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Eugenische Vernunft

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ISBN: 9783205777618 Year: Pages: 818 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437196 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3944
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:32
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This is a study about the causes and consequences of the eurgenic intrusions into our society´s reproductive culture by medicine over the course of the twentieth century. By the turn of the twenty-first century, such scientific intrusions through biotechnological selection at the very beginning of a human´s life have become socially acceptable and part of the task of family planning. Of intrinsic interest is the goal of subjecting the normative ideal images of family, motherhood, fatherhood and childhood - which through medical science have advanced eugenic intrusions into the social organization of the species "reproduction" - to a gender-sensitive analysis. This study also highlights how these ideal images are integrated into the development of the biotechnologies of conception and selection, and how these technologies in turn influence familiy planning. The issue are analyzed against the background of social and scientific developments which accompanied and made possible the rise of eugenic rationality in the twentieth century. The sources used for this analysis are medial studies published in the journal Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift between 1900 and 2000; the methodology applied is discourse analysis. The project was financed by a research grant (APART) under the auspices of the Austrian Academy of Science (ÖAW). This research demonstrates: which concepts of gender and generation within the families are inherent to the eugenic ideal images; which social transformation processes were integrated into these ideal images; how and why parenthood and childhood were scientiffically rationalized and modernized; the demands which have increasingly confronted parents over the past decades as regards successful instruction and education; the duties which emanated in the namen of the child´s well-being; and the reasons for which biotechnological selection at the very beginning of human life currently has a sweeping influence on motherhood and childhood. Finally, the study demonstrates that the existing reproductive culture in our society is infused by eugenic rationality. A further investigative dimension of the eugenic mainstream is also developed by virtue of the approach in which the focus consistently points to the scientific reorganization of the entire context of reproduction. And by virture of which the scientification of the reproductive culture is examined and analyzed by contextualizing Austria´s twentieth-century social and socio-political history. In addition, a profound and exemplary critiqu of science is elaborated by employing the approaches of the sociology of science as well as the history of science and drawing upon the Austrian example of (bio)medicine and bio(medical) technologies of conception and selection. Science is presented in its cultural and political entanglement as a bastion of hegemonic masculinity, staking a claim to the connection between science and responsibility.

Measuring the Master Race : Physical Anthropology in Norway, 1890-1945

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ISBN: 9782821876217 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:39
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The notion of a superior ‘Germanic' or ‘Nordic' race was a central theme in Nazi ideology. But it was also a commonly accepted idea in the early twentieth century, an actual scientific concept originating from anthropological research on the physical characteristics of Europeans. The Scandinavian Peninsula was considered to be the historical cradle and the heartland of this ‘master race'. Measuring the Master Race investigates the role played by Scandinavian scholars in inventing this so-called superior race, and discusses how the concept stamped Norwegian physical anthropology, prehistory, national identity and the eugenics movement. It also explores the decline and scientific discrediting of these ideas in the 1930s as they came to be associated with the genetic cleansing of Nazi Germany. This is the first comprehensive study of Norwegian physical anthropology. Its findings shed new light on current political and scientific debates about race across the globe.

Zwischen Krieg und Euthanasie

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ISBN: 9783205783213 Year: Pages: 342 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437180 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4079
Subject: Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:19
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This publication describes in detail the preparation and realization of the forcibly sterilization of numerous women and men Vienna from 1940 to 1945. These forced sterilizations of individuals, being categorized as 'hereditary ill', were based on the 'Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring' (GzVeN). In Nazi Germany it took effect in January 1934, and until the outbreak of the war, when most of the court-proceedings had already ended, 300.000 women and men, had been forcibly sterilized. In January 1940 the law was implemented in the 'Ostmark', and at least 6.000 women and men had been forcibly sterilized during the war. In Vienna, the then second-largest city of the 'German Reich' 1.203 court-decisions in favour of a forcibly sterilization could be traced-back. These court-files of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' (Erbgesundheitsgericht) became accessible for research only recently. The quantitative and qualitative analysis indicates three parameters for the implementation of the GzVeN in Vienna: First of all, the reduction of lawsuits to 'urgent' cases, i.e. persons of a 'particularly great danger of procreation'; secondly, the personal and structural restrictions resulting from war; and thirdly, the Nazi Euthanasia: Different from Nazi Germany the forced sterilizations had not been preceding the murder of disabled persons, but were rather implemented in the same period of time. Several doctors in Vienna were responsible for both, forced sterilizations and murder. Both judges and doctors of the 'Viennese Hereditary Health Court' were keen to contribute to the radical efforts to create the visional 'healthy national body' by fulfilling the GzVeN independent of the above mentioned parameters: they implemented a National Socialist tort-law, which included a surgical intervention with severe and lifelong psychical and physical consequences - against the will of the people who were affected. After the end of the war, the judges and doctors did not have to take any kind of responsibility for their decisions to sterilize people forcibly. This was not surprising, taking into account that the categorization of persons due to their 'value of hereditage' ('Erbwert') continued: Firstly, the then-chancellor Renner announced to pass a similar law when the GzVeN was repealed in Mai 1945; secondly, the forcibly sterilized women and men were partly acknowledged only in 1995 as victims of Nazi-persecution and fully acknowledged only 2005; and thirdly, until to the present, women, being categorized as 'disabled', are still sterilized without their knowledge and therefore without their consent. However, this bodily injury does not carry a penalty, since there is no contradiction to the so called 'good manners' ('gute Sitten'), incorporated in the criminal law.

