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What is the Text Encoding Initiative?

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Book Series: Encyclopédie numérique ISSN: 22713174 22667342 ISBN: 9782821834606 Year: Pages: 114
Publisher: OpenEdition Press
Subject: Computer Science
Added to DOAB on : 2014-04-11 10:40:10
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines have long been regarded as the de facto standard for the preparation of digital textual resources in the scholarly research community. For the beginner, they offer a daunting range of possibilities, reflecting the huge range of potential applications for text encoding, from traditional scholarly editions, to language corpora, historical lexicons, digital archives and beyond. Drawing on many examples of TEI-encoded text from a variety of research ...

Bridging Reading Aloud and Speech Production

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198955 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-895-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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For decades, human cognition involved in reading aloud and speech production has been investigated extensively (a quote search of the two in google scholar produces about 83,000 and 255,000 results, respectively). This large amount of research has produced quite detailed descriptions of the cognitive mechanisms that allow people to speak or to read aloud a word. However, despite the fact that reading aloud and speech production share some processes – generation of phonology and preparation of a motor speech response – the research in this two areas seems to have taken parallel and independent tracks, with almost no contact between the two. The present Research Topic takes an initial step towards building a bridge that will link the two research areas, as we believe that such an endeavour is essential for moving forward in our understanding of how the mind/brain processes words. To this aim, we encourage contributions exploring the relation between speech production and reading aloud. The questions the Research Topic should address include, but are not limited to, the following: To what extent are speech production and word reading/reading aloud similar? Are there some shared components and/or mechanisms between the two process? Is the time course of the (supposed) shared mechanisms activation similar in the two processes? How does the different input (conceptual vs. orthographic) interact with the types of information that reading and speaking share (semantic and phonological knowledge, articulatory codes)? How does a difference in the input affect the (supposed) common stages of processing (i.e., phonological encoding, and articulatory planning and execution)? We welcome any kind of contribution (e.g., original research article, review, opinion) that answers the above or other questions related to the Topic.

Writing, Medium, Machine: Modern Technographies

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Book Series: Technographies ISBN: 9781785420061 9781785420184 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_618513 Language: English
Publisher: Open Humanities Press
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2016-10-20 11:01:04
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Writing, Medium, Machine: Modern Technographies is a collection of thirteen essays by leading scholars which explores the mutual determination of forms of writing and forms of technology in modern literature. The essays unfold from a variety of historical and theoretical perspectives the proposition that literature is not less but more mechanical than other forms of writing: a transfigurative ideal machine. The collection breaks new ground archaeologically, unearthing representations in literature and film of a whole range of decisive technologies from the stereopticon through census-and slot-machines to the stock ticker, and from the Telex to the manipulation of genetic code and the screens which increasingly mediate our access to the world and to each other. It also contributes significantly to critical and cultural theory by investigating key concepts which articulate the relation between writing and technology: number, measure, encoding, encryption, the archive, the interface. Technography is not just a modern matter, a feature of texts that happen to arise in a world full of machinery and pay attention to that machinery in various ways. But the mediation of other machines has beyond doubt assisted literature to imagine and start to become the ideal machine it is always aspiring to be. Contributors: Ruth Abbott, John Attridge, Kasia Boddy, Mark Byron, Beci Carver, Steven Connor, Esther Leslie, Robbie Moore, Julian Murphet, James Purdon, Sean Pryor, Paul Sheehan, Kristen Treen.

