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Proliferation-proof Uranium/Plutonium and Thorium/Uranium Fuel Cycles: Safeguards and Non-Proliferation

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ISBN: 9783731505167 Year: Pages: XXVI, 544 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000054131 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:02
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Thermal and neutron physics analysis show that above certain concentrations of the isotope Pu-238 hypothetical nuclear explosive devices, made of reactor-grade plutonium, are technically not feasible. Future proliferation-proof fuel cycles are proposed which make use of methods of actinide tansmutation.Reactors operating in the thorium/uranium fuel cyce are loaded with <20% U-235 uranium fuel which can be made proliferation-proof against re-enrichment by adding a certain ppm level of U-232.

The Development of Animal Personality

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451517 Year: Pages: 105 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-151-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Ecology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Although the topic of animal personality has recently generated much interest, the role of development is little understood. This collection of papers deals with the development of animal personality. Topics include the roles of genetic effects, maternal effects, social partners, predation and parasitism risk, and environmental complexity in the development of personality, the effects of personality on survival, and the development of collective personality and movement as a driver of personality development. The organisms covered include insects, spiders, fishes, and birds. This volume illustrates the diversity of approaches that have shed light on the development of animal personality in the past several years.

Bereicherung und Schadenersatz im Immaterialgüterrecht

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ISBN: 9783709700631 Year: Pages: 211 Seiten Language: German
Publisher: Jan Sramek Verlag Grant: Austrian Science Fund (FWF) - PUB 477
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:34:16

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The special rules on unjust enrichment and damages in intellectual property law are subject of a discussion where representatives of civil law criticise them as incoherent in the general system of civil law and representatives of intellectual property law justify this incoherence with their practical utility. This book shows that it is important to bring general civil law in dialogue with the rules of “special private law” in order to link practical utility and theoretical coherence and to realize pragmatic solutions for certain cases within the frame of a coherent legal system.

Basic Questions of Tort Law from a Comparative Perspective

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
ISBN: 9783709700402 Year: Pages: 914 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_574832 Language: English
Publisher: Jan Sramek Verlag Grant: Austrian Science Fund - PUB 301
Added to DOAB on : 2015-09-08 11:01:56
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The starting point for this project on the »Basic Questions of Tort Law« was the book written by Helmut Koziol, the »Basic Questions of Tort Law from a Germanic Perspective« (Sramek Verlag, 2012), a volume which presented an introduction into the law of torts from a Germanic perspective. Colleagues from seven countries were then invited to give critical responses to the ideas presented in the 2012 volume. The comparative law conclusions then attempt to pick up on the ideas expressed in the legal systems examined and to make them amenable for debate on the further development of the legal systems and their harmonisation.German Version: http://e-book.fwf.ac.at/o:603

Hardwood Reforestation and Restoration

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977308 / 9783038977315 Year: Pages: 192 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-731-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Ecology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:28
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Hardwood-dominated temperate forests (mostly in Eastern North America, Europe, North East Asia) provide valuable renewable timber and numerous ecosystem services. Many of these forests have been subjected to harvesting or conversion to agriculture, sometimes over centuries, that have greatly reduced their former extent and diversity. Natural regeneration following harvesting or during post-agricultural succession has often failed to restore these forests adequately. Past harvesting practices and the valuable timber of some species have led to a reduction in their abundance. The loss of apex predators has caused herbivore populations to increase and exert intense browsing pressure on hardwood regeneration, often preventing it. Particularly important are fruit, nut and acorn bearing species, because of their vital role in forest food webs and biodiversity. Restoring hardwood species to natural forests in which they were formerly more abundant will require a number of forest management actions (e.g., resistant hybrids, deer exclosures/protectors, enrichment planting, underplanting, etc.). Similarly, reforesting areas that were once natural forests will also require new silvicultural knowledge. Global warming trends will intensify the need for interventions to maintain the diversity and function of temperate hardwood forests, as well as for increase hardwood reforestation.

