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Podocyte Pathology and Nephropathy

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197101 Year: Pages: 96 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-710-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The understanding of the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has advanced considerably in the last few years. Much has been learned about the natural history, the relative lack of significance of microalbuminuria in reflecting underlying pathological change, questionable effects of ACEs and ARBs on the progression of nephropathy, the emergence of new biomarkers such as Cystatin and the role of cytokines, inflammatory molecules and adhesion molecules. Podocytes, the cells with limited ability to replenish and to repair, play a pivotal role in glomerular filtration. In recent years these cells have become the focus for research on pathogenesis of DN as well as other nephropathies. A recent review from the NIH has identified new insights into the pathophysiology, the genetics and the role of the podocytes and some of the important new metabolic pathways such as mTOR or autophagy which may be targeting the podocyte. Knowledge is emerging about the role of podocyte as a part of immune system and about the role of growth factors and cytokines in regulation of podocyte functions. Presented in this e-book articles highlight recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney pathology and the role of podocytes in this process.

Novel clinical applications of extracellular vesicles

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196456 Year: Pages: 66 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-645-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Allergy and Immunology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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During the last years, the research on extracellular vesicles (EVs) has raised giving new insights into pathophysiology of several diseases. EVs are membrane-bound particles secreted by almost all cell types. Depending on their biogenesis and size they include exosomes, microparticles / microvesicles and apoptotic bodies. Characteristically, EVs carry markers from the source cell membrane and contain genetic material, lipids and proteins inside. They are known to play a role in cell-to-cell communication and to produce genotypic and phenotypic modifications in the target cell including: antigen presentation, apoptosis induction, cellular activation, inhibition or differentiation. In particular, increasing concentrations of EVs have been found in many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases, among others. Most of the studies in EVs are focused on the characterization of EVs compounds, identifying mechanism of action, their potential use as biomarkers, and few of them investigate a therapeutic usage. However, there are some issues to be achieved on the path to their clinical application. This research topic offers a common place to discuss current and novel clinical applications of EVs pointing on future directions. We encouraged the submission of original articles, reviews, hypothesis, controversies, future perspectives and personal viewpoints on the following topics of interest, but not limited to: • Contribution of EVs to better understand the pathology of immunological diseases. • Standardization of isolation and quantification protocols in the daily clinical practice. • Possible applications of EVs as clinical biomarkers (diagnostic, prognostic and evolution marker). • Therapeutic role of EVs being vehicles of specific cargo: current clinical trials? • Novel immunological functions of EVs.

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196623 Year: Pages: 77 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-662-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Oncology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

HLA-G-mediated Immune Tolerance: Past and New Outlooks

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451197 Year: Pages: 92 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-119-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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The non-classical HLA class I molecule HLA-G is different from classical HLA class I molecules because of the low polymorphism in the coding region, the fact that HLA-G primary transcript is alternatively spliced in seven isoforms, and the inhibitory action on immune cells. Although HLA-G is low polymorphic, variants in both promoter and 3’ un-translated region (UTR) of HLA-G locus regulate its expression. In healthy conditions, a basal level of HLA-G gene transcription is observed in most cells and tissues; however, translation into HLA-G protein is restricted to trophoblasts in the placenta, where it participates in promoting tolerance at the fetal-maternal interface. HLA-G is also expressed by thymic epitelial, cornea, mesenchymal stem cells, nail matrix, pancreatic beta cells, erythroid, and endothelial precursors. HLA-G can be neo-expressed in adult tissues in pathological conditions, and its expression has been documented autoimmune disorders, viral infections, and cancer. In the latter setting de novo HLA-G expression is associated with the capability of tumor cells to evade the immune control. In the last decade it has become evident that HLA-G expression on T cells and antigenpresenting cells confers to these cells tolerogenic properties. This Research Topic focused on i) summarizing updated clinical and immunological evidences that HLA-G expression is associate with beneficial or detrimental tolerance, ii) gathering new insights into the mechanisms governing the expression of HLA-G in healthy and pathological conditions, such as pre-eclampsia, and iii) examining the mechanisms underlying HLA-G mediated tolerance.

