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Green Synthesis of Nanomaterials

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ISBN: 9783039217861 9783039217878 Year: Pages: 224 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-787-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Nanomaterials possess astonishing physical and chemical properties. They play a key role in the development of novel and effective drugs, catalysts, sensors, and pesticides, to cite just a few examples. Notably, the synthesis of nanomaterials is usually achieved with chemical and physical methods needing the use of extremely toxic chemicals or high-energy inputs. To move towards more eco-friendly processes, researchers have recently focused on so-called “green synthesis”, where microbial, animal-, and plant-borne compounds can be used as cheap reducing and stabilizing agents to fabricate nanomaterials. Green synthesis routes are cheap, environmentally sustainable, and can lead to the fabrication of nano-objects with controlled sizes and shapes—two key features determining their bioactivity.

Nutrition and Vulnerable Groups

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ISBN: 9783039211203 9783039211210 Year: Pages: 264 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-121-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Food insecurity is a complex ‘wicked’ problem that results from a range of unstable and uncertain physical, social, cultural and economic factors that limits access to nutritious food. Globally, 800 million people are under-nourished, and around 2 billion are overweight/obese or have micronutrient deficiency. These populations are largely positioned in developing countries where disease burden is high and impacts health budgets and productivity. Similarly developed countries, cities and neighbourhoods are experiencing a greater emergence of vulnerable populations. This is in part explained by the change in the food production and manufacturing, the retraction in economic climates, the increase in food price, and in some regions reduced food availability and access.Vulnerable groups include but are not limited to migrant populations, Indigenous people, elderly, pregnant women, those with disability, homeless, young children and youth. Poor nutrition at significant periods of growth and development and during life impact long term health outcomes increasing non-communicable disease prevalence, health cost and reducing economic productivity.

Keywords

breastfeeding --- feeding practices --- infant feeding --- nutrition --- malnutrition --- pediatrics --- primary health care --- low-income population --- popular restaurant --- lunch --- energy density --- nutrition --- food security --- HFIAS --- double burden of malnutrition --- child stunting --- Indonesia --- emergency food assistance --- food pantry --- food insecurity --- dietary patterns --- dietary quality --- nutrition --- knowledge --- refugees --- children --- school intervention --- Lebanon --- rural populations --- food assistance --- low-income --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- socioeconomics --- Obesity --- metabolic syndrome --- refugee --- women --- Palestine --- consumption of fruits and vegetables --- low-income undergraduate students --- Student Assistance Program --- adiposity markers --- obesity --- fat mass --- abdominal obesity --- adolescent health --- school performance --- Orang Asli --- food insecurity --- Malaysia --- challenges --- in-depth interview --- fruit and vegetables --- rural children --- Social Cognitive Theory --- undernutrition --- food security --- nutrition security --- village chickens --- livestock --- animal-source food --- Tanzania --- sub-Saharan Africa --- resource-poor settings --- children --- welfare home --- body image --- obesity --- BMI-for-age --- food security --- self-esteem --- self-efficacy --- food security --- public health --- place-based --- co-design --- vulnerable groups --- food poverty --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- public health --- charitable food sector --- food insecurity --- food literacy --- nutrition education --- training --- tertiary education --- n/a

Sustainable Energy Systems: From Primary to End-Use

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039210961 9783039210978 Year: Pages: 314 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-097-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book focuses on sustainable energy systems. While several innovative and alternative concepts are presented, the topics of energy policy, life cycle assessment, thermal energy, and renewable energy also play a major role. Models on various temporal and geographical scales are developed to understand the conditions of technical as well as organizational change. New methods of modeling, which can fulfil technical and physical boundary conditions and nevertheless consider economic environmental and social aspects, are also developed.

