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Central issues in global energy are discussed through interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from both North America and Europe with overview from historical, political, and sociocultural perspectives, outlining the technology and policy issues facing the development of major conventional and renewable energy sources. We are facing a global energy crisis caused by world population growth, an escalating increase in demand, and continued dependence on fossilbased fuels for generation. It is widely accepted that increases in greenhouse gas concentration levels, if not reversed, will result in major changes to world climate with consequential effects on our society and economy. This is just the kind of intractable problem that Purdue University’s Global Policy Research Institute seeks to address in the Purdue Studies in Public Policy series by promoting the engagement between policy makers and experts in fields such as engineering and technology. Major steps forward in the development and use of technology are required. In order to achieve solutions of the required scale and magnitude within a limited timeline, it is essential that engineers be not only technologicallyadept but also aware of the wider social and political issues that policymakers face. Likewise, it is also imperative that policy makers liaise closely with the academic community in order to realize advances. This book is designed to bridge the gap between these two groups, with a particular emphasis on educating the sociallyconscious engineers and technologists of the future. In this accessiblywritten volume, central issues in global energy are discussed through interdisciplinary dialogue between experts from both North America and Europe. The first section provides an overview of the nature of the global energy crisis approached from historical, political, and sociocultural perspectives. In the second section, expert contributors outline the technology and policy issues facing the development of major conventional and renewable energy sources. The third and final section explores policy and technology challenges and opportunities in the distribution and consumption of energy, in sectors such as transportation and the built environment. The book’s epilogue suggests some future scenarios in energy distribution and use. This title was made Open Access by libraries from around the world through Knowledge Unlatched.
energy consumption  energy development  energy policy  renewable energy sources
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In a world where energy conservation, environmental protection and sustainable development are growing concerns, the development of electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid EV (HEV) technologies has taken on an accelerated pace. This collection entitled “Electric and Hybrid Vehicles” invites articles that address the stateoftheart technologies and new developments for EVs and HEVs, including but not limited to energy sources, electric powertrains, hybrid powertrains, energy management systems, energy refueling systems, regenerative braking systems, system integration, system optimization and infrastructure. Articles which deal with the latest hot topics for EVs and HEVs are particularly encouraged such as advanced lithiumion batteries, ultracapacitors, energyefficient motor drives, bidirectional power converters, integratedstartergenerator systems, electric variable transmission systems, onboard renewable energy, inductive or wireless charging technology, and vehicletogrid technology. As the impact of the use of EVs and HEVs on our daily lives is utmost important, articles which deal with the relationships between the use of EVs or HEVs and the energy, environment and economy would be of particular interest.
electric vehicle (EV)  plugin hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV)  energy sources  energy management strategy  energystorage system  charging technologies  control algorithms  battery  operating scenario  wireless power transfer (WPT)
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This book presents an interesting sample of the latest advances in optimization techniques applied to electrical power engineering. It covers a variety of topics from various fields, ranging from classical optimization such as Linear and Nonlinear Programming and Integer and MixedInteger Programming to the most modern methods based on bioinspired metaheuristics. The featured papers invite readers to delve further into emerging optimization techniques and their real application to case studies such as conventional and renewable energy generation, distributed generation, transport and distribution of electrical energy, electrical machines and power electronics, network optimization, intelligent systems, advances in electric mobility, etc.