Body Law and the Body of Law. A Comparative Study of Social Norm Inclusion in Norwegian and American Laws

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ISBN: 9783110412772 9783110441215 Year: Pages: 362 DOI: 10.2478/9783110412772 Language: English
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Law --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2015-04-13 10:42:11
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For some legal philosophers, if a law is procedurally correct, enacted in ways constitutionally recognised and agreed upon, then the content is of no significance. It is a “good” law, no matter what it does or justifies. The question of one's consent or opposition to any particular law is extraneous to the legality and is regarded merely as a political matter. The assumption is that a certain procedure and logic in law creation has taken place, and the law can be altered by a change in political leaders in a subsequent political election. However, this view and assumption obscure an uncomfortable fact. Some laws can be “bad” or “immoral.” Critical legal theory suggests that there are often two (or more) sets of laws, and it makes no difference if Lady Justice is blindfolded or not.Laws change in the process of history, in part, because societal norms change. As common understandings of morality evolve, law adapts itself to the new moral environment. Norms can change slowly or rapidly, even within a lifetime. This book examines both social and legal norms and theories of how they are both created.Christine M. Hassenstab investigates how laws on sterilization, birth control and abortion were created, by focusing on the act of legislation; how the law was driven by scientific and social norms during the first and closing decades of the 20th century in the USA (especially in the state of Indiana) and Norway. The primary focus of Body Law and the Body of Law is the sociology of law and how and why the law changes. The author develops the notion “body law” for reproductive policies and uses sociological theories to untie the various strands of social history and legal history and looks at two cases of legislation. The book is divided in to two main sections. The first examines eugenic laws in the USA state of Indiana and Norway during the first decades of 20th century. The second part is about the birth control and abortion debate in both countries throughout the late 1960s and 1970s.Christine M. Hassenstab is a lawyer and sociologist. She served as a criminal defense attorney for 15 years (1987—2001) in Seattle, Washington. Currently, she is an adviser in the EU Grants Office at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway.

Building the New Man

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ISBN: 9789639776838 9789639776890 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Central European University Press
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2015-05-19 15:18:48
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Based on previously unexplored archival documentation, this book offers the first general overview of the history of Italian eugenics, not limited to the decades of Fascist regime, but instead ranging from the beginning of the 1900s to the first half of the 1970s. The Author discusses several fundamental themes of the comparative history of eugenics: the importance of the Latin eugenic model; the relationship between eugenics and fascism; the influence of Catholicism on the eugenic discourse...

With and Without Galton: Vasilii Florinskii and the Fate of Eugenics in Russia

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ISBN: 9781783745111 9781783745135 Year: Pages: 696 DOI: https://doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0144
Publisher: Open Book Publishers Grant: English
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2018-09-26 16:07:26
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In 1865, British polymath Francis Galton published his initial thoughts about the scientific field that would become ‘eugenics.’ The same year, Russian physician Vasilii Florinskii addressed similar issues in a sizeable treatise, entitled Human Perfection and Degeneration. Initially unheralded, Florinskii’s book would go on to have a remarkable afterlife in twentieth- and twenty-first-century Russia. In this lucid and insightful work, Nikolai Krementsov argues that the concept of eugenics brings together ideas, values, practices, and fears energised by a focus on the future. It has proven so seductive to different groups over time because it provides a way to grapple with fundamental existential questions of human nature and destiny. With and Without Galton develops this argument by tracing the life-story of Florinskii’s monograph from its uncelebrated arrival amid the Russian empire’s Great Reforms, to its reissue after the Bolshevik Revolution, its decline under Stalinism, and its subsequent resurgence: first, as a founding document of medical genetics, and most recently, as a manifesto for nationalists and racial purists. Krementsov’s meticulously researched ‘biography of a book’ sheds light not only on the peculiar fate of eugenics in Russia, but also on its convoluted transnational history, elucidating the field’s protean nature and its continuing and contested appeal to diverse audiences, multiple local trajectories, and global trends. It is required reading for historians of eugenics, science, medicine, education, literature, and Russia, and it will also appeal to the general reader looking for a deeper understanding of this challenging subject.

Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology 23/2018

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ISBN: 101787520191172 Year: Language: English
Publisher: Universitätsverlag Göttingen
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-09-18 11:21:03
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The name DGGTB (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie; German Society for the History and Philosophy of Biology) reflects recent history as well as German tradition. The Society is a relatively late addition to a series of German societies of science and medicine that began with the “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften”, founded in 1910 by Leipzig University’s Karl Sudhoff (1853-1938), who wrote: “We want to establish a ‘German’ society in order to gather German-speaking historians together in our special disciplines so that they form the core of an international society…”. Yet Sudhoff, at this time of burgeoning academic internationalism, was “quite willing” to accommodate the wishes of a number of founding members and “drop the word German in the title of the Society and have it merge with an international society”. The founding and naming of the Society at that time derived from a specifi c set of historical circumstances, and the same was true some 80 years later when in 1991, in the wake of German reunification, the “Deutsche Gesellschaft für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie” was founded. From the start, the Society has been committed to bringing studies in the history and philosophy of biology to a wide audience, using for this purpose its Jahrbuch für Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie. Parallel to the Jahrbuch, the Verhandlungen zur Geschichte und Theorie der Biologie has become the by now traditional medium for the publication of papers delivered at the Society’s annual meetings. In 2005 the Jahrbuch was renamed Annals of the History and Philosophy of Biology, reflecting the Society’s internationalist aspirations in addressing comparative biology as a subject of historical and philosophical studies.

Reinheit als Differenz Identität und Alterität in Max Frischs frühem Erzählwerk

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ISBN: 9783034013642 Year: Pages: 392 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_625150 Language: German
Publisher: Chronos Verlag Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 170340
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-03-08 11:01:28
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Purity as Difference Identity and Alterity in Max Frisch`s early fiction This study investigates the early fiction of Max Frisch, previously only margin-ally discussed, in particular his first novel, «Jürg Reinhart. Eine sommerliche Schicksalsfahrt» (1934), the novella «Antwort aus der Stille» (1937), as well as the sequel to the Reinhart story, «J’adore ce qui me brûle oder Die Schwierigen». It uses previously unknown sources to reconstruct the creative origins of these works. Deploying a discourse analysis, this book employs analytical techniques from gender and postcolonial studies to deconstruct is-sues of ethnicity, nationalism, gender, and class. The three texts, and their constructions of identity and alterity are contextualized within the contested zone of ‹purity› and ‹difference› and relevant fields of discourse. «Antwort aus der Stille» is investigated within the Alpine discourse, including its nationalistic, gender-political and sexist extensions, «Jürg Reinhart» in the anti-Semitic, Orientalist, Balkan and Slavic discourses, and «J’adore ce qui me brûle» in the contemporary discourse of emancipation and gender issues, and especially in the discourse of eugenics and its Social Darwinist implications.

Strukturen und Netzwerke

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ISBN: 9783737009164 Year: Language: German
Publisher: V&R unipress Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 103651
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 13:33:08
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Die Geschichte der medizinischen Forschung und Praxis in Wien wird erst im Kontext ihrer Strukturen und Netzwerke verständlich. Die Analyse der lokalen und internationalen Beziehungen der »Wiener Medizin« im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert und ihrer Netzwerkstrukturen stellt seit langem ein Forschungsdesiderat dar. Dieser Band erforscht diese Beziehungen mit dem Ziel, die Geschichte medizinischer Forschung und Praxis zu re-kontextualisieren. Die Beiträge beleuchten Mobilität, Wissenstransfers, Standards und Richtlinien, soziale und berufliche Netzwerke, Transformationen politischer und kultureller Konzepte zwischen Zentren der Medizin, wie auch Formen des Austauschs zwischen künstlerischen und medizinischen Sphären und Memorialformen – als transnationale Phänomene sowie in ihrer Prägekraft für medizinische Forschung und Praxis in Wien.

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