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Evènements climatiques extrêmes

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ISBN: 9782759805082 Year: Pages: 240 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_519668 Language: French
Publisher: EDP SCIENCES
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2014-07-31 09:10:11
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Climate events, storms, damage

Keywords

damage --- storms --- climate events

Magnetic Records of Extreme Geological Events

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451708 Year: Pages: 86 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-170-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Geography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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Recent advances in environmental magnetism offer the opportunity to link the magnetic signature of marine and continental rocks to the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic settings that controlled their formation or deposition, as well as to post-depositional events, such as diagenesis, that can alter their primary signature. This Research Topic assembles studies that used state of the art rock magnetic techniques to unravel the causes and effects of catastrophic geological events, including tsunami, meteorite impacts, Archean oxygenation event, geomagnetic reversals, and global climate changes linked to large volcanic eruptions.

Kaupunki tapahtumien näyttämönä

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seuran Toimituksia ISBN: 9789522228727 9789522229892 9789522227331 Year: Pages: 301 DOI: 10.21435/skst.1423 Language: Finnish
Publisher: Finnish Literature Society / SKS Grant: Kirjastokonsortio Aleksandria and SKS
Subject: Sociology --- Social Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-09 11:01:58
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City as a Stage explores the diverse ways in which modern cities of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries presented and projected themselves, especially by staging major urban events, which have often been interpreted as major local and national turning points. In particular, the book discusses how cities were imagined through the prism provided by other cities, major events, as well as alternative pasts and futures. How –with admiration, indifference or contestation– did various urban actors engage with the city as a stage? The book paints a multifaceted picture of the history of urban events and town twinning, while at the same illustrating how students and travellers experienced cities such as Berlin, Rome, Helsinki, and Tampere. As for individual urban events, Stockholm’s General Art and Industrial Exposition of 1897, Helsinki’s 400th anniversary of 1950, and the Moscow Youth Festival of 1957 are all given their own chapter.

Keywords

town --- cultural event --- events --- town space

Immunoglobulin therapy in the 21st century: the dark side of the moon

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197033 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-703-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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In the early decades since the introduction in the early '80s of immunoglobulin therapy many studies tried to identify which clinical indications might benefit from the therapy, which treatment’s schedules are effective and safe. It is universally accepted that immunoglobulin therapy is a life-saving treatment in patients with PID. The rise of new indications for further different clinical conditions resulted in a steady increase in demand for immunoglobulins. Currently the consumption of immunoglobulin for PID represents a small fraction of the market. In the recent past we have been observing:1) An increase in the demand for plasma and in the consequent need to increase the number of donors;2) Changes in methods to improve IgG recovery and to increase productivity as a response to growing clinical demand;3) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatments with higher concentration;4) Changes in the timing of administration with an increase in the rate of infusion;5) Introduction of immunoglobulin treatment administered subcutaneously mainly confined initially to patients with PID and later extended to other clinical indications which often require higher volumes of infusion. Doctors following patients with PID were initially alarmed only to a possible risk of shortage. More relevant and less discussed appear the possible consequences of:1) the risk of an improper transfer of information on treatments from a clinical indication to another. In particular, the idea of a mere replacement function in patients with PID might possibly be borrowed from the model of other clinical conditions requiring a replacement such as haemophilia. In PID, immunoglobulin treatment instead is obviously replacing a missing feature. However, other immune alterations are responsible for the large number of PID-associated diseases including inflammatory manifestations and tumors, common causes of morbidity and mortality. The immunomodulatory effects of immunoglobulin administered at replacement dosages on multiple cells and immune system functions are still largely to be checked in in vitro studies and in vivo.2) the changes in the immunoglobulin production and schedules of administration. These should have been assessed in studies of drug surveillance, necessary in order to evaluate on large numbers of what it is initially reported on patients enrolled in the pivotal clinical trials, usually in the absence of most of the main disease-associated clinical conditions affecting pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability. Severe side effects are now more frequently reported. This requires surveillance studies in order to verify the tolerability. Nowadays, personalized health research presents methodologic challenges, since emphasis is placed on the individual response rather than on the population. Even within a universally accepted indication, such as in PID, the identification of prognostic markers should guide the therapeutic intervention.3) the risk of a decrease in the surveillance and monitoring of PID-associated clinical conditions. In fact, self- administration of immunoglobulins administered subcutaneously increased the independence of a number of patients. On the other hand, it led to the reduction in the number of contacts between specialized centers and patients who often require a close monitoring of disease-associated conditions. A wide debate between experts is necessary to afford the new challenge on immunoglobulin usage.