Cable joint  internal defect  thermal probability density  power system optimization  optimal power flow  developed grew wolf optimizer  energy internet  prosumer  energy management  consensus  demand response  dayahead load forecasting  modular predictor  feature selection  microphasor measurement unit  mutual information theory  stochastic state estimation  twopoint estimation method  JAYA algorithm  multipopulation method (MP)  chaos optimization algorithm (COA)  economic load dispatch problem (ELD)  optimization methods  constrained parameter estimation  extended Kalman filter  power systems  C&I particle swarm optimization  ringdown detection  optimal reactive power dispatch  loss minimization  voltage deviation  hybrid method  tabu search  particle swarm optimization  artificial lighting  simulation  calibration  radiance  GenOpt  street light points  DC optimal power flow  power transfer distribution factors  generalized generation distribution factors  unit commitment  adaptive consensus algorithm  distributed heatelectricity energy management  eight searching subregions  islanded microgrid  dragonfly algorithm  metaheuristic  optimal power flow  particle swarm optimization  CCHP system  energy storage  offdesign performance  dynamic solving framework  battery energy storage system  micro grid  MILP  PCS efficiency  piecewise linear techniques  renewable energy sources  optimal operation  UC  demand bidding  demand response  genetic algorithm  load curtailment  optimization  hybrid renewable energy system  pumpedhydro energy storage  offgrid  optimization  HOMER software  rural electrification  subSaharan Africa  Cameroon  building energy management system  HVAC system  energy storage system  energy flow model  dependability  sustainability  data center  power architectures  optimization  AC/DC hybrid active distribution  hierarchical scheduling  multistakeholders  discrete wind driven optimization  multiobjective optimization  optimal power flow  metaheuristic  wind energy  photovoltaic  smart grid  transformerfault diagnosis  principal component analysis  particle swarm optimization  support vector machine  wind power  integration assessment  interactive load  considerable decomposition  controllable response  SOCP relaxations  optimal power flow  current margins  affine arithmetic  interval variables  optimizingscenarios method  power flow  wind power  active distribution system  virtual power plant  stochastic optimization  decentralized and collaborative optimization  genetic algorithm  multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithm  artificial bee colony  IEEE Std. 802000  Schwarz’s equation  fuzzy algorithm  radial basis function  neural network  ETAP  distributed generations (DGs)  distribution network reconfiguration  runnerroot algorithm (RRA)  interturn shortedcircuit fault (ISCF)  strong track filter (STF)  linear discriminant analysis (LDA)  switched reluctance machine (SRM)  charging/discharging  electric vehicle  energy management  genetic algorithm  intelligent scatter search  electric vehicles  heterogeneous networks  demand uncertainty  power optimization  Stackelberg game  power system unit commitment  hybrid membrane computing  crossentropy  the genetic algorithm based P system  the biomimetic membrane computing  transient stability  twostage feature selection  particle encoding method  fitness function  power factor compensation  nonsinusoidal circuits  geometric algebra  evolutionary algorithms  electric power contracts  electric energy costs  cost minimization  evolutionary computation  bioinspired algorithms  congestion management  lowvoltage networks  multiobjective particle swarm optimization  affinity propagation clustering  optimal congestion threshold  optimization  magnetic field mitigation  overhead  underground  passive shielding  active shielding  MV/LV substation  n/a
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This book presents an interesting sample of the latest advances in optimization techniques applied to electrical power engineering. It covers a variety of topics from various fields, ranging from classical optimization such as Linear and Nonlinear Programming and Integer and MixedInteger Programming to the most modern methods based on bioinspired metaheuristics. The featured papers invite readers to delve further into emerging optimization techniques and their real application to case studies such as conventional and renewable energy generation, distributed generation, transport and distribution of electrical energy, electrical machines and power electronics, network optimization, intelligent systems, advances in electric mobility, etc.
