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Deepening Reform for China’s Long-term Growth and Development

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ISBN: 9781925021769 Year: DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_496494 Language: English
Publisher: ANU Press
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2014-08-04 11:01:18
License: ANU Press

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The Chinese economy has entered a new phase of development in which sources of growth are not so much dependent upon pure increases in labour, investment and credit expansion, but from productivity improvement, structural changes, technological progress and the benefits from improvement of the social security and welfare improvement. When market functions are fully established to become a main channel for allocating resources, the entrepreneurship will flourish engaging in more innovative activities, workers will move more freely and have more incentives to improve their skills, firms will become more productive through market entry and exit, the economic structure will become more balanced because of the improved resource allocation, and in the end, growth will become more spontaneous and sustainable. In this sense, reforms could deliver ‘dividend’ by raising China’s potential economic growth rates. For China to confront all the challenges it faces at present, the reforms undertaken now have to be deep, comprehensive and far-reaching in order to succeed in paving the way for China to complete the task of transformation in the long-term. There is no better alternative than deepening the market-oriented reform in advancing the course of China’s modernisation for future development and prosperity and lifting China to the status of a developed economy in the next two decades. The recent China update books have covered the topic of reform from different angles and this new book is another attempt to address this important issue.

Keywords

economy --- transformation --- expansion --- china

The Natriuretic Hormones

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889197095 Year: Pages: 76 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-709-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-04-07 11:22:02
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The title follows from the original demonstration by Dr. Hugh de Wardener in 1961 that a humoral agent is produced after extracellular volume expansion which results in a vigorous diuresis and natriuresis. Thus the name of "natriuretic hormone" was coined. In the years that followed several investigators pursued the search for the hormone. What resulted, however, was the discovery of several hormones with different characteristics, all of which were natriuretic. Initially it was found that the hormone was similar in action to ouabain or digoxin, hence the appelation of ouabain-like or digoxin-like. The hormone was found to be an inhibitor of Na-K-ATPase, which would fit with it being a cardiotonic steroid. On the other hand, neither ouabain or digoxin migrated on Sephadex gel filtration in the same locus as the hormone. Other investigators claim to have identified the hormone-initially as a vanadium-diascorbate, later as bufadienolides such as marinobufagenin, yet later as a macrocylic derivative of inorganic carbon suboxide with a molecular weight of 408 Da. Some support for the latter finding was derived from an earlier report that a semi-purified Sephadex-derived compound was found to have a molecular weight of about 12,000 Da but the active compound, when split from its carrier protein, had a molecular weight of exactly 408 Da. This compound had not been further identified. As further development was the demonstration by Bricker and colleagues that a natriuretic substance could be purified from uremic urine. This turned out to be a xathurenic acid derivative. Meanwhile the focus began to turn to natriuretic peptides derived from heart (ANF and BNP). These peptides have a shorter duration of action than the cardiotonic steroid-like hormone and ANF has proved to be most useful as a measure of heart failure. It should also be stressed that marinobufagenin, like ANF, is elevated in congestive heart failure, whereas the steroid-like hormone is depressed or absent in this state. This review will attempt to describe and contrast the properties of each of the proposed natriuretic hormones, including their locus on Sephadex separation, potency, duration of action, chemical structure (if known), behavior in hypertension, renal failure, heart failure, and brain disease. As most recent work has focussed on marinobufagenin, this hormone will be brought up to date by investigators in the field.

Sea Spots

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ISBN: 9783412151713 9783412151737 Year: DOI: 10.7788/9783412151737 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 104891
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-10-01 11:21:03
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In der Zeit um 1600 unternahmen die aufsteigenden Seemächte England und Niederlande Expeditionen in ferne Gewässer der Arktis und der Südsee oder versuchten, die Welt via Magellanstrasse zu umsegeln. Meer und Schiff wurden dabei zu Kontaktzonen wie auch zu Orten der Imagination und der Wissensproduktion.Die Explorationsfahrten der europäischen Seemächte um 1600 brachten eine Fülle an Texten, Bildern und kartografischen Werken hervor, in welchen Erlebnis und Wahrnehmung der besegelten Gebieten sowie Vorstellungen darüber verarbeitet wurden. In ihrem Buch stellt die Autorin die These auf, dass dabei nicht nur terrestrische und insulare Zielpunkte der Reisen festgehalten und verzeichnet wurden, sondern insbesondere auch neue maritime Räume mit ihren ihnen je eigenen Qualitäten Aufnahme in den Imaginationsschatz und das zeitgenössische Wissenskorpus fanden.

