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Executive Functions in Psychiatric Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889453061 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-306-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Medicine (General) --- Psychiatry
Added to DOAB on : 2018-02-27 16:16:45
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Executive Functions comprise a range of neuropsychological processes related to intentional behavior and cognitive control. There are several theoretical models defining and explaining the concept of Executive Functions. Most of these models consider that the term Executive Functions encompasses cognitive process as working memory, cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control and other complex functions as planning, problem-solving and abstract reasoning. Other models argue that motivational and emotional functions, such as affective decision-making, reside under the concept of Executive Function. Much evidence supports how complex cognitive functions are related to the physiological activity of brain networks, including the frontal cortex and its connections with subcortical structures. Several psychiatric disorders related to impairment in these brain networks (eg., bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and drug addiction) leading to deficits in Executive Functions. These cognitive deficits affect patients’ everyday functioning, worsening the clinical course of the disease. For example, deficits in Executive Functions are related to suicide behavior in bipolar disorder patients. Furthermore, these deficits also relate to obesity, a lack of adherence to treatment and an underperformance in the workplace and educational settings. The understanding of the role of deficits in Executive Functions, including its neurobiological basis, developmental trajectories, and relationship with clinical outcomes, is fundamental to improve clinical management of psychiatric patients. This research topic includes 13 articles with interdisciplinary contributions related to the understanding of the deficits in Executive Functions and its relationship with clinical manifestations in psychiatric disorders.

Developmental, Modal, and Pathological Variation Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles for Speakers of Linguistically Proximal Languages and Varieties

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456383 Year: Pages: 179 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-638-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology --- Media and communication
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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One significant area of research in the multifaceted field of bilingualism over the past two decades has been the demonstration, validation, and account of the so-called ‘bilingual advantage’. This refers to the hypothesis that bilingual speakers have advanced abilities in executive functions and other domains of human cognition. Such cognitive benefits of bilingualism have an impact on the processing mechanisms active during language acquisition in a way that results in language variation. Within bilingual populations, the notion of language proximity (or linguistic distance) is also of key importance for deriving variation. In addition, sociolinguistic factors can invest the process of language development and its outcome with an additional layer of complexity, such as schooling, language, dominance, competing motivations, or the emergence of mesolectal varieties, which blur the boundaries of grammatical variants. This is particularly relevant for diglossic speech communities—bilectal, bidialectal, or bivarietal speakers. The defined goal of the present Research Topic is to address whether the bilingual advantage extends to such speakers as well. Thus, ‘Linguistic and Cognitive Profiles for Speakers of Linguistically Proximal Languages and Varieties’ become an important matter within ‘Developmental, Modal, and Pathological Variation’.

Interdependence of Physical (In-) Activity, Fitness and Cognition: A Cross-Sectional Study in Young Adults

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Book Series: Karlsruher sportwissenschaftliche Beiträge / Institut für Sport und Sportwissenschaft, Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT). Hrsg.: Prof. Dr. Klaus Bös, PD Dr. Michaela Knoll ISSN: 1862748X ISBN: 9783731501640 Year: Volume: 5 Pages: IV, 273 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000037914 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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There is growing evidence for possible associations between physical exercise, fitness and cognitive performance in elderly, but research in young adults is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the interdependence between physical (in-) activity, fitness, and cognition in young adults. The methods included a number of physical performance tests, a physical activity questionnaire, and a test battery to measure executive functions and event-related brain potentials.

Improving Working Memory in Learning and Intellectual Disabilities

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198979 Year: Pages: 156 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-897-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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The last forty years of research have demonstrated that working memory (WM) is a key concept for understanding higher-order cognition. To give an example, WM is involved in reading comprehension, problem solving and reasoning, but also in a number of everyday life activities. It has a clear role in the case of atypical development too. For instance, numerous studies have shown an impairment in WM in individuals with learning disabilities (LD) or intellectual disabilities (ID); and several researchers have hypothesized that this can be linked to their difficulties in learning, cognition and everyday life. The latest challenge in the field concerns the trainability of WM. If it is a construct central to our understanding of cognition in typical and atypical development, then specific intervention to sustain WM performance might also promote changes in cognitive processes associated with WM. The idea that WM can be modified is debated, however, partly because of the theoretical implications of this view, and partly due to the generally contradictory results obtained so far. In fact, most studies converge in demonstrating specific effects of WM training, i.e. improvements in the trained tasks, but few transfer effects to allied cognitive processes are generally reported. It is worth noting that any maintenance effects (when investigated) are even more meagre. In addition, a number of methodological concerns have been raised in relation to the use of: 1. single tasks to assess the effects of a training program; 2. WM tasks differing from those used in the training to assess the effects of WM training; and 3. passive control groups. These and other crucial issues have so far prevented any conclusions from being drawn on the efficacy of WM training. Bearing in mind that the opportunity to train WM could have a huge impact in the educational and clinical settings, it seems fundamentally important to shed more light on the limits and potential of this line of research. The aim of the research discussed here is to generate new evidence on the feasibility of training WM in individuals with LD and ID. There are several questions that could be raised in this field. For a start, can WM be trained in this population? Are there some aspects of WM that can be trained more easily than others? Can a WM training reduce the impact of LD and ID on learning outcomes, and on everyday living? What kind of training program is best suited to the promotion of such changes?

Updates in Pediatric Sleep and Child Psychiatry

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ISBN: 9783038979388 / 9783038979395 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-939-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Pediatrics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Sleep-related symptoms are common in the majority of psychiatric diagnostic categories. The overlap of sleep and psychiatric disorders have been demonstrated in numerous studies. The understanding of sleep and child psychiatry has progressively evolved in the last decade and newer insights have developed regarding the complex interaction between sleep and psychopathology. This collection of articles represents updates on sleep and psychiatric disorders with medical and neurological co-morbidities in children and adolescents.

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