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Neuroactive metabolites of ethanol: a behavioral and neurochemical synopsis

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193752 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-375-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-19 16:29:12
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Abstract

Ethanol is a very elusive drug, which has mechanisms of action that are diverse and relatively non-selective. Moreover, ethanol has been demonstrated to be a biologically active substance by itself, but also a pro-drug of the neuroactive metabolites, acetaldehyde and acetate. Acetaldehyde has traditionally been known as a toxic substance with several effects on multiple systems. However, in the last few decades evidence has accumulated to reveal the specific and, in some instances, distinct neural actions of acetaldehyde and acetate that are in part responsible for some of the observed psychoactive effects of ethanol. The present issue will address these challenges to provide an up-to-date synopsis of the behavioral and neurophysiological impact of the two direct metabolites of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate. In doing so, this issue will present human and rodent evidence on their behavioral and neurophysiological impact, either when administered alone as drugs, or when metabolically-derived from their parent compound. Emphasis will be placed to stress the importance of the different enzymatic systems that intervene to produce these metabolites, either peripherally and/or directly in the brain. Similarly, this Research Topic will be aimed at addressing some of the possible mechanisms of action of acetaldehyde and acetate in different brain areas and in different intracellular systems. Furthermore, the issue will lay out some of the suggested mechanisms of action of ethanol and of its metabolites by which they form adducts with other molecules and neurotransmitters such as dopamine and opioids (which lead to salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline, respectively), and their impact on the synthesis and actions of neuromodulators such as adenosine and the cannabinoid system.

Keywords

Ethanol --- Catalase --- acetate --- Dopamine --- Salsolinol --- Opioids --- Addiction --- Drug abuse

BK Channels: Integrators of Cellular Signals in Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452910 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-291-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Maxi calcium-activated potassium channels (BK) are an amazing category of ion channels which are found in cellular plasma membranes as well as in membranes of intracellular organelles. The function of these channels is to repolarize any excited membrane by passing a potassium outward current, in response to depolarization and/or increase in local calcium levels. Thus, voltage and calcium ions are involved in gating the channel under physiological conditions. This dual activation makes them perfect sensors for many cellular events that require integration between intracellular calcium levels and electrical signals. A plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions, such as membrane hyperpolarization, modulation of synaptic transmission, hormone secretion or mental deficiencies, vaso-regulation, epilepsies, heart diseases, myotonic dystrophies, hypertension etc, in almost all cells and tissues were reported for these channels. BK channels are main targets for important ligands like alcohol and gaseous neurotransmitters, such as NO, CO or H2S, to name a few. In the last years, the molecular entities and mechanisms involved in modulation of BK channels have gained tremendous attention, as the key role of these channels in cellular processes became increasingly recognized. Indeed, accessory proteins such as slob, beta and gamma subunits, all serve to modulate the channel gating characteristics. Moreover, channel subunit expression and function is further tuned by phosphorylation/ dephosphorylation processes, redox mechanisms and the lipid microenvironment of the BK channel protein complex. This e-book contains structural and functional aspects of BK channels, channel modulation by a variety of agents and cellular components, as well as the channel’s relevance in health and disease.

Electrocatalysis in Fuel Cells

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ISBN: 9783038422341 9783038422198 Year: Pages: XXX, 658 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-219-8 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-07-12 11:10:02
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Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

Thermophiles and Thermozymes

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ISBN: 9783038978169 9783038978176 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-817-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Interest in the study of life in hot environments, both with respect to the inhabiting microorganisms and the enzymes they produce, is currently very high. The biological mechanisms responsible for the resistance to high temperatures are not yet fully understood, whereas thermostability is a highly required feature for industrial applications. In this e-book, the invited authors provide diverse evidence contributing to the understanding of such mechanisms and the unlocking of the biotechnological potential of thermophiles and thermozymes.

Nanoporous Materials and Their Applications

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ISBN: 9783038979685 / 9783038979692 Year: Pages: 168 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-969-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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This book is a special collection of articles dedicated to the preparation and characterization of nanoporous materials, such as zeolitic-type materials, mesoporous silica (SBA-15, MCM-41, and KIT-6), mesoporous metallic oxides, metal–organic framework structures (MOFs), and pillared clays, and their applications in adsorption, catalysis, and separation processes. This book presents a global vision of researchers from international universities, research centers, and industries working with nanoporous materials and shares the latest results on the synthesis and characterization of such materials, which have given rise to the special interest in their applications in basic and industrial processes.