Modeling of Visual Cognition, Body Sense, Motor Control and Their Integrations

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451098 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-109-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The interdisciplinary studies between neuroscience and information science have greatly promoted the development of these two fields. The achievements of these studies can help humans understand the essence of biological systems, provide computational platforms for biological experiments, and improve the intelligence and performance of the algorithms in information science. This research topic is focused on the computational modeling of visual cognition, body sense, motor control and their integrations. Firstly, the modeling and simulation of vision and body sense are achieved by 1) understanding neural mechanism underlying sensory perception and cognition, and 2) mimicking accordingly the structures and mechanisms of their signal propagation pathways. The achievement of this procedure could provide neural findings for better encoding and decoding visual and somatosensory perception of humans, and help robots or systems build humanoid robust vision, body sensing, and various emotions. Secondly, the modeling and simulation of the motor system of the primate are achieved by mimicking the coordination of bones, muscles and joints and the control mechanisms of the neural system in the brain and spinal cord. This procedure could help robots achieve fast, robust and accurate manipulations and be used for safe human-computer interaction. Finally, by integrating them, more complete and intelligent systems/robots could be built to accomplish various tasks self-adaptively and automatically.

Encoding and Navigating Linguistic Representations in Memory

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451326 Year: Pages: 766 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-132-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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Successful speaking and understanding requires mechanisms for reliably encoding structured linguistic representations in memory and for effectively accessing information in those representations later. Studying the time-course of real-time linguistic dependency formation provides a valuable tool for uncovering the cognitive and neural basis of these mechanisms. This volume draws together multiple perspectives on encoding and navigating structured linguistic representations, to highlight important empirical insights, and to identify key priorities for new research in this area.

Crossing Experiences in Digital Epigraphy. From Practice to Discipline

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783110607208 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.1515/9783110607208 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-11 15:10:51
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This miscellaneous volume collects contributions on nineteen projects dealing with Digital Epigraphy – they are diversified in geographic and chronological context, for script and language, and for typology of digital output. The objective is to point out the methodological issues which are specific to the application of information technologies to epigraphy, with a focus on data modelling and text annotation, lexicography and interoperability.

The Origin and Early Evolution of Life: Prebiotic Chemistry of Biomolecules

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ISBN: 9783039216062 / 9783039216079 Year: Pages: 288 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-607-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Studying the origin of life is one of man’s greatest achievements over the last sixty years. The fields of interest encompassed by this quest are multiple and interdisciplinary: chemistry, physics, biology, biochemistry, mathematics, geology but also statistics, atmospheric science, meteorology, oceanography, and astrophysics. Recent scientific discoveries, such as water on Mars and the existence of super-Earths with atmospheres similar to primordial Earth, have pushed researchers to simulate prebiotic conditions in explaining the abiotic formation of molecules essential to life. This collection of articles offers an overview of recent discoveries in the field of prebiotic chemistry of biomolecules, their formation and selection, and the evolution of complex chemical systems.

Keywords

origin of life --- systems chemistry --- Chemomimesis --- Molecular Darwinism --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- thiol-rich peptides --- cysteine --- aminonitriles --- imidazoles --- origin of life --- prebiotic chemistry --- nucleotide and nucleoside synthesis --- protein design --- novel metalloproteins --- binary patterned amino acid sequences --- prebiotic chemistry --- population growth --- replication --- growth order --- Darwinian evolution --- selection --- origin of life --- abiogenesis --- carbon fixation --- hydrothermal vents --- electrochemistry --- reduction --- digit multiplicity --- information --- transmission --- encoding --- translation --- diversity --- function --- origin of life --- layered double hydroxide (LDH) clay --- pentose diphosphate --- pentopyranose nucleic acid --- arabinopyranose nucleic acid --- RNA --- base pairing --- purine precursor --- inosine --- AICAR --- peptide/RNA world --- prebiotic information system --- translation and the genetic code --- bridge peptide and aaRS --- ribozyme and tRNA --- tRNA and mRNA --- coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code --- MVC architecture pattern and biological information --- numerical codons --- AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine --- phosphoryl transfer --- metabolism --- energy currency --- mixed anhydride --- origin of life --- hypercycle --- Monte Carlo --- prebiotic chemistry --- carbamic acid --- carbon dioxide-ammonia ices --- infrared spectra --- anharmonicity --- origin of life --- metabolism --- phosphates --- network expansion simulation --- thermodynamic bottleneck --- molecular clocks --- ab initio molecular dynamics --- catalysis --- prebiotic soup --- origins of life --- aldol reaction --- mechanochemistry --- minerals --- monosaccharides --- prebiotic chemistry --- prebiotic polymerization --- nucleotide oligomerization --- abasic oligomers --- nucleotide stability --- stability as a selection pressure --- dry-wet cycles --- genetic code origin --- tRNA accretion model --- tRNA-synthetase --- metabolism --- thioester --- nucleotidyltransferases --- early peptides --- ribosome --- n/a

