Search results: Found 20

Listing 1 - 10 of 20 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by
Emotion and Aging: Recent Evidence from Brain and Behavior

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194254 Year: Pages: 164 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-425-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Emotions play a central role in every human life, from the moment we are born until we die. They prepare the body for action, guide decisions, and highlight what should be noticed and remembered. Since emotions are central to daily functioning and well-being, it is important to understand the extent to which aging affects the perception of, attention to, memory for, as well as experience and regulation of emotions. An early scientific view of how people's emotions are affected by aging argued that aging led to a deterioration of emotional function. This theory, represented by for example Carl Jung (1875-1961), claimed that old age is a period of life when people feel an increased emotional sameness and less emotional energy. According to this scientific view, the aging emotional landscape was bleached, barren, and flattened. Current psychological research, however, shows that emotion is rather a psychological domain that is relatively unaffected by the aging process or even improves with age, in contrast to most cognitive functions. For example, even though there is evidence that aging is associated with deficits in emotion recognition, various emotional functions seem to remain intact or become better with age, such as the ability to regulate one’s emotions or the extent of experiencing positive emotions. However, more research is needed to determine brain and behavior related, quantitative and qualitative age-related changes of different aspects of emotion processing and emotional functioning. In the current Frontiers research topic we aim to present exciting new findings related to the effects of healthy aging on both more perceptually driven bottom-up as well as more cognitively driven top-down aspects of emotions. In particular, questions such as the following need to be raised and addressed: What neural and behavioral processes are underlying age differences in emotion perception and memory for emotional information? Are there differences between how older and younger adults experience and regulate their emotions, and what drives these differences? Is there a gradual reduction or more of a qualitative change of our emotional experiences over the life cycle, from the turbulent childhood and youth to the mellower old age? And what aspects of age-related changes in emotional processing can be explained by age-related changes in the brain, and which are more affected by other factors such as changes in other body systems, in experiential processes, or in overall life goals?

CHAPTER 5 ‘Rapt Up with Joy’: (Book chapter)

Author:
Book Series: Palgrave Studies in the History of Childhood ISBN: 9781137571991 Year: Pages: 21 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: Wellcome Trust
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:07
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

This chapter takes advantage of recent insights from the history of&#xD;emotions to offer a fresh perspective on children’s emotional responses to&#xD;death. Drawing on a range of printed and archival sources, it argues that&#xD;children expressed diverse and conflicting emotions, from fear and anxiety,&#xD;to excitement and ecstasy. In contrast to Houlbrooke and Stannard, I&#xD;have found that children’s responses seem to have changed little over the&#xD;early modern period. This continuity is largely due to the endurance of&#xD;the Christian doctrine of salvation, with its hauntingly divergent fates of&#xD;heaven and hell.