Cable joint  internal defect  thermal probability density  power system optimization  optimal power flow  developed grew wolf optimizer  energy internet  prosumer  energy management  consensus  demand response  dayahead load forecasting  modular predictor  feature selection  microphasor measurement unit  mutual information theory  stochastic state estimation  twopoint estimation method  JAYA algorithm  multipopulation method (MP)  chaos optimization algorithm (COA)  economic load dispatch problem (ELD)  optimization methods  constrained parameter estimation  extended Kalman filter  power systems  C&I particle swarm optimization  ringdown detection  optimal reactive power dispatch  loss minimization  voltage deviation  hybrid method  tabu search  particle swarm optimization  artificial lighting  simulation  calibration  radiance  GenOpt  street light points  DC optimal power flow  power transfer distribution factors  generalized generation distribution factors  unit commitment  adaptive consensus algorithm  distributed heatelectricity energy management  eight searching subregions  islanded microgrid  dragonfly algorithm  metaheuristic  optimal power flow  particle swarm optimization  CCHP system  energy storage  offdesign performance  dynamic solving framework  battery energy storage system  micro grid  MILP  PCS efficiency  piecewise linear techniques  renewable energy sources  optimal operation  UC  demand bidding  demand response  genetic algorithm  load curtailment  optimization  hybrid renewable energy system  pumpedhydro energy storage  offgrid  optimization  HOMER software  rural electrification  subSaharan Africa  Cameroon  building energy management system  HVAC system  energy storage system  energy flow model  dependability  sustainability  data center  power architectures  optimization  AC/DC hybrid active distribution  hierarchical scheduling  multistakeholders  discrete wind driven optimization  multiobjective optimization  optimal power flow  metaheuristic  wind energy  photovoltaic  smart grid  transformerfault diagnosis  principal component analysis  particle swarm optimization  support vector machine  wind power  integration assessment  interactive load  considerable decomposition  controllable response  SOCP relaxations  optimal power flow  current margins  affine arithmetic  interval variables  optimizingscenarios method  power flow  wind power  active distribution system  virtual power plant  stochastic optimization  decentralized and collaborative optimization  genetic algorithm  multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithm  artificial bee colony  IEEE Std. 802000  Schwarz’s equation  fuzzy algorithm  radial basis function  neural network  ETAP  distributed generations (DGs)  distribution network reconfiguration  runnerroot algorithm (RRA)  interturn shortedcircuit fault (ISCF)  strong track filter (STF)  linear discriminant analysis (LDA)  switched reluctance machine (SRM)  charging/discharging  electric vehicle  energy management  genetic algorithm  intelligent scatter search  electric vehicles  heterogeneous networks  demand uncertainty  power optimization  Stackelberg game  power system unit commitment  hybrid membrane computing  crossentropy  the genetic algorithm based P system  the biomimetic membrane computing  transient stability  twostage feature selection  particle encoding method  fitness function  power factor compensation  nonsinusoidal circuits  geometric algebra  evolutionary algorithms  electric power contracts  electric energy costs  cost minimization  evolutionary computation  bioinspired algorithms  congestion management  lowvoltage networks  multiobjective particle swarm optimization  affinity propagation clustering  optimal congestion threshold  optimization  magnetic field mitigation  overhead  underground  passive shielding  active shielding  MV/LV substation  n/a
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Energy efficiency and lowcarbon technologies are key contributors to curtailing the emission of greenhouse gases that continue to cause global warming. The efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions also strongly affect electrical power systems. Renewable sources, storage systems, and flexible loads provide new system controls, but power system operators and utilities have to deal with their fluctuating nature, limited storage capabilities, and typically higher infrastructure complexity with a growing number of heterogeneous components. In addition to the technological change of new components, the liberalization of energy markets and new regulatory rules bring contextual change that necessitates the restructuring of the design and operation of future energy systems. Sophisticated component design methods, intelligent information and communication architectures, automation and control concepts, new and advanced markets, as well as proper standards are necessary in order to manage the higher complexity of such intelligent power systems that form smart grids. Due to the considerably higher complexity of such cyberphysical energy systems, constituting the power system, automation, protection, information and communication technology (ICT), and system services, it is expected that the design and validation of smartgrid configurations will play a major role in future technology and system developments. However, an integrated approach for the design and evaluation of smartgrid configurations incorporating these diverse constituent parts remains evasive. The currently available validation approaches focus mainly on componentoriented methods. In order to guarantee a sustainable, affordable, and secure supply of electricity through the transition to a future smart grid with considerably higher complexity and innovation, new design, validation, and testing methods appropriate for cyberphysical systems are required. Therefore, this book summarizes recent research results and developments related to the design and validation of smart grid systems.