Contemporary Natural Philosophy and Philosophies - Part 1

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ISBN: 9783038978220 / 9783038978237 Year: Pages: 350 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-823-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Philosophy
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Modern information communication technology eradicates barriers of geographic distances, making the world globally interdependent, but this spatial globalization has not eliminated cultural fragmentation. The Two Cultures of C.P. Snow (that of science–technology and that of humanities) are drifting apart even faster than before, and they themselves crumble into increasingly specialized domains. Disintegrated knowledge has become subservient to the competition in technological and economic race leading in the direction chosen not by the reason, intellect, and shared value-based judgement, but rather by the whims of autocratic leaders or fashion controlled by marketers for the purposes of political or economic dominance. If we want to restore the authority of our best available knowledge and democratic values in guiding humanity, first we have to reintegrate scattered domains of human knowledge and values and offer an evolving and diverse vision of common reality unified by sound methodology. This collection of articles responds to the call from the journal Philosophies to build a new, networked world of knowledge with domain specialists from different disciplines interacting and connecting with other knowledge-and-values-producing and knowledge-and-values-consuming communities in an inclusive, extended, contemporary natural–philosophic manner. In this process of synthesis, scientific and philosophical investigations enrich each other—with sciences informing philosophies about the best current knowledge of the world, both natural and human-made—while philosophies scrutinize the ontological, epistemological, and methodological foundations of sciences, providing scientists with questions and conceptual analyses. This is all directed at extending and deepening our existing comprehension of the world, including ourselves, both as humans and as societies, and humankind.

Keywords

n/a --- compositional hierarchy --- development --- dissipative structures --- final cause --- internalism --- Second Law of thermodynamics --- subsumptive hierarchy --- agonism --- apophasis --- autocatalysis --- centripetality --- contingency --- endogenous selection --- heterogeneity --- indeterminacy --- process --- mathematics --- physics --- philosophical foundations --- natural philosophy --- the logic of nature --- ontology --- epistemology --- in the name of nature --- philosophy of information --- natural philosophy --- metaphysics --- physics --- problem of induction --- physicalism --- theoretical unity --- philosophy of science --- scientific method --- scientific progress --- pessimistic induction --- awareness --- cognition --- computation --- cybernetics --- differentiation --- fitness --- holographic encoding --- memory --- perception --- quantum information --- signal transduction --- spatial representation --- thermodynamics --- unitarity --- Leibniz --- monad --- internal quantum state --- relational biology --- reflexive psychology --- self --- induction --- naturalism --- evidence and justification --- epistemic norms --- induction and concept formation --- induction and discovery of laws --- natural philosophy --- R.M. Unger --- L. Smolin --- Aristotle --- F.W.J. Schelling --- Naturphilosophie --- A.N. Whitehead --- Ivor Leclerc --- dialectics --- discourse --- discursive space --- information --- knowledge --- humanistic management --- language --- natural philosophy --- subjective experience --- process --- dual aspects --- consciousness --- information-theory --- theoretical biology --- 1st-person and 3rd-person perspectives --- hylomorphism --- mind --- form --- matter --- neurodynamics --- natural philosophy --- philosophy of science --- Jungian psychology --- depth psychology --- analytical psychology --- phenomenological psychology --- evolutionary psychology --- active imagination --- Aristotle’s four causes --- aesthetics in science --- philosophy as a way of life --- common good --- contradiction --- ethics --- information --- logic --- naturalization --- realism --- science --- synthesis --- natural philosophy --- philosophy of nature --- naturalism --- unity of knowledge --- qualitative ontology --- intentionality --- dispositions --- qualia --- abduction --- agent-based reasoning --- creativity --- eco-cognitive model --- eco-cognitive openness --- fallacies --- errors of reasoning --- third-way reasoning --- naturalization of logic --- causality --- embodiment --- measurement --- regulation --- retrocausality --- second-person description --- symmetry breaking --- temporality --- natural philosophy --- cosmology --- emptiness --- vacuum --- void --- dark energy --- space flight --- exoplanet --- big freeze --- big crunch --- everyday lifeworld --- digitization --- computability --- complexity --- reverse mathematics --- quantum computing --- real computing --- theory of everything --- acategoriality --- state-space approach --- mental representation --- dual-aspect monism --- exceptional experiences --- intentionality --- mind-matter relations --- category theory --- memory evolutive system --- emergence --- emergentist reductionism --- anticipation --- creativity --- info-computational model