Current Research and Emerging Directions in Emotion-Cognition Interactions

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194384 Year: Pages: 740 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-438-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Emotion can impact various aspects of our cognition and behavior, by enhancing or impairing them (e.g., enhanced attention to and memory for emotional events, or increased distraction produced by goal-irrelevant emotional information). On the other hand, emotion processing is also susceptible to cognitive influences, typically exerted in the form of cognitive control of motion, or emotion regulation. Despite important recent progress in understanding emotion- cognition interactions, a number of aspects remain unclear. The present book comprises a collection of manuscripts discussing emerging evidence regarding the mechanisms underlying emotion- cognition interactions in healthy functioning and alterations associated with clinical conditions, in which such interactions are dysfunctional. Initiated with a more restricted focus, targeting (1) identification and in depth analysis of the circumstances in which emotion enhances or impairs cognition and (2)identification of the role of individual differences in these effects, our book has emerged into a comprehensive collection of outstanding contributions investigating emotion-cognition interactions, based on approaches spanning from behavioral and lesion to pharmacological and brain imaging, and including empirical, theoretical, and review papers alike.Co-hosted by the Frontiers in Neuroscience - Integrative Neuroscience and Frontiers in Psychology - Emotion Science, the contributions comprising our book and the associated research topic are grouped around the following seven main themes, distributed across the two hosting journals: I. Emotion and Selectivity in Attention and Memory; II. The Impact of Emotional Distraction; Linking Enhancing and Impairing Effects of Emotion; III. What Really is the Role of the Amygdala?; IV. Age Differences in Emotion Processing; The Role of Emotional Valence; V. Affective Face Processing, Social Cognition, and Personality Neuroscience; VI. Stress, Mood, Emotion, and the Prefrontal Cortex; The Role of Control in the Stress Response; VII. Emotion-Cognition Interactions in Clinical Conditions.As illustrated by the present collection of contributions, emotion-cognition interactions can be identified at different levels of processing, from perception and attention to long- term memory, decision making processes, and social cognition and behavior. Notably, these effects are subject to individual differences that may affect the way we perceive, experience, and remember emotional experiences, or cope with emotionally challenging situations. Moreover, these opposing effects tend to co-occur in affective disorders, such as depression and PTSD, where uncontrolled recollection of and rumination on distressing memories also lead to impaired cognition due to emotional distraction. Understanding the nature and neural mechanisms of these effects is critical, as their exacerbation and co-occurrence in clinical conditions lead to devastating effects and debilitation. Hence, bringing together such diverse contributions has allowed not only an integrative understanding of the current extant evidence but also identification of emerging directions and concrete venues for future investigations.

Intimate Communities

Author:
ISBN: 9780520970868 9780520300460 Year: Pages: 326 DOI: 10.1525/luminos.59 Language: English
Publisher: University of California Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:15
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

When China’s War of Resistance against Japan began in July 1937, it sparked an immediate health crisis throughout the country. In the end, China not only survived the war but also emerged from the trauma with a curious strength. Intimate Communities argues that women who worked as military and civilian nurses, doctors, and midwives during this turbulent period built the national community, one relationship at a time. In a country with a majority illiterate, agricultural population that could not relate to urban elites’ conceptualization of nationalism, these women used their work of healing to create emotional bonds with soldiers and civilians from across the country that transcended the divides of social class, region, gender, and language.&#xD;

The Social Nature of Emotions

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199099 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-909-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Emotion is a defining aspect of the human condition. Emotions pervade our social and professional lives, they affect our thinking and behavior, and they profoundly shape our relationships and social interactions. Emotions have traditionally been conceptualized and studied as individual phenomena, with research focusing on cognitive and expressive components and on physiological and neurological processes underlying emotional reactions. Over the last two decades, however, an increasing scholarly awareness has emerged that emotions are inherently social – that is, they tend to be elicited by other people, expressed at other people, and regulated to influence other people or to comply with social norms (Fischer & Manstead, 2008; Keltner & Haidt, 1999; Parkinson, 1996; Van Kleef, 2009). Despite this increasing awareness, the inclusion of the social dimension as a fundamental element in emotion research is still in its infancy (Fischer & Van Kleef, 2010). We therefore organized this special Research Topic on the social nature of emotions to review the state of the art in research and methodology and to stimulate theorizing and future research. The emerging field of research into the social nature of emotions has focused on three broad sets of questions. The first set of questions pertains to how social-contextual factors shape the experience, regulation, and expression of emotions. Studies have shown, for instance, that the social context influences the emotions people feel and express (Clark, Fitness, & Brissette, 2004; Doosje, Branscombe, Spears, & Manstead, 2004; Fischer & Evers, 2011). The second set of questions concerns social-contextual influences on the recognition and interpretation of emotional expressions. Studies have shown that facial expressions are interpreted quite differently depending on the social context (e.g., in terms of status, culture, or gender) in which they are expressed (Elfenbein & Ambady, 2002; Hess & Fischer, 2013; Mesquita & Markus, 2004; Tiedens, 2001). The third set of questions has to do with the ways in which people respond to the emotional expressions of others, and how such responses are shaped by the social context. Studies have shown that emotional expressions can influence the behavior of others, for instance in group settings (Barsade, 2002; Cheshin, Rafaeli & Bos, 2011; Heerdink, Van Kleef, Homan, & Fischer, 2013), negotiations (Sinaceur & Tiedens, 2006; Van Kleef, De Dreu, & Manstead, 2004), and leadership (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005; Van Kleef, Homan, Beersma, & Van Knippenberg, 2010). This Research Topic centers around these and related questions regarding the social nature of emotions, thereby highlighting new research opportunities and guiding future directions in the field. We bring together a collection of papers to provide an encyclopedic, open-access snapshot of the current state of the art of theorizing and research on the social nature of emotion. The state of the art work that is presented in this e-book helps advance the understanding of the social nature of emotions. It brings together the latest cutting-edge findings and thoughts on this central topic in emotion science, as it heads toward the next frontier.

