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The unfolded protein response in virus infections

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193974 Year: Pages: 129 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-397-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Abstract

Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular adaptive response for restoring endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in response to ER stress. Perturbation of the UPR and failure to restore ER homeostasis inevitably leads to diseases. It has now become evident that perturbation of the UPR is the cause of many important human diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis, diabetes and cancer. It has recently emerged that virus infections can trigger the UPR but the relationship between virus infections and host UPR is intriguing. On one hand, UPR is harmful to the virus and virus has developed means to subvert the UPR. On the other hand, virus exploits the host UPR to assist in its own infection, gene expression, establishment of persistence, reactivation from latency and to evade the immune response. When this delicate balance of virus-host UPR interaction is broken down, it may cause diseases. This is particularly challenging for viruses that establish a chronic infection to maintain this balance. Each virus interacts with the host UPR in a different way to suit their life style and how the virus interacts with the host UPR can define the characteristic of a particular virus infection. Understanding how a particular virus interacts with the host UPR may pave the way to the design of a new class of anti-viral that targets this particular pathway to skew the response towards anti-virus. This knowledge can also be translated into the clinics to help re-design oncolytic virotherapy and gene therapy. In this research topic we aimed to compile a collection of focused review articles, original research articles, commentary, opinion, hypothesis and methods to highlight the current advances in this burgeoning area of research, in an attempt to provide an in-depth understanding of how viruses interact with the host UPR, which may be beneficial to the future combat of viral and human diseases.

Protective and Detrimental Role of Heme Oxygenase-1

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ISBN: 9783039218066 9783039218073 Year: Pages: 220 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-807-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The book “Protective and Detrimental Role of Heme Oxygenase-1”, includes a selection of original research papers and reviews aimed at understanding the dual role (protective and detrimental) of HO-1 and the involved signaling pathways. Original research papers and reviews aimed at the identification of natural molecules or new synthetic compounds able to modulate HO-1 activity/expression help make HO-1 a potential therapeutic target for the amelioration of various diseases.

Keywords

ferroptosis --- heme oxygenase-1 --- iron --- reactive oxygen species --- glutathione --- chemotherapy --- paracetamol --- Myristica fragrans kernels --- heme oxygenase 1 --- liver --- glucocorticoid receptor --- GR --- heme oxygenase 1 --- HO-1 --- prostate cancer --- ANTIGEN presenting cell --- tolerance --- Tet-ON system --- antigen presentation --- analgesia --- carbon monoxide --- heme oxygenase 1 --- inflammatory pain --- locus coeruleus --- nitric oxide --- bilirubin --- Gunn rats --- hyperbilirubinemia --- inflammation --- LPS --- NF-?B --- caloric restriction --- Sirtuin 1 --- Heme Oxygenase-1 --- PGC-1? --- cardiomyopathy --- diabetes mellitus --- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) --- Pancreatic oxidative damage --- Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inducers --- Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) --- Reactive oxygen species (ROS) --- Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1) --- Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) --- Gamma-Glutamyl-Cysteine Ligase (GGCL) --- prostate cancer --- heme oxygenase --- metformin --- apoptosis --- ER stress --- HO-1 activity inhibitor --- carbon monoxide --- lung preservation --- ischemia–reperfusion injury --- high-pressure gas --- Colon cancer --- Betula etnensis Raf. --- oxidative stress --- heme oxigenase-1 --- ferroptosis --- thiol groups --- angiotensin II --- mineralocorticoid receptor --- heme oxygenase 1 --- sirtuin 1 --- adipocytes --- oxidative stress --- heme oxygenase-1 --- atherosclerosis --- coronary artery disease --- peripheral artery disease --- carotid plaque --- heme oxygenase --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- hemoglobin --- heme --- n/a

Nutrition and Eye Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219902 9783039219919 Year: Pages: 242 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-991-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Abstract

Blindness and visual impairment impact significantly on an individual’s physical and mental well-being. Loss of vision is a global health problem, with approximately 250 million of the world’s population currently living with vision loss, of which 36 million are classified as blind. Visual impairment is more frequent in the elderly, with cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) accounting for over 50% of cases globally. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of both conditions, and consequently the role of nutritional factors, in particular carotenoids and micronutrient antioxidants, have been investigated as possible preventative or therapeutic strategies. Dry eye syndrome (DES) is one of the most common ophthalmic conditions in the world. DES occurs where the eye does not produce enough tears and/or the tears evaporate too quicklyleading to discomfort and varying degrees of visual disturbance. There has recently been a great deal of interest in the potential for oral or topical supplementation with essential fatty acids (EFAs), specifically omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, as an adjunct to conventional treatments for DES. The objective of this Special Issue on ‘Nutrition and Eye Health’ is to publish papers describing the role of nutrition in maintaining eye health and the use of nutritional interventions to prevent or treat ocular disease. A particular (but not exclusive) emphasis will be on papers (reviews and/or clinical or experimental studies) relating to cataract, AMD and DES.