Entropy in Image Analysis

Author:
ISBN: 9783039210923 / 9783039210930 Year: Pages: 456 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-093-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.

Keywords

image retrieval --- multi-feature fusion --- entropy --- relevance feedback --- chaotic system --- image encryption --- permutation-diffusion --- SHA-256 hash value --- dynamic index --- entropy --- keyframes --- Shannon’s entropy --- sign languages --- video summarization --- video skimming --- image encryption --- multiple-image encryption --- two-dimensional chaotic economic map --- security analysis --- image encryption --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- chosen-plaintext attack --- image information entropy --- blind image quality assessment (BIQA) --- information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS) --- Weibull statistics --- discrete cosine transform (DCT) --- ultrasound --- hepatic steatosis --- Shannon entropy --- fatty liver --- metabolic syndrome --- multi-exposure image fusion --- texture information entropy --- adaptive selection --- patch structure decomposition --- image encryption --- time-delay --- random insertion --- information entropy --- chaotic map --- uncertainty assessment --- deep neural network --- random forest --- Shannon entropy --- positron emission tomography --- reconstruction --- field of experts --- additive manufacturing --- 3D prints --- 3D scanning --- image entropy --- depth maps --- surface quality assessment --- machine vision --- image analysis --- Arimoto entropy --- free-form deformations --- normalized divergence measure --- gradient distributions --- nonextensive entropy --- non-rigid registration --- pavement --- macrotexture --- 3-D digital imaging --- entropy --- decay trend --- discrete entropy --- infrared images --- low contrast --- multiscale top-hat transform --- image encryption --- DNA encoding --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- image privacy --- computer aided diagnostics --- colonoscopy --- Rényi entropies --- structural entropy --- spatial filling factor --- binary image --- Cantor set --- Hénon map --- Minkowski island --- prime-indexed primes --- Ramanujan primes --- Kapur’s entropy --- color image segmentation --- whale optimization algorithm --- differential evolution --- hybrid algorithm --- Otsu method --- image encryption --- dynamic filtering --- DNA computing --- 3D Latin cube --- permutation --- diffusion --- fuzzy entropy --- electromagnetic field optimization --- chaotic strategy --- color image segmentation --- multilevel thresholding --- contrast enhancement --- sigmoid --- Tsallis statistics --- q-exponential --- q-sigmoid --- q-Gaussian --- ultra-sound images --- person re-identification --- image analysis --- hash layer --- quantization loss --- Hamming distance --- cross-entropy loss --- image entropy --- Shannon entropy --- generalized entropies --- image processing --- image segmentation --- medical imaging --- remote sensing --- security

Optimization Methods Applied to Power Systems: Volume 1

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211302 / 9783039211319 Year: Pages: 382 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-131-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This book presents an interesting sample of the latest advances in optimization techniques applied to electrical power engineering. It covers a variety of topics from various fields, ranging from classical optimization such as Linear and Nonlinear Programming and Integer and Mixed-Integer Programming to the most modern methods based on bio-inspired metaheuristics. The featured papers invite readers to delve further into emerging optimization techniques and their real application to case studies such as conventional and renewable energy generation, distributed generation, transport and distribution of electrical energy, electrical machines and power electronics, network optimization, intelligent systems, advances in electric mobility, etc.