Keywords

Active Disturbance Rejection Control --- Probabilistic Robustness --- Monte Carlo --- secondary air regulation --- areal grey relational analysis --- fuzzy rough set --- game theory --- AHP --- uncertainty analysis --- coal-fired power unit --- renewable energy --- biomass --- torrefaction --- grindability --- rotary reactor --- generation system scheduling --- integrated model --- basic plan for long-term electricity supply and demand --- forecasting model for electricity demand --- biomass --- Pinus pinaster --- fuel --- heating value --- fuelwood value index --- energy density --- ash recovery --- peach --- Energy Life-Cycle Assessment --- post-harvest --- fuzzy logic control --- artificial neural networks control --- tidal stream generator --- swell effect disturbance --- doubly fed induction generator --- maximum power point tracking --- capacity investment --- market power --- wind resources --- dynamic planning --- stochastic approach --- levelized cost of energy --- photovoltaic with energy storage system --- HOMER simulation --- LCOE comparison --- sensitivity analysis --- transient impact --- renewable energy source penetration --- power system stability --- robust optimization --- renewable energy --- flexibility --- deficit --- uncertainty --- flexible resource --- energy storage systems --- active power harmonics filter --- electrostatic devices --- hysteresis switching --- op-amp --- power electronics --- power supply reliability --- electricity --- manufacturing industry --- choice experiment --- willingness to pay --- nexus concept --- energy modelling --- resource efficiency --- renewable energy --- low-carbon economy --- forecasting --- multilayer perception --- photovoltaic --- sustainable energy --- pseudo-Huber loss --- energy from biomass --- textile industrial sector --- alternative energy --- SWOT analysis --- energy costs --- Internet of Things --- thermodynamic cycle concepts --- sustainability --- modified cycle concepts --- efficiency --- energy systems --- renewable energies --- wind power plants --- hollow rollers --- large bearings

Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039283521 / 9783039283538 Year: Pages: 372 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-353-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the manufacturing processes that warrants the attention of industrialists, researchers and scientists, because of its ability to produce materials with a complex shape without theoretical restrictions and with added functionalities. There are several advantages to employing additive manufacturing as the primary additive manufacturing process. However, there exist several challenges that need to be addressed systematically. A couple such issues are alloy design and process development. Traditionally alloys designed for conventional cast/powder metallurgical processes were fabricated using advanced AM processes. This is the wrong approach considering that the alloys should be coined based on the process characteristics and meta-stable nature of the process. Hence, we must focus on alloy design and development for AM that suits the AM processes. The AM processes, however, improve almost every day, either in terms of processing capabilities or processing conditions. Hence, the processing part warrants a section that is devoted to these advancements and innovations. Accordingly, the present Special Issue (book) focuses on two aspects of alloy development and process innovations. Here, 45 articles are presented covering different AM processes including selective laser melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding, direct metal laser sintering, ultrasonic consolidation, wire arc additive manufacturing, and hybrid manufacturing. I believe that this Special Issue bears is vital to the field of AM and will be a valuable addition.