Emotional Intelligence and Cognitive Abilities

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889199228 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-922-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Nowadays, not only psychologists are interested in the study of Emotional Intelligence (EI). Teachers, educator, managers, employers, and people, in general, pay attention to EI. For example, teachers would like to know how EI could affect student’s academic results, and managers are concerned about how EI influences their employees’ performance. The concept of EI has been widely used in recent years to the extent that people start to applying it in daily life. EI is broadly defined as the capacity to process and use emotional information. More specifically, according to Mayer and Salovey, EI is the ability to: “1) accurate perception, appraise, and expression of emotion; 2) access and/or generation of feelings when they facilitate thought; 3) understand emotions and emotional knowledge; and 4) regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth” (Mayer and Salovey 1997, p. 10). When new information arises into one specific area of knowledge, the work of the scientists is to investigate the relation between this new information and other established concepts. In this sense, EI could be considered as a new framework to explain human behaviour. As a young concept in Psychology, EI could be used to elucidate the performance in the activities of everyday life. Over the past two decades, studies of EI have tried to delimitate how EI is linked to other competences. A vast number of studies have reported a relation between EI and a large list of competences such as academic and work success, life satisfaction, attendee to emotions, assertiveness, emotional expression, emotional-based decision making, impulsive control, stress management, among others. Moreover, recent researches have shown that EI plays an important role in the prediction of behaviour besides personality and cognitive factors.However, it is not until quite recently, that studies on EI have considered the importance of individual differences in EI and their interaction with cognitive abilities.The general issue of this Research Topic was to expose the role of individual differences on EI in the development of a large number of competencies that support a more efficient performance in people’s everyday life. The present Research Topic provide an extensive review that may give light to the better understanding of how individual differences in EI affect human behaviour. We have considered studies that analyse: 1) how EI contributes to emotional, cognitive and social process beyond the well-known contribution of IQ and personality traits, as well as the brain system that supports the EI; 2) how EI contributes to relationships among emotions and health and well-being, 3) the roles of EI during early development and the evaluation in different populations, 4) how implicit beliefs about emotions and EI influence emotional abilities.

Psychosocial Advances in Neuro-Oncology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197828 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-782-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Neuro-oncology is a rapidly growing field concerned with scientific developments and clinical applications related to neuroscience, neuropsychology, cancer and oncology. Neuro-oncological disorders include cancers that directly affect the central nervous system (CNS), such as brain tumours and brain metastases, and non-CNS cancers with treatments that produce neurocognitive impairment. To date, the biological mechanisms and neuropsychological effects of brain tumour and cancer have been the dominant focus in neuro-oncology literature. In terms of psychosocial aspects of care, people’s understanding of their diagnosis and symptoms and how they cope with their illness has a major influence on their emotional well-being and quality of life.The development and evaluation of psychological and supportive care interventions for people with brain tumour is an area of emerging research and of high interest to health professionals working in the field. This Research Topic aims to enhance understanding of the psychological and social consequences of brain tumour and other cancers impacting neurocognitive function. It also aims to showcase new developments in assessment and psychosocial intervention approaches.