Keywords

Cable joint --- internal defect --- thermal probability density --- power system optimization --- optimal power flow --- developed grew wolf optimizer --- energy internet --- prosumer --- energy management --- consensus --- demand response --- day-ahead load forecasting --- modular predictor --- feature selection --- micro-phasor measurement unit --- mutual information theory --- stochastic state estimation --- two-point estimation method --- JAYA algorithm --- multi-population method (MP) --- chaos optimization algorithm (COA) --- economic load dispatch problem (ELD) --- optimization methods --- constrained parameter estimation --- extended Kalman filter --- power systems --- C&I particle swarm optimization --- ringdown detection --- optimal reactive power dispatch --- loss minimization --- voltage deviation --- hybrid method --- tabu search --- particle swarm optimization --- artificial lighting --- simulation --- calibration --- radiance --- GenOpt --- street light points --- DC optimal power flow --- power transfer distribution factors --- generalized generation distribution factors --- unit commitment --- adaptive consensus algorithm --- distributed heat-electricity energy management --- eight searching sub-regions --- islanded microgrid --- dragonfly algorithm --- metaheuristic --- optimal power flow --- particle swarm optimization --- CCHP system --- energy storage --- off-design performance --- dynamic solving framework --- battery energy storage system --- micro grid --- MILP --- PCS efficiency --- piecewise linear techniques --- renewable energy sources --- optimal operation --- UC --- demand bidding --- demand response --- genetic algorithm --- load curtailment --- optimization --- hybrid renewable energy system --- pumped-hydro energy storage --- off-grid --- optimization --- HOMER software --- rural electrification --- sub-Saharan Africa --- Cameroon --- building energy management system --- HVAC system --- energy storage system --- energy flow model --- dependability --- sustainability --- data center --- power architectures --- optimization --- AC/DC hybrid active distribution --- hierarchical scheduling --- multi-stakeholders --- discrete wind driven optimization --- multiobjective optimization --- optimal power flow --- metaheuristic --- wind energy --- photovoltaic --- smart grid --- transformer-fault diagnosis --- principal component analysis --- particle swarm optimization --- support vector machine --- wind power --- integration assessment --- interactive load --- considerable decomposition --- controllable response --- SOCP relaxations --- optimal power flow --- current margins --- affine arithmetic --- interval variables --- optimizing-scenarios method --- power flow --- wind power --- active distribution system --- virtual power plant --- stochastic optimization --- decentralized and collaborative optimization --- genetic algorithm --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm --- artificial bee colony --- IEEE Std. 80-2000 --- Schwarz’s equation --- fuzzy algorithm --- radial basis function --- neural network --- ETAP --- distributed generations (DGs) --- distribution network reconfiguration --- runner-root algorithm (RRA) --- inter-turn shorted-circuit fault (ISCF) --- strong track filter (STF) --- linear discriminant analysis (LDA) --- switched reluctance machine (SRM) --- charging/discharging --- electric vehicle --- energy management --- genetic algorithm --- intelligent scatter search --- electric vehicles --- heterogeneous networks --- demand uncertainty --- power optimization --- Stackelberg game --- power system unit commitment --- hybrid membrane computing --- cross-entropy --- the genetic algorithm based P system --- the biomimetic membrane computing --- transient stability --- two-stage feature selection --- particle encoding method --- fitness function --- power factor compensation --- non-sinusoidal circuits --- geometric algebra --- evolutionary algorithms --- electric power contracts --- electric energy costs --- cost minimization --- evolutionary computation --- bio-inspired algorithms --- congestion management --- low-voltage networks --- multi-objective particle swarm optimization --- affinity propagation clustering --- optimal congestion threshold --- optimization --- magnetic field mitigation --- overhead --- underground --- passive shielding --- active shielding --- MV/LV substation --- n/a

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