Keywords

concrete --- slag --- valorization --- cement --- circular economy --- wire feeding additive manufacturing --- wire lateral feeding --- macro defects --- side spatters --- selective laser melting --- numerical analysis --- thermal behaviour --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- design --- disc brake --- 3D metal printing --- direct metal laser sintering --- thermal stress analysis --- radial grooves --- nickel alloys --- Hastelloy X alloy --- additive manufacturing --- microstructure --- scanning electron microscopy (SEM) --- laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) --- selective laser melting --- titanium alloy --- heat treatment --- microstructure --- microhardness measurement --- arc additive manufacturing --- Al–5Si alloy --- pulse frequency --- arc current --- microstructure --- porosity --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- constitutive model --- microstructural evolution --- continuous dynamic recrystallization --- hot deformation --- selective laser melting --- amorphous alloy --- finite element analysis --- residual stress --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- intermediate thermo-mechanical treatment --- storage energy --- CuAl2 phase --- grain refinement --- selective laser melting --- GH4169 --- temperature and stress fields --- simulation --- model --- selective laser melting --- divisional scanning --- residual stress --- deformation --- thermal conductivity --- tensile strength --- inoculation --- gray cast iron --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- performance characteristics --- AlSi10Mg --- multi-laser manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- additive manufacturing --- metal powders --- powder flowability --- powder properties --- aluminum --- water absorption --- laser cladding deposition --- 12CrNi2 alloy steel powder --- substrate preheating --- microstructure and properties --- residual stress --- ultrafast laser --- femtosecond --- ablation --- scanning --- additive surface structuring --- hydrophobicity --- parts design --- additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication --- fatigue --- Taguchi --- ABS --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- quality of the as-built parts --- aluminum alloys --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- H13 tool steel --- process parameters --- scanning strategy --- support strategy --- porosity reduction --- selective laser melting --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- martensitic transformation --- texture evolution --- mechanical properties --- M300 mold steel --- elastic abrasive --- PSO-BP neural network algorithm --- parameter optimization --- WxNbMoTa --- refractory high-entropy alloy --- laser cladding deposition --- rapid solidification --- bulk metallic glasses --- selective laser melting --- Cu50Zr43Al7 --- mechanical properties --- Ti-6Al-4V --- wear --- additive manufacturing --- properties --- in-process temperature in MPBAM --- analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- molten pool evolution --- laser power absorption --- latent heat --- scanning strategy --- powder packing --- graphene nano-sheets (GNSs) --- epoxy solder --- intermetallic compound (IMC) --- laser powder bed fusion --- additive manufacturing --- aluminum --- composition --- mechanical properties --- localized inductive heating --- hot stamping steel blanks --- tailored properties --- magnetizer --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- dynamic properties --- impact --- crystallographic texture --- Additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- volumetric heat source --- thermal capillary effects --- melt pool size --- selective laser melting --- Inconel 718 --- crystallographic texture --- subgranular dendrites --- epitaxial growth --- 3D printing --- continuous carbon fiber --- thermosetting epoxy resin --- mechanical properties --- Powder bed --- fatigue --- Hot Isostatic Pressure --- Electron Beam Melting --- stability lobe diagram --- milling --- process-damping --- dynamic characteristics --- thin-walled weak rigidity parts --- Al–Si --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- defects --- Inconel 718 --- laser energy density --- selective laser melting --- molten pool dynamic behavior --- equivalent processing model --- workpiece scale --- nickel-based superalloy --- numerical simulation --- metallic glasses --- composite materials --- interfaces --- additive manufacturing --- ultrasonic bonding --- 3D printing --- Al–Mg–Si alloy --- quenching rate --- microstructures --- mechanical properties --- paint bake-hardening --- precipitates --- additive manufacturing --- powder bed fusion --- selective laser melting --- regular mixing --- ball milling --- flowability --- Ti-6Al-4V --- microstructure --- element segregation --- laves phase --- vanadium --- laser cladding --- arc additive manufacture --- Al–Mg alloy --- Mg content --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- n/a

Additive Manufacturing: Alloy Design and Process Innovations

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039284146 / 9783039284153 Year: Pages: 352 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-415-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
License:

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Abstract

Additive manufacturing (AM) is one of the manufacturing processes that warrants the attention of industrialists, researchers and scientists, because of its ability to produce materials with a complex shape without theoretical restrictions and with added functionalities. There are several advantages to employing additive manufacturing as the primary additive manufacturing process. However, there exist several challenges that need to be addressed systematically. A couple such issues are alloy design and process development. Traditionally alloys designed for conventional cast/powder metallurgical processes were fabricated using advanced AM processes. This is the wrong approach considering that the alloys should be coined based on the process characteristics and meta-stable nature of the process. Hence, we must focus on alloy design and development for AM that suits the AM processes. The AM processes, however, improve almost every day, either in terms of processing capabilities or processing conditions. Hence, the processing part warrants a section that is devoted to these advancements and innovations. Accordingly, the present Special Issue (book) focuses on two aspects of alloy development and process innovations. Here, 45 articles are presented covering different AM processes including selective laser melting, electron beam melting, laser cladding, direct metal laser sintering, ultrasonic consolidation, wire arc additive manufacturing, and hybrid manufacturing. I believe that this Special Issue bears is vital to the field of AM and will be a valuable addition.

