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Allemaal beestjes. Mortaliteit en morbiditeit in Vlaanderen, 18de-20ste eeuw

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Book Series: Historische Economie en Ecologie ISBN: 9789038209043 Year: Pages: 262 DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_365396 Language: Dutch;
Publisher: Academia Press
Subject: History --- Arts in general --- Sociology --- Social Sciences --- History of arts --- Performing Arts
Added to DOAB on : 2011-11-04 00:00:00
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This book treats the spectacular rise in life expectancy during the last three centuries. It is the first study to bring together both published and unpublished material about the history of the health of Belgian men and women and to analyze it critically. Isabelle Devos studies the mechanisms of the historic fall in the death rate in an original manner and answers the question why research on the causes of this decline has not progressed faster. While the discipline of historical demography orients the first part of her book, the discipline of historical epidemiology provides the perspective taken in the second part, in which the role of insects as spreaders of disease is explored. Essential in her study is the importance of local medical practitioners who already at the end of the Ancien Régime warned of the dangers present in the environment. Their ‘ecological’ thinking created a consciousness that was decisive for the further development of healthcare.

Avoidance: From Basic Science to Psychopathology

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198283 Year: Pages: 227 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-828-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Coping has a myriad of facets: knowledge concerning the circumstances of threats to emotional and physical well being, the ability to meet immediate needs to mitigate, the potential for recurrence, the ability to apply efforts and resources to manage recurrence, and the complex assessment of competing motivations and changing circumstances. Successful coping is measured in the efficiency of efforts in balance with the degree of threat and likelihood of future occurrence. As one means of coping, avoidance encompass thoughts and efforts toward prevention of future aversive experiences and events. Anxiety disorders exemplify an extreme bias toward avoidance. A diathesis learning model focuses research efforts on individual vulnerabilities to acquire and express avoidance, the neurobiology of avoidance learning and its attendant circuitry. A fundamental understanding of avoidance through a diathesis learning model offers will facilitate the development of effective treatment protocols in alleviating anxiety disorders.

Psychological Responses to Violations of Expectations: Perspectives and Answers from Diverse Fields of Psychology

Authors: --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454457 Year: Pages: 236 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-445-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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From Pavlov's dog expecting food when hearing a bell to stereotypes as expectations about other people’s behaviour, from Bandura’s self-efficacy as expectation for success and failure of one’s own behaviour to the "predictive brain" concept in current perception theories: expectations have been a central construct in different areas of psychological research. In each of these areas, specific concepts, theoretical approaches, and empirical methods have been developed to explain when and why expectations persist and when they do not. Many theories assume that expectations are likely to change in the face of disconfirming evidence. However, sometimes expectations persist even though they are empirically violated, suggesting that they can be “sticky” under certain circumstances. But what are these circumstances? And what are the psychological mechanisms that can explain why and when expectations persist or change after being confronted with expectation-violating evidence?Each contribution of the current book offers insights into individuals’ reactions to violations of expectations. They show that many pieces of the puzzle have been collected in the many sub-displiclines of psychology and that putting them together in an integrative fashion stays a fascinating enterprise.

Chapter 1 Patterns of Death, 1800-2020 (Book chapter)

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ISBN: 9780429028274 Year: Pages: 25 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Grant: Wellcome Trust - 103322
Subject: Social Sciences --- History
Added to DOAB on : 2020-11-21 00:00:28
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This chapter provides a brief introduction to mortality patterns over the last two centuries, from a global perspective. The period witnessed enormous and ubiquitous rises in life expectancy at birth, from a global average of perhaps 30 years in 1800 to an estimated average of 72.6 years in 2019. Remarkably, these changes took place despite a perhaps seven- to eight-fold increase of the world’s population, and in the context of unprecedented increases in the speed and frequency of transmission of infectious diseases as a consequence of urbanization, colonization, technological change, and the globalization of trade. This chapter describes the gradual recession of famine and infectious diseases in now-developed countries before c.1870, the acceleration of improvements in life expectancy 1870-1940. and the much more rapid and global gains since the mid twentieth century, together with a brief account of some of the major reversals to these trends, including the HIV and smoking pandemics. It outlines the broad geography and chronology of changes in patterns of mortality, and introduces debates regarding the roles of economic growth and the roles of medicine and states. It concludes with a brief discussion of recent and future trends.

Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities

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ISBN: 9783038978862 9783038978879 Year: Pages: 158 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-887-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Sports Medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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I made the important decision to manage a Special Issue, because I believe it to be extremely important to focus on children’s and adolescents’ physiological and psychological development. I aimed to collect research that investigates the role of physical activity and sport on physical and mental well-being, with a particular focus on practical implications, innovation, tools, and technique. This Special Issue, “Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities” addresses pediatric exercise science as a key scientific discipline able to help future generations live longer and better. It is already clear that sedentariness and a low level of muscular strength and power significantly affects cognitive functions and daily relations, but it is interesting to understand the key determinants and how we can help practitioners better manage these concerns in their patients. Authors were invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews.

Coffee and Caffeine Consumption for Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039286287 / 9783039286294 Year: Pages: 290 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-629-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The year 2019 has been prolific in terms of new evidence regarding the effects of coffee and caffeine consumption on diverse aspects of human functioning. This book collects 20 high-quality manuscripts published in Nutrients that include original investigation or systematic review studies of the effects of caffeine intake on human performance and health. The diversity of the articles published in this Special Issue highlights the extent of the effects of coffee and caffeine on human functioning, while underpinning the positive nature of most of these effects. This book will help with understanding why the natural sources of caffeine are so widely present in the nutrition behaviors of modern society.