Machine Learning, Low-Rank Approximations and Reduced Order Modeling in Computational Mechanics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214099 / 9783039214105 Year: Pages: 254 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-410-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The use of machine learning in mechanics is booming. Algorithms inspired by developments in the field of artificial intelligence today cover increasingly varied fields of application. This book illustrates recent results on coupling machine learning with computational mechanics, particularly for the construction of surrogate models or reduced order models. The articles contained in this compilation were presented at the EUROMECH Colloquium 597, « Reduced Order Modeling in Mechanics of Materials », held in Bad Herrenalb, Germany, from August 28th to August 31th 2018. In this book, Artificial Neural Networks are coupled to physics-based models. The tensor format of simulation data is exploited in surrogate models or for data pruning. Various reduced order models are proposed via machine learning strategies applied to simulation data. Since reduced order models have specific approximation errors, error estimators are also proposed in this book. The proposed numerical examples are very close to engineering problems. The reader would find this book to be a useful reference in identifying progress in machine learning and reduced order modeling for computational mechanics.

Keywords

parameter-dependent model --- surrogate modeling --- tensor-train decomposition --- gappy POD --- heterogeneous data --- elasto-viscoplasticity --- archive --- model reduction --- 3D reconstruction --- inverse problem plasticity --- data science --- model order reduction --- POD --- DEIM --- gappy POD --- GNAT --- ECSW --- empirical cubature --- hyper-reduction --- reduced integration domain --- computational homogenisation --- model order reduction (MOR) --- low-rank approximation --- proper generalised decomposition (PGD) --- PGD compression --- randomised SVD --- nonlinear material behaviour --- machine learning --- artificial neural networks --- computational homogenization --- nonlinear reduced order model --- elastoviscoplastic behavior --- nonlinear structural mechanics --- proper orthogonal decomposition --- empirical cubature method --- error indicator --- symplectic model order reduction --- proper symplectic decomposition (PSD) --- structure preservation of symplecticity --- Hamiltonian system --- reduced order modeling (ROM) --- proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) --- enhanced POD --- a priori enrichment --- modal analysis --- stabilization --- dynamic extrapolation --- computational homogenization --- large strain --- finite deformation --- geometric nonlinearity --- reduced basis --- reduced-order model --- sampling --- Hencky strain --- microstructure property linkage --- unsupervised machine learning --- supervised machine learning --- neural network --- snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition

Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039214419 / 9783039214426 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-442-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Phages have shown a high biotechnological potential with numerous applications. The advent of high-resolution microscopy techniques aligned with omic and molecular tools have revealed innovative phage features and enabled new processes that can be further exploited for biotechnological applications in a wide variety of fields. The high-quality original articles and reviews presented in this Special Issue demonstrate the incredible potential of phages and their derived proteins in a wide range of biotechnological applications for human benefit. Considering the emergence of amazing new available bioengineering tools and the high abundance of phages and the multitude of phage proteins yet to be discovered and studied, we believe that the upcoming years will present us with many more fascinating and new previously unimagined phage-based biotechnological applications.

Keywords

gene expression regulation --- molecular probe --- macromolecular interactions --- phage-host interaction --- bacteriophage --- endolysin --- Clostridium perfringens --- alpha-sheet --- cancerous tumors --- capsid dynamics --- drug delivery vehicles --- native gel electrophoresis --- neurodegenerative disease --- pathogenic viruses --- phage display --- landscape phage --- major coat protein --- nanomedicine --- diagnostics --- biosensors --- M13 bacteriophage --- biofilm --- porous structure --- filters --- self-assembly --- T7phage library --- sarcoidosis --- tuberculosis --- microarray --- immunoscreening --- R-type pyocin --- bacteriocin --- contractile injection systems --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- X-ray crystallography --- receptor-binding protein --- Shigella flexneri --- bacteriophage --- tailspike proteins --- O-antigen --- serotyping --- microtiter plate assay --- fluorescence sensor --- bacteriophages --- encapsulation --- niosomes --- transfersomes --- liposomes --- Staphylococcus aureus --- phage --- Enterococcus faecalis --- Streptococcus agalactiae --- culture enrichment --- bacteriophage --- diagnostics --- Listeria monocytogenes --- endolysin --- magnetic separation --- reporter phage --- endolysin --- Pal --- Cpl-1 --- safety --- toxicity --- immune response --- Streptococcus pneumoniae --- self-assembly --- nanotubular structures --- tail sheath protein --- bacteriophage vB_EcoM_FV3 --- Appelmans --- bacteriophage evolution --- bacteriophage recombination --- phage therapy --- Pseudomonas aeruginosa --- antibiotic resistance --- bacteriophages --- Myoviridae --- bacteriophage-derived lytic enzyme --- enzybiotics --- endolysin --- in vitro activity --- ESKAPE --- n/a

Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science

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ISBN: 9783039214112 / 9783039214129 Year: Pages: 282 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-412-9 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Chemistry (General) --- Analytical Chemistry
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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This book will provide the most recent knowledge and advances in Sample Preparation Techniques for Separation Science. Everyone working in a laboratory must be familiar with the basis of these technologies, and they often involve elaborate and time-consuming procedures that can take up to 80% of the total analysis time. Sample preparation is an essential step in most of the analytical methods for environmental and biomedical analysis, since the target analytes are often not detected in their in-situ forms, or the results are distorted by interfering species. In the past decade, modern sample preparation techniques have aimed to comply with green analytical chemistry principles, leading to simplification, miniaturization, easy manipulation of the analytical devices, low costs, strong reduction or absence of toxic organic solvents, as well as low sample volume requirements.Modern Sample Preparation Approaches for Separation Science also provides an invaluable reference tool for analytical chemists in the chemical, biological, pharmaceutical, environmental, and forensic sciences.

Keywords

vitamins --- extraction --- determination --- review --- sample preparation --- matrix solid phase dispersion --- sorbent --- miniaturization --- on-line --- blueberry --- non-anthocyanin polyphenol --- vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- response surface methodology --- desirability function approach --- nail --- curie temperature --- high-frequency heating --- liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry --- caffeine --- amlodipine --- gas chromatography --- hydrogel --- hormones --- pectin --- polyvinyl alcohol --- sample preparation --- in-tube SPME --- UHPLC-MS/MS --- organic-based monoliths --- antipsychotics --- plasma samples --- schizophrenic’ patients --- salting-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- sugaring-out assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- hydrophobic-solvent assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- subzero-temperature assisted liquid–liquid extraction --- phenolic compounds --- sorbent-based techniques --- multi-spheres adsorptive micro-extraction (MSA?E) --- floating sampling technology --- caffeine and acetaminophen tracers --- environmental water matrices --- vortex-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction --- China herbal tea --- pesticides residue --- aflatoxins --- UPLC-MS/MS --- vortex-synchronized matrix solid-phase dispersion --- crab shells --- ionic liquids --- anthraquinones --- Cassiae Semen --- sample preparation --- nanocomposite --- pathogenic --- enrichment --- nucleic acid isolation --- sample preparation with TLC/HPTLC --- solvent front position extraction --- solvent delivery with a moving pipette --- automation --- LC–MS/MS --- environmental analysis --- whole water --- trace analysis --- SPE --- large volume --- in-line filter --- sand --- flow rate --- pharmaceuticals --- hormones --- pesticides --- space instrumentation --- liquid chromatography --- oligopeptides --- trapping system --- membrane-based microextraction --- barbiturates --- simultaneous determination --- whole blood --- urine --- liver --- sample preparation --- oxylipins --- protein precipitation --- liquid–liquid extraction --- solid-phase extraction --- biological samples --- chlorophenoxy acid herbicides --- HPLC --- hydrophobic in-tube solid-phase microextraction --- poly (OMA-co-TRIM) monolithic column --- rice grains --- gold --- sample preparation --- preconcentration --- geological samples

Biomass Chars: Elaboration, Characterization and Applications ?

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039216628 / 9783039216635 Year: Pages: 342 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-663-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Agriculture (General) --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Biomass can be converted to energy, biofuels, and bioproducts via thermochemical conversion processes, such as combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification. Combustion technology is most widely applied on an industrial scale. However, biomass gasification and pyrolysis processes are still in the research and development stage. The major products from these processes are syngas, bio-oil, and char (called also biochar for agronomic application). Among these products, biomass chars have received increasing attention for different applications, such as gasification, co-combustion, catalysts or adsorbents precursors, soil amendment, carbon fuel cells, and supercapacitors. This Special Issue provides an overview of biomass char production methods (pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization, etc.), characterization techniques (e.g., scanning electronic microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, nitrogen adsorption, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption and mass spectrometry), their properties, and their suitable recovery processes.