adaptive control  fuzzy logic  cell  frequency containment control (FCC)  power frequency characteristic  droop control  smart grids  substation automation system (SAS)  highavailability seamless redundancy (HSR)  seamless communications  traffic reduction technique  Power HardwareintheLoop (PHIL)  interface algorithm (IA)  operational range of PHIL  linear/switching amplifier  cyberphysical energy system  cosimulation  conceptual structuration  coupling method  linear decision rules  optimal reserve allocation  robust optimization  web of cells  demand response  realtime balancing market  elastic demand bids  shiftable loads  market design  market design elements  WebofCells  procurement scheme  remuneration scheme  pricing scheme  cascading procurement  realtime simulation  hardwareintheLoop  synchrophasors  microsynchrophasors  distribution phasor measurement units  distribution grid  time synchronization  PHIL (power hardware in the loop)  simulation initialization  synchronization  time delay  synchronous power system  stability  accuracy  peertopeer  distributed control  devicetodevice communication  voltage control  experimentation  smart grid  cyber physical cosimulation  information and communication technology  4G Long Term Evolution—LTE  network reconfiguration  fault management  power loss allocation  plugin electric vehicle  smart grid  locational marginal prices  microgrid  resilience  investment  underground cabling  network outage  battery energy storage system (BESS)  micro combined heat and power (microCHP)  electricity distribution  solar photovoltaics (PV)  islanded operation  distributed control  microgrid  hardwareintheloop  average consensus  multiagent system  active distribution network  laboratory testbed  renewable energy sources  DC link  centralised control  interoperability  smart energy systems  use cases  IEC 62559  SGAM  TOGAF  integration profiles  IHE  testing  gazelle  connectathon  HardwareintheLoop  SoftwareintheLoop  PowerHardwareintheLoop  QuasiDynamic PowerHardwareintheLoop  smart grids  realtime simulation  validation and testing  decentralised energy system  smart grids control strategies  smart grid  wind power  synchronized measurements  PMU  data mining  Architecture  Development  Enterprise Architecture Management  ModelBased Software Engineering  Smart Grid  Smart Grid Architecture Model  SystemofSystems  Validation  design, development and implementation methods for smart grid technologies  modelling and simulation of smart grid systems  cosimulationbased assessment methods  validation techniques for innovative smart grid solutions  realtime simulation and hardwareintheloop experiments
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Power electronics technology is still an emerging technology, and it has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to electrical vehicles (EVs), biomedical devices, and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In the near future, electrical energy will be provided and handled by power electronics and consumed through power electronics; this not only will intensify the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation. Today, more than 1000 GW of renewable energy generation sources (photovoltaic (PV) and wind) have been installed, all of which are handled by power electronics technology. The main aim of this book is to highlight and address recent breakthroughs in the range of emerging applications in power electronics and in harmonic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues at device and system levels as discussed in ?robust and reliable power electronics technologies, including fault prognosis and diagnosis technique stability of gridconnected converters and ?smart control of power electronics in devices, microgrids, and at system levels.
energy storage  lithiumion battery  battery management system BMS  battery modeling  state of charge SoC  gridconnected inverter  power electronics  multiobjective optimization  switching frequency  total demand distortion  switching losses  EMI filter  power converter  power density  optimal design  electrical drives  axial flux machines  magnetic equivalent circuit  torque ripple  back EMF  permanentmagnet machines  fivephase permanent magnet synchronous machine  fiveleg voltage source inverter  multiphase space vector modulation  sliding mode control  extended Kalman filter  voltage source inverters (VSI)  voltage control  current control  digital control  predictive controllers  advanced controllers  stability  response time  lithiumion batteries  electric vehicles  battery management system  electric power  dynamic PV model  gridconnected VSI  HFlink MPPT converter  nanocrystalline core  SiC PV Supply  DC–DC converters  multilevel control  renewable energy resources control  electrical engineering communications  microgrid control  distributed control  power system operation and control  variable speed pumped storage system  droop control  vector control  phasor model technique  nine switch converter  synchronous generator  digital signal controller  static compensator, distribution generation  hybrid converter  multilevel converter (MLC)  series active filter  power factor correction (PFC)  