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Soziale Sicherung im Spannungsfeld gesellschaftlicher Transformation - Eine partizipative Studie in Küstendörfern der Fidschi-Inseln

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ISBN: 9783863952617 Year: Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Geology --- Earth Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2016-06-21 11:02:50
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As other Pacific Islands Countries, Fiji is shaped by processes of social transformations and global environmental change. This study utilises ethnographic ideals for enhancing cultural and social geographic research in the global south. A participatory in-depth analysis of rural life in three Fijian coastal villages is at the core of this study. This is framed by a historic-political overview of the burden of Fiji's colonial past. Fijian coastal villagers are not passive victims of global social transformation and climate change. Through neo-traditional movements they actively form processes of social and cultural change. Rural Fijian norms, values and cultural identity crystallize in robust communities. Via modern forms of communication and transportation Fijians established globalised networks securing individuals' quality of life. Family members living far from their home villages remain in contact with their relatives. This way they keep their Fijian Identities as source of wellbeing and as well support the villagers' material wealth and knowledge to enhance capabilities. Merely regarding hazardous climate change impacts the passed on knowledge is spread abridged and poorly fitting into local value systems. Therefore, misperceptions and maladaptations are prevalent. In consequence this study pleads for development agencies to act culturally sensitive and to critically reflect ethnocentric worldviews in order not to harm Fijian values and wellbeing.

International Perspectives on Global Environmental Change

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ISBN: 9789533078151 Year: Pages: 490 DOI: 10.5772/1518 Language: English
Publisher: IntechOpen
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-03 09:47:08

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Environmental change is increasingly considered a critical topic for researchers across multiple disciplines, as well as policy makers throughout the world. Mounting evidence shows that environments in every part of the globe are undergoing tremendous human-induced change. Population growth, urbanization and the expansion of the global economy are putting increasing pressure on ecosystems around the planet. To understand the causes and consequences of environmental change, the contributors to this book employ spatial and non-spatial data, diverse theoretical perspectives and cutting edge research tools such as GIS, remote sensing and other relevant technologies. International Perspectives on Global Environmental Change brings together research from around the world to explore the complexities of contemporary, and historical environmental change. As an InTech open source publication current and cutting edge research methodologies and research results are quickly published for the academic policy-making communities. Dimensions of environmental change explored in this volume include: Climate change Historical environmental change Biological responses to environmental change Land use and land cover change Policy and management for environmental change

The Environment and International Relations

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ISBN: 9780203995525 9780415122146 9780415122153 9781134827794 9781134827787 9781134827749 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203995525 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Political Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:09
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Environmental issues and questions of global change are now firmly established on the international political agenda. This book provides a wide-ranging survey of the current treatment of environmental issues in international relations. This book begins by looking at the relevance of the different theoretical approaches current in international relations to the study of the environment. It analyzses a wide range of approaches from the debate between neo-realism and liberal institutionalism to the significant connections between gender and global environmental change. The book goes on to consider a range of key international processes, discussing the monitoring and implementation of environmental agreements, the place of ideology in negotiations and the role of international organisations.

Global health - a challenge for interdisciplinary research

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ISBN: 9783863950477 Year: Pages: 407 Language: German
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Public Health --- Medicine (General) --- Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-17 04:22:11
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Human, animal and plant health is a field of work which offers opportunities for inter- and trans-disciplinary research. The whole topic bridges the natural and social sciences. Today, in a world of global environmental change it is widely recognized that human societies and their wellbeing depend on a sustainable equilibrium of ecosystem services and the possibility of cultural adaptation to global environmental change. The need to identify and quantify health risks related to global environmental change is now one of the most important challenges of humankind. Describing spatial (geographic, intra/inter-population) and temporal differences in health risks is an urgent task to understand societies’ vulnerabilities and priorities for interventions better. The Göttingen International Health Network (GIHN) is a research and teaching network in relation to this cross-cutting topic. The book provides a collection of articles which contribute to this issue of overriding importance and presents an overview of the GIHN launch event.