Keywords

biomass production --- multicriteria model --- ELECTRE III --- combustion --- oxygen enrichment --- low-rank coal char --- char oxidation --- reaction kinetics --- salty food waste --- FT-IR --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- NaCl --- hydrothermal carbonization --- anaerobic digestion --- poultry slaughterhouse --- sludge cake --- energy recovery efficiency --- gasification --- kinetic model --- active site --- chemisorption --- hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) --- Chinese reed --- biocrude --- biochar --- high heating value (HHV) --- biochar --- steam --- gasification --- chemical speciation --- AAEMs --- underground coal gasification --- ash layer --- effective diffusion coefficient --- internal diffusion resistance --- pyrolysis --- hydrothermal carbonization --- biochar engineering --- porosity --- nutrients --- polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) --- nitrogen --- biomass --- amino acid --- pyrrole --- NOx --- pyrolysis --- grape marc --- kinetic models --- characterization --- pyrolysis --- Texaco pilot plant --- reactor modelling --- ash fusion temperature (AFT) --- melting phenomenon --- food waste compost --- sawdust --- pyrolysis --- biochar --- thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) --- calorific value --- biogas purification --- coconut shells --- biomass valorization --- textural characterization --- adsorption isotherms --- breakthrough curves --- olive mill solid wastes (OMSWs) --- fixed bed combustor --- pellets --- combustion parameters --- gaseous emissions --- waste wood --- interactions --- interferences --- partial combustion reaction in gasification --- Boudouard reaction in gasification --- MTDATA --- biomass --- steam gasification --- kinetics --- pyrolysis conditions --- thermogravimetric analysis --- characteristic time analysis --- biomass --- combustion --- thermogravimetric analysis --- kinetic parameters --- thermal characteristics --- food waste --- food-waste biochar --- pyrolysis --- NaCl template --- desalination --- biochar --- ash from biomass --- giant miscanthus --- fertilisation --- CO2 adsorption --- CH4 adsorption --- biomass --- activated carbon --- n/a

Mobile Mapping Technologies

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280186 / 9783039280193 Year: Pages: 334 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-019-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Mobile Mapping technologies have seen a rapid growth of research activity and interest in the last years, due to the increased demand of accurate, dense and geo-referenced 3D data. Their main characteristic is the ability of acquiring 3D information of large areas dynamically. This versatility has expanded their application fields from the civil engineering to a broader range (industry, emergency response, cultural heritage...), which is constantly widening. This increased number of needs, some of them specially challenging, is pushing the Scientific Community, as well as companies, towards the development of innovative solutions, ranging from new hardware / open source software approaches and integration with other devices, up to the adoption of artificial intelligence methods for the automatic extraction of salient features and quality assessment for performance verification The aim of the present book is to cover the most relevant topics and trends in Mobile Mapping Technology, and also to introduce the new tendencies of this new paradigm of geospatial science.

Keywords

cultural heritage --- restoration --- indoor mapping --- laser scanning --- wearable mobile laser system --- 3D digitalization --- SLAM --- visual landmark sequence --- indoor topological localization --- convolutional neural network (CNN) --- second order hidden Markov model --- ORB-SLAM2 --- binary vocabulary --- small-scale vocabulary --- rapid relocation --- terrestrial laser scanning --- tunnel central axis --- tunnel cross section --- enhanced RANSAC --- quadric fitting --- constrained nonlinear least-squares problem --- visual simultaneous localization and mapping --- dynamic environment --- RGB-D camera --- encoder --- OctoMap --- IMMS --- indoor mapping --- MLS --- mobile laser scanning --- SLAM --- point clouds --- 2D laser scanner --- 2D laser range-finder --- LiDAR --- LRF --- sensors configurations --- Lidar localization system --- unmanned vehicle --- segmentation-based feature extraction --- category matching --- multi-group-step L-M optimization --- map management --- indoor mapping --- room type tagging --- semantic enrichment --- grammar --- Bayesian inference --- indoor localization --- crowdsourcing trajectory --- fingerprinting --- smartphone --- mobile mapping --- laser scanning --- self-calibration --- 3D point clouds --- geometric features --- motion estimation --- trajectory fusion --- mobile mapping --- sensor fusion --- optical sensors --- robust statistical analysis --- portable mobile mapping system --- handheld --- 3D processing --- point cloud --- Vitis vinifera --- terrestrial laser scanning --- plant vigor --- mobile mapping --- precision agriculture --- vine size --- visual positioning --- indoor scenes --- automated database construction --- image retrieval

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