fieldprogrammable gate array  particle swarm optimization  selective harmonic elimination method  voltage source converter  plugin hybrid electric vehicles  power management system  renewable energy sources  fuzzy  smart microgrid  fivephase machine  faulttolerant control  induction motor  one phase open circuit fault (1Ph)  adjacent twophase open circuit fault (A2Ph)  voltperhertz control (scalar control)  currentfed inverter  LCLS topology  semiactive bridge  soft switching  voltage boost  wireless power transfer  DC–DC conversion  zerovoltage switching (ZVS)  transient control  DC–DC conversion  bidirectional converter  power factor correction  line frequency instability  one cycle control  nonlinear phenomena  bifurcation  boost converter  converter  ice melting  modular multilevel converter (MMC)  optimization design  transmission line  static var generator (SVG)  hardwareintheloop  floatingpoint  fixedpoint  realtime emulation  field programmable gate array  slim DClink drive  VPI active damping control  total harmonic distortion  cogging torque  realtime simulation  power converters  nonlinear control  embedded systems  high level programing  SHIL  DHIL  4T analog MOS control  high frequency switching power supply  water purification  modulation index  electromagnetic interference  chaotic PWM  DCDC buck converter  CMOS chaotic circuit  triangular ramp generator  spreadspectrum technique  system in package  electric vehicle  wireless power transfer  inductive coupling  coupling factor  phaseshift control  seriesseries compensation  PSpice  fixedfrequency double integral slidingmode (FFDISM)  classD amplifier  Qfactor  GaN cascode  direct torque control (DTC)  composite active vectors modulation (CVM)  permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)  effect factors  double layer capacitor (DLC) models  energy storage modelling  simulation models  current control loops  dual threephase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs)  space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)  vector control  voltage source inverter  active rectifiers  singleswitch  analog phase control  digital phase control  wireless power transfer  threelevel boost converter (TLBC)  DClink cascade Hbridge (DCLCHB) inverter  conducting angle determination (CAD) techniques  total harmonic distortion (THD)  threephase bridgeless rectifier  fault diagnosis  fault tolerant control  hardware in loop  compensation topology  electromagnetic field (EMF)  electromagnetic field interference (EMI)  misalignment  resonator structure  wireless power transfer (WPT)  WPT standards  EMI filter  electromagnetic compatibility  AC–DC power converters  electromagnetic interference filter  matrix converters  current source  power density  battery energy storage systems  battery chargers  active receivers  frequency locking  reference phase calibration  synchronization  wireless power transfer  lithiumion batteries  SOC estimator  parameter identification  particle swarm optimization  improved extended Kalman filter  battery management system  PMSG  DClink voltage control  variable control gain  disturbance observer  lithiumion power battery pack  composite equalizer  active equalization  passive equalization  control strategy and algorithm  n/a  commonmode inductor  highfrequency modeling  electromagnetic interference  filter  fault diagnosis  condition monitoring  induction machines  support vector machines  expert systems  neural networks  DCAC power converters  frequencydomain analysis  impedancebased model  Nyquist stability analysis  small signal stability analysis  harmonic linearization  line start  permanent magnet  synchronous motor  efficiency motor  rotor design  harmonics  hybrid power filter  active power filter  power quality  total harmonic distortion  equivalent inductance  leakage inductance  switching frequency modelling  induction motor  current switching ripple  multilevel inverter  cascaded topology  voltage doubling  switched capacitor  nearest level modulation (NLM)  total harmonic distortion (THD)  deadtime compensation  power converters  harmonics  n/a
Choose an application
Power electronics technology is still an emerging technology, and it has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to electrical vehicles (EVs), biomedical devices, and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In the near future, electrical energy will be provided and handled by power electronics and consumed through power electronics; this not only will intensify the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation. Today, more than 1000 GW of renewable energy generation sources (photovoltaic (PV) and wind) have been installed, all of which are handled by power electronics technology. The main aim of this book is to highlight and address recent breakthroughs in the range of emerging applications in power electronics and in harmonic and electromagnetic interference (EMI) issues at device and system levels as discussed in ?robust and reliable power electronics technologies, including fault prognosis and diagnosis technique stability of gridconnected converters and ?smart control of power electronics in devices, microgrids, and at system levels.