The Impact of Shared Vision on Leadership, Engagement, Organizational Citizenship and Coaching

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196715 Year: Pages: 199 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-671-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

According to management and psychology courses, as well as legions of consultants in organizational psychology, shared vision in dyads, teams and organizations can fill us with hope and inspire new possibilities, or delude us into following false prophets. However, few research studies have empirically examined the impact of shared vision on key organizational outcomes such as leadership effectiveness, employee engagement, organizational citizenship, coaching and organizational change. As a result, the field of organizational psychology has not yet established a causal pattern of whether, if, and how shared vision helps dyads, teams and organizations function more effectively. The lack of empirical work around shared vision is surprising given its long-standing history in the literature. Bennis and Nanus (1982) showed that distinctive leaders managed attention through vision. The practitioner literature has long proclaimed that vision is a key to change, while Conger and Kanungo (1998) discussed its link to charismatic leadership. Around the same time, positive psychology appeared in the forms of Appreciative Inquiry (Cooperrider, Sorensen, Whitney, & Yaeger, 2000) and Positive Organizational Scholarship (Cameron, Dutton, & Quinn, 2003). In this context, a shared vision or dream became a legitimate antecedent to sustainable change. But again, empirical measurement has been elusive. More recently, shared vision has been the focus of a number of dissertations and quantitative studies building on Intentional Change Theory (ICT) (Boyatzis, 2008) at dyad, team and organization levels of social systems. These studies are beginning to lay the foundations for a systematic body of empirical knowledge about the role of shared vision in an organizational context. For example, we now know that shared vision can activate neural networks that arouse endocrine systems and allow a person to consider the possibilities of a better future (Jack, Boyatzis, Leckie, Passarelli & Khawaja, 2013). Additionally, Boyatzis & Akrivou (2006) have discussed the role of a shared vision as the result of a well-developed set of factors that produce a desired image of the future. Outside of the organizational context, positive visioning has been known to help guide future behavior in sports psychology (Loehr & Schwartz, 2003), medical treatment (Roffe, Schmidt, & Ernst, 2005), musical performance (Meister, Krings, Foltys, Boroojerdi, Muller, Topper, & Thron, 2004), and academic performance (Curry, Snyder, Cook, Ruby, & Rehm, 1997). This Research Topic for Frontiers in Psychology is a collection of 14 original papers examining the role of vision and shared vision on a wide variety of desired dependent variables from leadership effectiveness and executive performance to organizational engagement, citizenship and corporate social responsibility, and how to develop it through coaching.

Mathematical and Statistics Anxiety: Educational, Social, Developmental and Cognitive Perspectives

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889450763 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-076-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

Mathematical anxiety is a feeling of tension, apprehension or fear which arises when a person is faced with mathematical content. The negative consequences of mathematical anxiety are well-documented. Students with high levels of mathematical anxiety might underperform in important test situations, they tend to hold negative attitudes towards mathematics, and they are likely to opt out of elective mathematics courses, which also affects their career opportunities. Although at the university level many students do not continue to study mathematics, social science students are confronted with the fact that their disciplines involve learning about statistics - another potential source of anxiety for students who are uncomfortable with dealing with numerical content. Research on mathematical anxiety is a truly interdisciplinary field with contributions from educational, developmental, cognitive, social and neuroscience researchers. The current collection of papers demonstrates the diversity of the field, offering both new empirical contributions and reviews of existing studies. The contributors also outline future directions for this line of research.

Neuro-Development and Psychological Issues in Congenital Heart Defects

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454280 Year: Pages: 87 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
License:

Loading...
Export citation

Choose an application

Abstract

The advances in the peri-operative management of congenital heart defects have substantially improved the survival of infants over the last few decades, reaching >95% survival in the reports of the international congenital data-base from the European Association of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery and form the Society of Thoracic Surgery (North-America).Nevertheless, the surviving children often experience neurodevelopmental deficits and behavioral, emotional and social issues. These problems often have a profound impact on the quality of life of the growing population of these children at risk and their families.

Listing 1 - 10 of 20 << page
of 2
>>
Sort by