L’expansion occidentale (XIe-XVe siècles). Formes et conséquences : XXXIIIe Congrès de la SHMES (Madrid, Casa de Velàzquez, 23-26 mai 2002)

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ISBN: 9791035102036 DOI: 10.4000/books.psorbonne.13628 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de la Sorbonne
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:41
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Croisade, Reconquête, Drang nach Osten. Autant d'expressions contestées aujourd'hui par les historiens, mais qui n'en expriment pas moins différentes modalités d'un phénomène de grande ampleur : l'expansion occidentale au Moyen Âge. Du XIe à la « première mondialisation » de la fin du XVe siècle, ce vaste mouvement aura poussé pèlerins, marchands et chevaliers des rives de la mer Noire jusqu'aux conquêtes latines de Syrie-Palestine. C'est cette histoire passionnée, et souvent obscurcie par les arrière-pensées idéologiques, qu'éclairent les actes du XXXIIIe congrès de la Société des historiens médiévistes de l'Enseignement supérieur public, accueilli en mai 2002 à la Casa Velasquez, à Madrid. Ils permettent de mesurer tout ce qui sépare l'expansion médiévale de la colonisation moderne, dont la péninsule Ibérique fut l'un des premiers acteurs. Cela se vérifie tant du point de vue des fronts de la conquête, orientés au Moyen Âge vers l'Est et le Nord tout autant que vers le Sud, que du point de vue de ses conséquences territoriales, n'affectant que marginalement le peuplement. L'expansion occidentale ne saurait se réduire, au Moyen Âge, à l'élan inexorable d'États conquérants. Les études réunies ici permettent de restituer ce mouvement historique global dans la diversité de ses acteurs, dans la complexité de ses motivations et dans la variété de ses rythmes. Il en résulte une compréhension à la fois plus contrastée et plus sûre d'un fait historique qui appartient, qu'on le veuille ou non, au socle de l'identité occidentale.

Le Portugal à la rencontre de trois mondes

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ISBN: 9782907163378 9782371540071 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de l’IHEAL
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-05 12:32:23
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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Autant, si ce n'est plus que pour l'Espagne, les Grandes découvertes ont été, pour le Portugal, un véritable mythe fondateur. En un siècle et demi, de 1415 aux années 1550 , un pays de dimension modeste (90000 km2) , situé au sud d'une Europe médiévale confrontée en Méditérranée à l'Islam, peuplé d'un peu plus d'un million d'habitants, a mis en relation, de façon directe, grâce à sa maîtrise des routes de la mer océane, cet extrême Occident de l'Ancien Monde avec les ""Trois Mondes"" d'Afrique,...

Urban Land Systems: An Ecosystems Perspective

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ISBN: 9783038429173 9783038429180 Year: Pages: VIII, 192 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-02 12:55:50
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Global urbanization creates challenges towards sustainability and human well-being. Urban areas are dependent on the ecosystems beyond the city limits but also benefit from the internal urban green places. An understanding of the importance of urban ecosystem services means that urban greenery can be designedly maintained or even expanded. As cities are expected to grow at a rapid rate in the coming decades, it is important that the ecosystem perspective is understood and valued by city planners and political decision-makers. This special issue highlights some aspects related to urban sprawl dynamics and urban ecosystem management. Observations and studies presented in ten papers show that urbanization affects essential ecological, economic, and social landscape functions, whose importance is often undervalued in cities worldwide.

Curriculum Reform in the European Schools: Towards a 21st Century Vision

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ISBN: 9783319714639 9783319714646 Year: Pages: 183 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-71464-6 Language: English
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan Grant: European Commission
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2018-07-27 16:00:12
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This open access book examines the modern role of the European School system within the European Union, at a time when the global economy demands a new vision for contemporary education. The European schools are currently in a state of crisis: their 60-year-old tradition of bilingual and multilingual education is being strained by rapid EU expansion and the removal of English speaking teachers as a result of Brexit. Their tried and tested model of mathematics and science education has rapidly been overtaken by new developments in pedagogy and assessment research, while recruitment and retention of students and teachers has become increasingly fraught as European member states review what they are, and what they are not, prepared to fund. The authors draw on original and empirical research to assess the European Schools’ place in a new Europe where the entire post-war European Project is potentially at risk. This well-researched volume will be of interest to practitioners working in European schools as well as students and scholars of EU politics and international education.