Molecular Diagnostics in the Detection of Neurodegenerative Disorders

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451944 Year: Pages: 90 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-194-4 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Medicine (General) --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Neurodegeneration is characterized by the progressive loss of neural tissue that result in various neurodegeneration-initiated cerebral failures and complex diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease. All these medical conditions are accompanied by the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is an interface, separating the brain from the circulatory system and protecting the central nervous system from potentially harmful chemicals while regulating transport of essential molecules and maintaining a stable environment. Owing to the inability of the neurons to regenerate on their own after neurodegeneration or severe damage to the neural tissue, neurodegenerative disorders do not have natural cures on their own. Neuroregeneration is a viable way to curb neurodegeneration. One of the current approaches is stem cell-based therapy that has been shown to be potentially helpful for the application of neuronal cell replacement for neuroregeneration. It is vital that the neurodegenerative disorder being detected at an early stage as it can provide a chance for treatment that may be helpful to prevent further progression of the fatal disease. Thus, research has focused on developing effective non-invasive diagnostic methods for early detection of these disorders. Molecular diagnostics can provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological disorders. Such diagnosis can enhance early detection, provide subsequent medical counsel based on medical pathway, as well as to gain better insight of neurogenesis and hopefully eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. With research reports, reviews, mini-reviews and commentary, this research topic covers a wide range of areas in neurodegeneration research, including diagnosis and prognosis; regulating central nervous system; biomarkers and brain injury induced neurobehavioral outcomes among other timely reports on neurodegeneration.

Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Processes in Cardiovascular Diseases

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889456208 Year: Pages: 118 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-620-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:43
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It is long known that many cells can shed extracellular vesicles, small membrane-enclosed cell fragments. Although the existence of extracellular vesicles has been recognized for many years, researchers are only beginning to understand their physiologic significance. Several recent studies have demonstrated that extracellular vesicles released from cells serve as a mode of cellular communication. They can carry diverse molecular payload (e.g. nucleic acids, bioactive lipids and proteins) to distal organs and recipient cells. Extracellular vesicles can be classified into three major groups: exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. All these types of extracellular vesicles can be found in a variety of biologic specimen and their numbers, distribution and composition may serve as biomarkers for various disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Although extracellular vesicle-mediated processes are currently best characterized in the fields of cancer biology and neurobiology, evidence is accumulating that extracellular vesicles play a key role in the pathophysiology of diabetes, thrombosis, inflammation and cardiovascular calcification.In this Research Topic, we invited review and methodological articles that advance our understanding of extracellular vesicle-related processes in vascular biology.

The Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Cancer

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ISBN: 9783038427933 9783038427940 Year: Pages: VI, 254 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-27 16:09:54
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The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly dynamic process with multiple transitional states, by which epithelial cells can convert into a mesenchymal phenotype. This process involves loss of cellular adhesion and cellular polarity, and an improvement in migratory and invasive properties. It occurs during normal embryonic development, tissue regeneration, organ fibrosis, and wound healing. It is also involved in tumor progression with metastatic expansion, and plays a major role in resistance to cancer treatment. In cancers, EMT inducers are hypoxia, cytokines and growth factors secreted by the tumor microenvironment, stroma crosstalk, metabolic changes, innate and adaptive immune responses, and treatment with antitumor drugs. Switch in gene expression from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype is triggered by complex regulatory networks involving transcriptional control, non-coding RNAs, chromatin remodeling and epigenetic modifications, alternative splicing, post-translational regulation, protein stability and subcellular localization. Reversion of EMT, the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET), affects circulating cancer cells when they reach a desirable metastatic niche to develop secondary tumors. More knowledge and control of EMT to MET is necessary and will be beneficial for patients for cancer treatment. This current Special Issue entitled “Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Cancer” will address these questions.

Smart Nanovesicles for Drug Targeting and Delivery

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ISBN: 9783038978947 / 9783038978954 Year: Pages: 198 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-895-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Nanovesicles are highly-promising systems for the delivery and/or targeting of drugs, biomolecules and contrast agents. Despite the fact that initial studies in this area were performed on phospholipid vesicles, there is an ever-increasing interest in the use of other molecules to obtain smart vesicular carriers focusing on strategies for targeted delivery. These systems can be obtained using newly synthesized smart molecules, or by intelligent design of opportune carriers to achieve specific delivery to the site of action.

MicroRNA as Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnostics and Therapy

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ISBN: 9783039212491 / 9783039212507 Year: Pages: 166 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-250-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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This Special Issue celebrates the 25th anniversary of the discovery of the first microRNA. The size of the microRNome and complexity of animal body plans and organ systems suggests a role for microRNAs in cell fate determination and differentiation. More than 2000 sequences have been proposed to represent unique microRNA genes in humans, with an increasing number of mechanistic roles identified in developmental, physiological, and pathological processes. Thus, dysregulation of a few key microRNAs can have a profound global effect on the gene expression and molecular programs of a cell. This great potential for clinical intervention has captured the interest and imagination of researchers in many fields. However, very few fields have been as prolific as the field of cancer research. This Special Issue provides but a glimpse of the large body of literature of microRNA biology in cancer research, containing 4 original research studies and 4 review articles that focus on specific hematologic or solid tumors in disease. Collectively, these articles highlight state-of-the-art approaches and methodologies for microRNA detection in tissue, blood, and other body fluids in a range of biomarkers applications, from early cancer detection to prognosis and treatment response. The articles also address some of the challenges regarding clinical implementation.

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