energy storage  lithiumion battery  battery management system BMS  battery modeling  state of charge SoC  gridconnected inverter  power electronics  multiobjective optimization  switching frequency  total demand distortion  switching losses  EMI filter  power converter  power density  optimal design  electrical drives  axial flux machines  magnetic equivalent circuit  torque ripple  back EMF  permanentmagnet machines  fivephase permanent magnet synchronous machine  fiveleg voltage source inverter  multiphase space vector modulation  sliding mode control  extended Kalman filter  voltage source inverters (VSI)  voltage control  current control  digital control  predictive controllers  advanced controllers  stability  response time  lithiumion batteries  electric vehicles  battery management system  electric power  dynamic PV model  gridconnected VSI  HFlink MPPT converter  nanocrystalline core  SiC PV Supply  DC–DC converters  multilevel control  renewable energy resources control  electrical engineering communications  microgrid control  distributed control  power system operation and control  variable speed pumped storage system  droop control  vector control  phasor model technique  nine switch converter  synchronous generator  digital signal controller  static compensator, distribution generation  hybrid converter  multilevel converter (MLC)  series active filter  power factor correction (PFC)  fieldprogrammable gate array  particle swarm optimization  selective harmonic elimination method  voltage source converter  plugin hybrid electric vehicles  power management system  renewable energy sources  fuzzy  smart microgrid  fivephase machine  faulttolerant control  induction motor  one phase open circuit fault (1Ph)  adjacent twophase open circuit fault (A2Ph)  voltperhertz control (scalar control)  currentfed inverter  LCLS topology  semiactive bridge  soft switching  voltage boost  wireless power transfer  DC–DC conversion  zerovoltage switching (ZVS)  transient control  DC–DC conversion  bidirectional converter  power factor correction  line frequency instability  one cycle control  nonlinear phenomena  bifurcation  boost converter  converter  ice melting  modular multilevel converter (MMC)  optimization design  transmission line  static var generator (SVG)  hardwareintheloop  floatingpoint  fixedpoint  realtime emulation  field programmable gate array  slim DClink drive  VPI active damping control  total harmonic distortion  cogging torque  realtime simulation  power converters  nonlinear control  embedded systems  high level programing  SHIL  DHIL  4T analog MOS control  high frequency switching power supply  water purification  modulation index  electromagnetic interference  chaotic PWM  DCDC buck converter  CMOS chaotic circuit  triangular ramp generator  spreadspectrum technique  system in package  electric vehicle  wireless power transfer  inductive coupling  coupling factor  phaseshift control  seriesseries compensation  PSpice  fixedfrequency double integral slidingmode (FFDISM)  classD amplifier  Qfactor  GaN cascode  direct torque control (DTC)  composite active vectors modulation (CVM)  permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)  effect factors  double layer capacitor (DLC) models  energy storage modelling  simulation models  current control loops  dual threephase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs)  space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM)  vector control  voltage source inverter  active rectifiers  singleswitch  analog phase control  digital phase control  wireless power transfer  threelevel boost converter (TLBC)  DClink cascade Hbridge (DCLCHB) inverter  conducting angle determination (CAD) techniques  total harmonic distortion (THD)  threephase bridgeless rectifier  fault diagnosis  fault tolerant control  hardware in loop  compensation topology  electromagnetic field (EMF)  electromagnetic field interference (EMI)  misalignment  resonator structure  wireless power transfer (WPT)  WPT standards  EMI filter  electromagnetic compatibility  AC–DC power converters  electromagnetic interference filter  matrix converters  current source  power density  battery energy storage systems  battery chargers  active receivers  frequency locking  reference phase calibration  synchronization  wireless power transfer  lithiumion batteries  SOC estimator  parameter identification  particle swarm optimization  improved extended Kalman filter  battery management system  PMSG  DClink voltage control  variable control gain  disturbance observer  lithiumion power battery pack  composite equalizer  active equalization  passive equalization  control strategy and algorithm  n/a  commonmode inductor  highfrequency modeling  electromagnetic interference  filter  fault diagnosis  condition monitoring  induction machines  support vector machines  expert systems  neural networks  DCAC power converters  frequencydomain analysis  impedancebased model  Nyquist stability analysis  small signal stability analysis  harmonic linearization  line start  permanent magnet  synchronous motor  efficiency motor  rotor design  harmonics  hybrid power filter  active power filter  power quality  total harmonic distortion  equivalent inductance  leakage inductance  switching frequency modelling  induction motor  current switching ripple  multilevel inverter  cascaded topology  voltage doubling  switched capacitor  nearest level modulation (NLM)  total harmonic distortion (THD)  deadtime compensation  power converters  harmonics  n/a
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