding of the social nature of emotions. It brings together the latest cutting-edge findings and thoughts on this central topic in emotion science, as it heads toward the next frontier.

The neurobiology of emotion-cognition interactions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195282 Year: Pages: 421 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-528-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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There is increasing interest in understanding the interplay of emotional and cognitive processes. The objective of the Research Topic was to provide an interdisciplinary survey of cutting-edge neuroscientific research on the interaction and integration of emotion and cognition in the brain. The following original empirical reports, commentaries and theoretical reviews provide a comprehensive survey on recent advances in understanding how emotional and cognitive processes interact, how they are integrated in the brain, and what their implications for understanding the mind and its disorders are. These works encompasses a broad spectrum of populations and showcases a wide variety of paradigms, measures, analytic strategies, and conceptual approaches. The aim of the Topic was to begin to address several key questions about the interplay of cognitive and emotional processes in the brain, including: what is the impact of emotional states, anxiety and stress on various cognitive functions? How are emotion and cognition integrated in the brain? Do individual differences in affective dimensions of temperament and personality alter cognitive performance, and how is this realized in the brain? Are there individual differences that increase vulnerability to the impact of affect on cognition—who is vulnerable, and who resilient? How plastic is the interplay of cognition and emotion? Taken together, these works demonstrate that emotion and cognition are deeply interwoven in the fabric of the brain, suggesting that widely held beliefs about the key constituents of ‘the emotional brain’ and ‘the cognitive brain’ are fundamentally flawed. Developing a deeper understanding of the emotional-cognitive brain is important, not just for understanding the mind but also for elucidating the root causes of its many debilitating disorders.

Neural circuits underlying emotion and motivation: Insights from optogenetics and pharmacogenetics

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195343 Year: Pages: 172 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-534-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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Application of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools to study the neural circuits underlying emotional valence, feeding, arousal and motivated behaviors has provided crucial insights into brain function. Expression of light sensitive proteins into specific neurons and subsequent stimulation by light (optogenetics) to control neuronal activity or expression of designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADD) in specific neuronal populations with subsequent activation or suppression of neuronal activity by an otherwise inert ligand (pharmacogenetics) provides control over defined elements of neural circuits. These novel tools have provided a more in depth understanding into several questions about brain function. These include: • Regulation of sleep-wake transition by the interaction of hypocretin neurons of lateral hypothalamus and nor adrenergic neurons of the locus coruleaus • Regulation of feeding by AGRP and POMC neurons in arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus • Place preference and positive reinforcement by activation of DA neuron of VTA • Place aversion by activation of VTA GABA and lateral habenula neurons • Opposing influences on reinforcement by activation of D1 and D2 expressing medium spiny neurons of dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens The list still grows... From cell type specific manipulations to signaling properties in the cell (Dietz et al 2012) with unprecedented temporal resolution, these tools revolutionize the exploration of pathways/connectivity. Recent years also witnessed the extension of applying these tools from studying emotional valence and motivated behavior to reactivation of memory. c-fos based genetic approaches allowed us to integrate light sensitive opsins or DREADD receptor into specific neurons that are activated by certain learning events (for example fear) (Garner et al 2012; Liu et al 2012). In this Research Topic, we welcome researchers to contribute original research articles, review articles, methods and commentary on topics utilizing optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools to study the neural circuits underlying emotional valence, motivation, reinforcement and memory. We believe the Research Topic will shine light on various questions we have about brain function by using novel optogenetic and pharmacogenetic tools and will hopefully inspire ongoing research to overcome the hurdles of using these tools to advance clinical applications.

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