Tonal placement in Tashlhiyt

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Book Series: Studies in Laboratory Phonology ISBN: 9783944675992 9783961100088 9783961100095 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.814472 Language: English
Publisher: Language Science Press
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-13 11:01:54
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In most languages, words contain vowels, elements of high intensity with rich harmonic structure, enabling the perceptual retrieval of pitch. By contrast, in Tashlhiyt, a Berber language, words can be composed entirely of voiceless segments. When an utterance consists of such words, the phonetic opportunity for the execution of intonational pitch movements is exceptionally limited. This book explores in a series of production and perception experiments how these typologically rare phonotactic patterns interact with intonational aspects of linguistic structure. It turns out that Tashlhiyt allows for a tremendously flexible placement of tonal events. Observed intonational structures can be conceived of as different solutions to a functional dilemma: The requirement to realise meaningful pitch movements in certain positions and the extent to which segments lend themselves to a clear manifestation of these pitch movements.

Plants; Stress & Proteins

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452675 Year: Pages: 323 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-267-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Botany
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:44
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Biotic and abiotic stress factors deliver a huge impact on plant life. Biotic stress factors such as damage through pathogens or herbivore attack, as well as abiotic stress factors like variation in temperature, rainfall and salinity, have placed the plant kingdom under constant challenges for survival. As a consequence, global agricultural and horticultural productivity has been disturbed to a large extent. Being sessile in nature, plants cannot escape from the stress, and instead adapt changes within their system to overcome the adverse conditions. These changes include physiological, developmental and biochemical alterations within the plant body which influences the genome, proteome and metabolome profiles of the plant. Since proteins are the ultimate players of cellular behavior, proteome level alterations during and recovery period of stress provide direct implications of plant responses towards stress factors. With current advancement of modern high-throughput technologies, much research has been carried out in this field. This e-book highlights the research and review articles that cover proteome level changes during the course or recovery period of various stress factors in plant life. Overall, the chapters in this e-book has provided a wealth of information on how plants deal with stress from a proteomics perspective.

Sports Finance

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ISBN: 9783038428718 9783038428725 Year: Pages: VI, 92 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-04 12:57:14
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The use of sport as an empirical setting to study different organizational and economic phenomena is continuously increasing (Day et al., 2012; Kahn, 2000; Wolfe et al., 2005). Specifically, in the finance literature, sports have been used to examine market efficiency (e.g., Edmans et al., 2007; Golec & Tamarkin, 1991; Gray & Gray, 1997, Woodland & Woodland, 1997), the financing of sports facilities (Baade & Matheson, 2006; Coates & Humphreys, 2003; Rebeggiani, 2006), and mega events (Madden, 2006).In addition, sports have many unique qualities, which contribute to an industry generating revenues estimated between 44 and 60 billion dollars in the United States (Humphreys & Ruseski, 2009). The study of sports has emerged both as an academic major and as a field of research, with sports financing being one of the main areas of scholarship in the field of research. Thus, the primary goal of this Special Issue will highlight sports’ activities as an empirical setting for understanding financial phenomena and will highlight sports’ unique financial idiosyncratic characteristics. Topics in this Special Issue can include, but are not limited to, non-profit sports clubs, mega events, financial issues related to stadiums and arenas, amateur and professional sports leagues and teams, and gambling markets, including sports betting, lotteries, and other games of chance.

