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Transcriptional Regulation in Cancers and Metabolic Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197125 Year: Pages: 98 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-712-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oncology --- Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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Abstract

The transcription factor (TF) mediated regulation of gene expression is a process fundamental to all biological and physiological processes. Genetic changes and epigenetic modifications of TFs affect target gene expression during the formation of malignant cells. Extensive work has been done on the critical TFs in various disease models. Despite the success of numerous TF-targeted therapies, there remain significant hurdles understanding the mechanisms, transcriptional targets and networks of physiologic pathways that govern TF action. This effort is now beginning to produce exciting new avenues of research. A clinically relevant topic for genetic change of TF is the mutant isoforms of p53, the most famous tumor suppressor. The p53 mutations either results in loss of function, or acting as dominant negative for wild-type protein, or ‘gain of function’ specifically promoting cancer survival. The gain of function is achieved by shifting p53 binding partner proteins, or changed genomic binding landscape leading to a cancer-promoting transcriptome. Another example of genetic change of TF causing malignancy is the AML-ETO fusion protein in the human t(8;21)-leukemia. The fusion protein is an active TF, and more interestingly, new studies link the disease causing role of AML-ETO to the unique transcriptome in the hematopoietic stem cells. Nuclear receptors (NR) are a group of ligand-dependent TFs governing the expression of genes involved in a broad range of reproductive, developmental and metabolic programs. Genetic changes and epigenetic modifications of NRs lead to cancers and metabolic diseases. Androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) are well studied NRs in prostate, breast and endometrial cancers. The development in sequencing technology and computational genomics enable us to investigate the transcription programs of these master TFs in an unprecedented level. This Research Topic aims to present the most up-to-date progress in the field of transcription regulation in cancers and metabolic diseases.

MicroRNAs: Novel Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets for Human Cancers

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ISBN: 9783038972525 9783038972532 Year: Pages: 272 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-253-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-16 10:23:45
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Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20–22-nucleotide, non-coding RNAs that are involved in gene regulation, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple lines of evidence have indicated that miRNAs play important roles in the maintenance of biological homeostasis and that aberrant expression levels of miRNAs are involved in the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In various types of cancer, miRNAs play important roles in tumor initiation and development. Recently, miRNAs have been demonstrated to also be secreted via small endosome-derived vesicles called exosomes—which are derived from multiple cell types—including immunocytes and cancer cells. Exosomal miRNAs exert important functions in cell-to-cell communication and have been investigated as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers.

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