Membrane and Membrane Reactors Operations in Chemical Engineering

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ISBN: 9783039210220 / 9783039210237 Year: Pages: 154 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-023-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Environmental Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 10:09:00
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This Special Issue is aimed at highlighting the potentialities of membrane and membrane reactor operations in various sectors of chemical engineering, based on application of the process intensification strategy. In all of the contributions, the principles of process intensification were pursued during the adoption of membrane technology, demonstrating how it may lead to the development of redesigned processes that are more compact and efficient while also being more environmental friendly, energy saving, and amenable to integration with other green processes. This Special Issue comprises a number of experimental and theoretical studies dealing with the application of membrane and membrane reactor technology in various scientific fields of chemical engineering, such as membrane distillation for wastewater treatment, hydrogen production from reforming reactions via inorganic membrane and membrane photoassisted reactors, membrane desalination, gas/liquid phase membrane separation of CO2, and membrane filtration for the recovery of antioxidants from agricultural byproducts, contributing to valorization of the potentialities of membrane operations.

Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology

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ISBN: 9783038975960 Year: Pages: 425 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-597-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 14:08:22
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The subject of this book is ""Biofuel and Bioenergy Technology"". It aims to publish high-quality review and research papers, addressing recent advances in biofuel and bioenergy. State-of-the-art studies of advanced techniques of biorefinery for biofuel production are also included. Research involving experimental studies, recent developments, and novel and emerging technologies in this field are covered. This book contains twenty-seven technical papers which cover diversified biofuel and bioenergy technology-related research that have shown critical results and contributed significant findings to the fields of biomass processing, pyrolysis, bio-oil and its emulsification; transesterification and biodiesel, gasification and syngas, fermentation and biogas/methane, bioethanol and alcohol-based fuels, solid fuel and biochar, and microbial fuel cell and power generation development. The published contents relate to the most important techniques and analyses applied in the biofuel and bioenergy technology.

Keywords

air-steam gasification --- equilibrium model --- tar --- energy exchange --- exergy efficiency --- bio-electro-Fenton microbial fuel cells (Bio-E-Fenton MFCs) --- wastewater --- photo catalyst --- degradation --- calcination --- chemical oxygen demand (COD) --- MFC --- hydrodynamic boundary layer --- recirculation mode --- shear rate --- voltage --- charge transfer resistance --- biodiesel --- direct transesterification --- Rhodotorula glutinis --- single cell oil --- biogas --- tri-reforming process --- syngas --- methane and carbon dioxide conversion --- hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratio --- first-law/second-law efficiency --- biodiesel --- esterification --- liquid lipase --- superabsorbent polymer --- response surface methodology --- waste wood --- torrefaction --- energy yield --- mass yield --- CHO index --- gross calorific value --- Van Krevelen diagram --- anaerobic digestion --- biogas production --- wastewater treatment --- membrane bioreactors --- anaerobic digestion --- methane --- carbon dioxide --- small-scale biogas plants --- developing countries --- SOFC --- validation --- simulation --- exergy --- syngas --- Chlorella --- coal-fired flue-gas --- screening --- biodiesel property --- mixotrophic cultivation --- thermophilic anaerobic digestion --- corn stover --- prairie cord grass --- unbleached paper --- digester performance --- process stability --- synergistic effects --- microbial community --- Methanothermobacter --- biochemical methane potential --- redox potential reduction --- direct interspecies electron transfer --- electroactive biofilm --- Nejayote --- granular activated carbon --- Jerusalem artichoke --- lignocellulose --- acid pretreatment --- nitric acid --- alkali pretreatment --- enzymatic hydrolysis --- ethanol fermentation --- waste biomass --- Vietnam --- solid biofuel --- calorific value --- mechanical durability --- fatty acid methyl ester --- catalyst --- viscosity --- iodine value --- acidity index --- sewage sludge --- pyrolytic oil --- Taguchi method --- thermogravimetric analysis --- synergistic effect --- combined pretreatment --- ball mill --- ethanol organosolv --- herbaceous biomass --- lignin recovery --- Annona muricata --- biodiesel production --- seed oil --- soursop --- two-step process --- response surface methodology --- RSM --- second-generation biodiesel --- stone fruit --- optimisation --- biodiesel testing --- transesterification --- lignocellulosic biomass --- Miscanthus --- mechanical pretreatment --- organosolv pretreatment --- microbial biofuel --- metabolic engineering --- alkanes --- alcohols --- acetone --- electrochemical hydrogenation --- isopropanol --- membrane contamination --- polymer electrolyte membrane --- relative humidity --- diesel --- Carica papaya --- engine performance --- biodiesel --- characterisation --- porosity --- thermophoretic force --- biomass fuel --- non-premixed combustion --- counter-flow structure --- mathematical modeling --- emulsification --- liquefaction --- bio-oils --- co-surfactant --- surfactant --- diesel --- biogas --- Clostridiales --- hydrogen-producing bacteria --- bioreactors --- anaerobic fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- microbial community composition

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