Keywords

concrete --- slag --- valorization --- cement --- circular economy --- wire feeding additive manufacturing --- wire lateral feeding --- macro defects --- side spatters --- selective laser melting --- numerical analysis --- thermal behaviour --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- design --- disc brake --- 3D metal printing --- direct metal laser sintering --- thermal stress analysis --- radial grooves --- nickel alloys --- Hastelloy X alloy --- additive manufacturing --- microstructure --- scanning electron microscopy (SEM) --- laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) --- selective laser melting --- titanium alloy --- heat treatment --- microstructure --- microhardness measurement --- arc additive manufacturing --- Al–5Si alloy --- pulse frequency --- arc current --- microstructure --- porosity --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- constitutive model --- microstructural evolution --- continuous dynamic recrystallization --- hot deformation --- selective laser melting --- amorphous alloy --- finite element analysis --- residual stress --- 2219 aluminum alloy --- intermediate thermo-mechanical treatment --- storage energy --- CuAl2 phase --- grain refinement --- selective laser melting --- GH4169 --- temperature and stress fields --- simulation --- model --- selective laser melting --- divisional scanning --- residual stress --- deformation --- thermal conductivity --- tensile strength --- inoculation --- gray cast iron --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- performance characteristics --- AlSi10Mg --- multi-laser manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- mechanical property --- additive manufacturing --- metal powders --- powder flowability --- powder properties --- aluminum --- water absorption --- laser cladding deposition --- 12CrNi2 alloy steel powder --- substrate preheating --- microstructure and properties --- residual stress --- ultrafast laser --- femtosecond --- ablation --- scanning --- additive surface structuring --- hydrophobicity --- parts design --- additive manufacturing --- fused filament fabrication --- fatigue --- Taguchi --- ABS --- additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg --- Al6061 --- SLM process parameters --- quality of the as-built parts --- aluminum alloys --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- H13 tool steel --- process parameters --- scanning strategy --- support strategy --- porosity reduction --- selective laser melting --- Ti6Al4V alloy --- martensitic transformation --- texture evolution --- mechanical properties --- M300 mold steel --- elastic abrasive --- PSO-BP neural network algorithm --- parameter optimization --- WxNbMoTa --- refractory high-entropy alloy --- laser cladding deposition --- rapid solidification --- bulk metallic glasses --- selective laser melting --- Cu50Zr43Al7 --- mechanical properties --- Ti-6Al-4V --- wear --- additive manufacturing --- properties --- in-process temperature in MPBAM --- analytical modeling --- high computational efficiency --- molten pool evolution --- laser power absorption --- latent heat --- scanning strategy --- powder packing --- graphene nano-sheets (GNSs) --- epoxy solder --- intermetallic compound (IMC) --- laser powder bed fusion --- additive manufacturing --- aluminum --- composition --- mechanical properties --- localized inductive heating --- hot stamping steel blanks --- tailored properties --- magnetizer --- selective laser melting --- AlSi10Mg alloy --- dynamic properties --- impact --- crystallographic texture --- Additive manufacturing --- selective laser melting --- volumetric heat source --- thermal capillary effects --- melt pool size --- selective laser melting --- Inconel 718 --- crystallographic texture --- subgranular dendrites --- epitaxial growth --- 3D printing --- continuous carbon fiber --- thermosetting epoxy resin --- mechanical properties --- Powder bed --- fatigue --- Hot Isostatic Pressure --- Electron Beam Melting --- stability lobe diagram --- milling --- process-damping --- dynamic characteristics --- thin-walled weak rigidity parts --- Al–Si --- selective laser melting (SLM) --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- selective laser melting --- microstructure --- defects --- Inconel 718 --- laser energy density --- selective laser melting --- molten pool dynamic behavior --- equivalent processing model --- workpiece scale --- nickel-based superalloy --- numerical simulation --- metallic glasses --- composite materials --- interfaces --- additive manufacturing --- ultrasonic bonding --- 3D printing --- Al–Mg–Si alloy --- quenching rate --- microstructures --- mechanical properties --- paint bake-hardening --- precipitates --- additive manufacturing --- powder bed fusion --- selective laser melting --- regular mixing --- ball milling --- flowability --- Ti-6Al-4V --- microstructure --- element segregation --- laves phase --- vanadium --- laser cladding --- arc additive manufacture --- Al–Mg alloy --- Mg content --- microstructure --- mechanical properties --- n/a

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