Interferences and Events: On Epistemic Shifts in Physics through Computer Simulations

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783957961068 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.14619/022 Language: English
Publisher: meson press
Subject: Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-15 13:41:44
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Computer simulations are omnipresent media in today’s knowledge production. For scientific endeavors such as the detection of gravitational waves and the exploration of subatomic worlds, simulations are essential; however, the epistemic status of computer simulations is rather controversial as they are neither just theory nor just experiment. Therefore, computer simulations have challenged well-established insights and common scientific practices as well as our very understanding of knowledge. This volume contributes to the ongoing discussion on the epistemic position of computer simulations in a variety of physical disciplines, such as quantum optics, quantum mechanics, and computational physics. Originating from an interdisciplinary event, it shows that accounts of contemporary physics can constructively interfere with media theory, philosophy, and the history of science.

Studying Tree Responses to Extreme Events

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451920 Year: Pages: 466 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-192-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Trees are among the longest-living organisms. They are sensitive to extreme climatic events and document the effects of environmental changes in form of structural modifications of their tissues. These modifications represent an integrated signal of complex biological responses enforced by the environment. For example, temporal change in stem increment integrates multiple information of tree performance, and wood anatomical traits may be altered by climatic extremes or environmental stress. Recent developments in preparative tools and computational image analysis enable to quantify changes in wood anatomical features, like vessel density or vessel size. Thus, impacts on their functioning can be related to climatic forcing factors. Similarly, new developments in monitoring (cambial) phenology and mechanistic modelling are enlightening the interrelationships between environmental factors, wood formation and tree performance and mortality. Quantitative wood anatomy is a reliable indicator of drought occurrence during the growing season, and therefore has been studied intensively in recent years. The variability in wood anatomy not only alters the biological and hydraulic functioning of a tree, but may also influence the technological properties of wood, with substantial impacts in forestry. On a larger scale, alterations of sapwood and phloem area and their ratios to other functional traits provide measures to detect changes in a tree’s life functions, and increasing risk of drought-induced mortality with possible impacts on hydrological processes and species composition of plant communities. Genetic variability within and across populations is assumed to be crucial for species survival in an unpredictable future world. The magnitude of genetic variation and heritability of adaptive traits might define the ability to adapt to climate change. Is there a relation between genetic variability and resilience to climate change? Is it possible to link genetic expression and climate change to obtain deeper knowledge of functional genetics? To derive precise estimates of genetic determinism it is important to define adaptive traits in wood properties and on a whole-tree scale. Understanding the mechanisms ruling these processes is fundamental to assess the impact of extreme climate events on forest ecosystems, and to provide realistic scenarios of tree responses to changing climates. Wood is also a major carbon sink with a long-term residence, impacting the global carbon cycle. How well do we understand the link between wood growth dynamics, wood carbon allocation and the global carbon cycle? Papers contribution to this Research Topic will cover a wide range of ecosystems. However, special relevance will be given to Mediterranean-type areas. These involve coastal regions of four continents, making Mediterranean-type ecosystems extremely interesting for investigating the potential impacts of global change on growth and for studying responses of woody plants under extreme environmental conditions. For example, the ongoing trend towards warmer temperatures and reduced precipitation can increase the susceptibility to fire and pests. The EU-funded COST Action STREeSS (Studying Tree Responses to extreme Events: a SynthesiS) addresses such crucial tree biological and forest ecological issues by providing a collection of important methodological and scientific insights, about the current state of knowledge, and by opinions for future research needs.

Circulation Weather types as a tool in atmospheric, climate and environmental research

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196418 Year: Pages: 151 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-641-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Environmental Sciences --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Classifications of circulation weather systems have a long history in meteorology and climatology. Starting with manual classifications over specific regions of the globe, these tools (generally called “catalogs of synoptic types”) were restricted mainly to weather forecasting and historical climate variability studies. In the last decades, the advance of computing resources and the availability of datasets have fostered the development of fast and objective methods that process large amount of data. In recent years numerous methods of circulation type classification have been designed, showing their usefulness on a wide range of applications in scientific domains related to weather, climate, and environment. This Research Topic highlights methodological advances in circulation weather types and also their applications to different research areas. The articles included in this research topic show that circulation weather types can be used not only in Europe, where they have been always more frequent, but also applied to other regions of the world.

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