Microbial responses to environmental changes

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197231 Year: Pages: 261 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-723-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Advances in next generation sequencing technologies, omics, and bioinformatics are revealing a tremendous and unsuspected diversity of microbes, both at a compositional and functional level. Moreover, the expansion of ecological concepts into microbial ecology has greatly advanced our comprehension of the role microbes play in the functioning of ecosystems across a wide range of biomes. Super-imposed on this new information about microbes, their functions and how they are organized, environmental gradients are changing rapidly, largely driven by direct and indirect human activities. In the context of global change, understanding the mechanisms that shape microbial communities is pivotal to predict microbial responses to novel selective forces and their implications at the local as well as global scale. One of the main features of microbial communities is their ability to react to changes in the environment. Thus, many studies have reported changes in the performance and composition of communities along environmental gradients. However, the mechanisms underlying these responses remain unclear. It is assumed that the response of microbes to changes in the environment is mediated by a complex combination of shifts in the physiological properties, single-cell activities, or composition of communities: it may occur by means of physiological adjustments of the taxa present in a community or selecting towards more tolerant/better adapted phylotypes. Knowing whether certain factors trigger one, many, or all mechanisms would greatly increase confidence in predictions of future microbial composition and processes. This Research Topic brings together studies that applied the latest molecular techniques for studying microbial composition and functioning and integrated ecological, biogeochemical and/or modeling approaches to provide a comprehensive and mechanistic perspective of the responses of micro-organisms to environmental changes. This Research Topic presents new findings on environmental parameters influencing microbial communities, the type and magnitude of response and differences in the response among microbial groups, and which collectively deepen our current understanding and knowledge of the underlying mechanisms of microbial structural and functional responses to environmental changes and gradients in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The body of work has, furthermore, identified many challenges and questions that yet remain to be addressed and new perspectives to follow up on.

Soil Water Conservation. Dynamics and Impact

Authors: --- --- ---
ISBN: 9783038978527 9783038978534 Year: Pages: 258 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-853-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- Environmental Technology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Human needs like food and clean water are directly related to good maintenance of healthy and productive soils. A good understanding of human impact on the natural environment is therefore necessary to preserve and manage soil and water resources. This knowledge is particularly important in semi-arid and arid regions, where the increasing demands on limited water supplies require urgent efforts to improve water quality and water use efficiency. It is important to keep in mind that both soil and water are limited resources. Thus, wise use of these natural resources is a fundamental prerequisite for the sustainability of human societies. This book collects 15 original scientific contributions addressing the state of the art of soil and water conservation research. Contributions cover a wide range of topics, including (1) recovery of soil hydraulic properties; (2) erosion risk; (3) novel modeling, monitoring and experimental approaches for soil hydraulic characterization; (4) improvement of crop yields; (5) water availability; and (6) soil salinity. This collection provides more insights into conservation strategies for effective and sustainable soil and water management.

Keywords

soil moisture storage --- van Genuchten model --- distributed model --- Xin’anjiang model --- TOPMODEL --- bimsoils --- critical hydraulic gradient (CHG) --- response surface methodology --- multi-parameter evaluation --- laboratory experiment --- soil block --- subsurface flow --- macropore network --- spatial scale --- polyurethane foam --- hillslope --- soil water content --- field observation --- three-dimensional model --- numerical model --- delta plain --- shallow groundwater --- unsaturated soil --- Richards equation --- the Trefftz method --- transient --- the meshless method --- vineyards --- infiltration rate --- age of planting --- saturated hydraulic conductivity --- Malawi --- conservation agriculture --- peer effects --- decision tree modeling --- olive grove --- sap flow --- relative transpiration --- FDR sensor --- EM38 --- fraction transpiration soil water --- transdisciplinary research --- Follow-the-Innovation --- innovation development --- electromagnetic induction meter (EM) --- The Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) software --- AquaCrop --- cereals --- DSSAT --- field scattering --- food security --- microdose fertilization --- rainfall variability --- tied ridges --- upgrading strategies --- soil properties --- saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- soil infiltration --- Beerkan method --- post-fire soil hydraulic characterization --- infiltration --- bottomless bucket method --- single-ring infiltrometer --- field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivity --- data analysis procedures --- environmental change --- local perception --- food security --- adaptation --- soil tillage --- tillage erosion --- seedbed preparation --- water infiltration --- nitrogen use efficiency --- specific leaf water content --- vegetable production --- soil --- yield --- water and soil conservation --- sustainable land management --- soil erosion --- soil water storage --- water infiltration --- water availability --- crop yields

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