Keywords

lutein --- RR-zeaxanthin --- mesozeaxanthin (RS zeaxanthin) --- light damage --- photoreceptor degeneration --- oxidative stress --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- electroretinography --- advanced glycation end products --- chyrsin --- diabetic retinopathy --- endoplasmic reticulum --- retinal pigment epithelium --- visual cycle --- cataract --- phytoconstituents --- lens --- preclinical models --- drug discovery --- age-related macular degeneration --- gut-retina axis --- gut microbiota --- dietary habits --- micronutrients --- fish oil --- omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids --- personalised medicine --- Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 --- retina --- light --- macrophage --- saffron --- Crocus Sativus L. --- crocin --- crocetin --- supplements --- anti-oxidant --- anti-inflammatory --- AMD --- diabetes --- glaucoma --- retina --- oxidative stress --- inflammation --- microvascular lesions --- neoangiogenesis --- polyphenols --- flavonoids --- carotenoids --- saponins --- rosmarinic acid --- sinapic acid --- lenses --- estrogen-deficient rats --- oxidative stress --- reduced glutathione --- omega-3 --- fatty acid --- diet --- dietary assessment --- clinical survey --- eye disease --- dry eye --- age-related macular degeneration --- food frequency questionnaire --- CODS --- clinical practice guidelines --- systematic reviews --- age-related macular degeneration --- nutritional supplements --- diet --- nutrition --- AGREE II --- Cucurbita argyrosperma --- corneal chemical burn --- angiogenesis --- corneal neovascularization (CNV) --- vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) --- interleukin-1? (IL-1?) --- cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) --- nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) --- dietary antioxidants --- antioxidant supplements --- lens --- cataract --- n/a

Plant Natural Products for Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977124 Year: Pages: 514 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-713-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Therapeutics --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-05 10:34:31
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Abstract

Plants have served mankind as an important source of foods and medicines. While we all consume plants and their products for nutritional support, a majority of the world population also rely on botanical remedies to meet their health needs, either as their own “traditional medicine” or as “complementary and alternative medicine”. From a pharmaceutical point of view, many compounds obtained from plant sources have long been known to possess bio/pharmacological activities, and historically, plants have yielded many important drugs for human use, from morphine discovered in the early nineteenth century to the more recent paclitaxel and artemisinin. Today, we are witnessing a global resurgence in interest and use of plant-based therapies and botanical products, and natural products remain an important and viable source of lead compounds in many drug discovery programs.This Special Issue on “Plant Natural Products for Human Health” compiles a series of scientific reports to demonstrate the medicinal potentials of plant natural products. It covers a range of disease targets, such as diabetes, inflammation, cancer, neurological disease, cardiovascular disease, liver damage, bacterial, and fungus infection and malarial. These papers provide important insights into the current state of research on drug discovery and new techniques. It is hoped that this Special Issue will serve as a timely reference for researchers and scholars who are interested in the discovery of potentially useful molecules from plant sources for health-related applications.

Keywords

heat-process --- onion --- calorie restriction --- Amadori rearrangement compounds --- hyperglycemia --- A549 cells --- hinokitiol --- MMPs --- p53/Bax --- antioxidant enzymes --- caspases --- migration --- cannabinoid type 1 receptor --- endoplasmic reticulum stress --- gluconeogenesis --- gomisin N --- lipogenesis --- insulin resistance --- garlic --- ischemia --- heme oxygenase --- reperfusion --- heart --- Keap1 --- Nrf2 --- Neuroprotective --- PC12 cells --- PhGs --- anti-malaria activity --- plants --- natural products --- ethnopharmacology --- Plasmodium parasites --- copaiba --- oleoresin --- essential oil --- sesquiterpenoids --- diterpenoids --- biological activity --- molecular targets --- Astragali Radix --- astragaloside IV --- genistein --- mitochondrial bioenergetics --- oxygen consumption rate --- natural products --- drug design and development --- innovation --- automation --- computational softwares --- bioinformatics --- precision medicine --- omics --- global health --- sweet orange --- bitter orange --- neroli --- orange petitgrain --- mandarin --- lemon --- lime --- grapefruit --- bergamot --- yuzu --- kumquat --- cannabigerol --- Cannabis sativa --- neuroinflammation --- oxidative stress --- phytocannabinoid --- iridoids --- nuclear factor-kappaB --- mitogen-activated protein kinase --- anti-inflammation --- Ziziphus jujuba --- triterpenic acids --- pharmacokinetic study --- acute liver injury --- A? --- AD --- lychee seed --- neuroinflammation --- catechin --- procyanidin A2 --- apoptosis --- cinnamamides --- antistaphylococcal activity --- time-kill assay --- biofilm --- antitubercular activity --- MTT assay --- antifungal activity --- PET inhibition --- toxicity --- structure–activity relationship --- bleeding time --- flavonoid --- morin hydrate --- OH· free radical --- platelet activation --- protein kinase --- thromboembolism --- Glycyrrhiza uralensis --- prenylated flavonoids --- antiproliferation --- differentiation --- melanoma cell --- adjuvant-induced arthritis --- arthritis --- celastrol --- curcumin --- dietary supplements --- EGCG --- green tea --- inflammation --- liposomes --- microbiome --- nanoparticles --- natural products --- resveratrol --- rheumatoid arthritis --- targeted delivery --- traditional medicine --- Tripterygium wilfordii --- triptolide --- Penthorum chinense Pursh --- NAFLD --- hepatic steatosis --- flavonoids --- SIRT1 --- AMPK --- dihydromyricetin --- myocardial hypertrophy --- oxidative stress --- sirtuin 3 --- ginseng --- human-hair-follicle dermal papilla cells --- WNT/?-catenin --- Shh/Gli --- TGF-? --- BMP/Smad --- mouse-hair growth --- Panax notoginseng saponins --- aspirin --- HepaRG cells --- herb–drug interactions --- P. eryngii --- glucans --- inflammation --- inflammatory bowel disease --- medicinal plants --- phytochemicals --- scoulerine --- bergapten --- immunomodulator --- adjuvant --- cytoxicity --- dendritic cells --- immune modulation --- APAP --- acetaminophen --- hepatotoxicity --- hpatoprotection --- paracetamol --- animals --- preclinical studies --- natural products --- small molecules --- phytochemicals --- plants --- fucoidan --- acetaminophen --- Nrf2 --- oxidative stress --- hepatotoxicity --- plant natural product --- drug discovery --- human health

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