Les Indiens des frontières coloniales : Amérique australe, XVIe siècle-temps présent

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9782753568099 DOI: 10.4000/books.pur.110043 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de Rennes
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:45
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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En quoi l’Amérique australe serait-elle traversée par des « frontières coloniales » jusqu’au XXe siècle ? En effet, si la conquête de l’Amérique par les Européens s’est concrétisée par leur prise de possession rapide de territoires répartis sur l’ensemble du continent, dès le XVIe siècle ils se heurtent à des limites qui marquent le pas de l’expansion coloniale. Celles-ci sont imposées par des peuples amérindiens qui résistent à leur avancée ; elles sont aussi environnementales, des milieux sont difficiles à pénétrer ou à contrôler. D’autres territoires restent éloignés des grandes voies de circulation. De sorte qu’au milieu du XIXe siècle, une grande partie des terres américaines demeure à l’écart de l’expansion européenne. Les années 1860-1880 marquent la fin du processus de conquête des terres amérindiennes, qui se prolonge néanmoins jusqu’au XXe siècle dans des espaces plus difficiles d’accès. Cet ouvrage analyse en quoi les régions de l’entre-deux restent dans la longue durée des espaces mouvants, des points de rencontre, où se font face l’autonomie indienne et le pouvoir colonial hispanique. Ces espaces ne sont pas une ligne radicale, mais une zone poreuse faite d’échanges, de négociations et de conflits. Le Cône sud constitue un observatoire privilégié permettant de travailler des régions qui transcendent les limites administratives des empires hispano-portugais, puis celles des États-nations. Le livre s’ouvre sur les systèmes classificatoires des altérités indiennes fabriqués par le monde colonial en fonction de son entreprise hégémonique. La deuxième partie se situe à l’époque républicaine, au XIXe siècle, qui scelle l’encerclement puis la défaite militaire des derniers groupes indiens souverains. L’ouvrage se clôt sur le cas singulier du Chaco qui connaît la poursuite, encore au XXe siècle, d’un état de choses rejoignant par bien des aspects le plus classique des colonialismes de l’époque impériale.

Exposer pour exporter. Culture visuelle et expansion commerciale en Suisse (1908-1939)

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ISBN: 9782889300488 Year: Pages: 524 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_594271 Language: French
Publisher: Editions Alphil Presses universitaires suisses Grant: Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) - OAPEN-CH - 163645
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-27 11:01:23
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In the early 20th Century, exhibitions and international fairs were a favoured field for Swiss businesses that wished to conquer new territories in foreign markets. The way in which Switzerland was represented abroad challenged traditional regional construction by substituting more geometrical lines, thereby replacing the ‘chalet style’. The ‘genesis’ of the Swiss style of exhibition, between commercial expansion and modern architecture, is depicted here beyond that of a purely institutional history, providing a new viewpoint into its economic and artistic aspects. Particular atten-tion is given to the role of certain ‘intermediaries’ in the creation and diffusion of a visual culture to a commercial action.

Written Culture in a Colonial Context

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781919895260 9781919899167 Year: DOI: 10.26530/oapen_628137 Language: English
Publisher: UCT Press Grant: Knowledge Unlatched - 100293
Subject: History --- Migration
Added to DOAB on : 2017-04-28 11:01:31
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There is very little in the modern literature on the history of written culture that describes the specific practices related to writing that were anchored in colonial contexts. It was not just ships, soldiers, missionaries and settlers that drove the process of European expansion from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The circulation of images, manuscripts and books between different continents played a key role too. The introduction and appropriation of writing into societies without alphabets was a major factor in changing the very function and meaning of written culture. This book explores the extent to which the types of written information that resulted during colonial expansion shaped the numerous and complex processes of cultural exchange from the 16th century onwards in Africa and the Americas.

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