Keywords

pharmacokinetics --- energy drink --- exercise --- elite athlete --- performance --- football --- RPE --- DOMS --- sport performance --- supplementation --- ergogenic aids --- consumer --- behavior --- perception --- coffee --- health --- consumption motives --- coffee/caffeine --- systematic review and meta-analysis --- prospective studies --- epidemiology --- cancer prevention --- colorectal cancer --- individual responses --- responders --- exercise performance --- ergogenic aids --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- energy drinks --- pregnancy --- newborn --- caffeine --- ergogenic aid --- resistance training --- isokinetic testing --- adrenal gland --- caffeine --- corticosterone --- puberty --- rat --- sex-difference --- caffeine --- energy drinks --- fatigue --- mood state --- exercise --- supplement --- resistance exercise --- speed --- repetition --- n/a --- metabolome --- skeletal muscle --- exercise --- muscle contraction --- ergogenic effect --- bench press --- upper limb --- resistance exercise --- ergogenic substances --- time under tension --- 1RM test --- caffeine --- metabolites --- phenotyping --- CYP450 --- NAT --- xanthine oxidase --- actigraphy --- athletic --- coffee --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- anaerobic --- caffeine --- CMJ --- ergogenic aids --- exercise --- nutrition --- sport supplement --- Wingate --- electromyography --- efficiency --- sport --- exercise --- expectancy --- belief --- perceptions --- placebo effect --- recovery --- strength --- power --- sprint performance --- menstrual cycle --- fatigue --- placebo --- ergogenic --- EEG–EMG coherence --- n/a --- women --- resistance exercise --- exercise training --- velocity --- ergogenic aid --- muscle function --- n/a

The Impact of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039218349 9783039218356 Year: Pages: 322 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-835-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:21:22
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The purpose of this Special Issue is to provide a thorough and up-to-date presentation of research investigating the impact of coffee and/or caffeine intake on various health outcomes. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to, the following topics: Human clinical trials of coffee or caffeine use in relation to disease or intermediate phenotypes. Epidemiological studies of habitual coffee or caffeine intake in relation to human health, among the general public, as well as, among special populations (i.e., children, pregnant women, diabetics, cancer patients, hypertensives, etc.). Mechanisms of action of nutrients and other bioactive components of coffee/caffeine. Studies integrating genetic or physiological markers of coffee/caffeine intake to investigations of coffee and health.

Keywords

accidental death --- caffeine --- caffeine intoxication --- intoxication --- Suicide --- HIV-HCV co-infection --- liver fibrosis --- coffee --- alcohol consumption --- coffee --- tea --- European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition --- 24-h dietary recall --- whole-blood --- mRNA --- transcriptomics --- gene expression --- coffee --- the Norwegian Women and Cancer Cohort (NOWAC) --- caffeine --- myocardial perfusion --- coronary artery disease --- adenosine --- regadenoson --- dipyridamole --- caffeine intake --- assisted reproduction techniques --- risk factors --- implantation --- clinical pregnancy --- live birth --- epidemiology --- bias --- causation --- coffee --- pregnancy --- coffee --- depression --- cohort study --- Mendelian Randomization --- coffee --- caffeine --- behavior --- causality --- genetic epidemiology --- epidemiological methods --- cardiovascular disease --- coffee consumption --- gene-diet interaction --- longevity --- NADH dehydrogenase --- polymorphism --- serum chloride levels --- CYP1A2 --- ADORA2A --- time trial performance --- caffeine metabolism --- pharmacological ergogenic aid --- polymorphism --- anxiety --- ergogenic --- adenosine receptor --- cytochrome P450 --- caffeine --- pharmacogenomics --- coffee --- caffeine --- chlorogenic acids --- phenolic --- cognition --- cognitive --- mood --- age --- sex --- caffeine --- wine --- chocolate --- aging --- cognition --- adult --- coffee --- hearing --- protection --- tinnitus --- Caffeine --- placebo --- sport --- exercise --- health --- expectancy --- cognitions --- caffeine --- coffee --- systematic review --- pregnancy --- safety --- individual responses --- ergogenic aid --- supplement --- did not respond --- responders --- n/a --- caffeine --- coffee --- tea --- soda --- energy drinks --- mate --- guidelines --- country --- consumption --- population --- public policy --- coffee --- caffeine --- lipids --- biomarkers --- trial --- lysophosphatidylcholine --- lipidomics --- n/a

Novel Smart Textiles

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ISBN: 9783039285709 / 9783039285716 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-571-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Arts in general
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The sensing, adapting, responding, multifunctionality, low energy, small size and weight, ease of forming, and low-cost attributes of smart textiles and their multidisciplinary scope offer numerous end uses in medical, sports and fitness, military, fashion, automotive, aerospace, the built environment, and energy industries. The research and development on these new and high-value materials cross scientific boundaries, redefine material science design and engineering, and enhance quality of life and our environment. “Novel Smart Textiles” is a focused Special Issue that reports the latest research of this field and facilitates dissemination, networking, discussion, and debate.

Keywords

e-textile --- metamaterials --- transmission line --- wearable --- split ring resonator --- dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) --- polyacrylonitrile (PAN) --- nanofiber mat --- electrospinning --- PEDOT:PSS --- dye-sensitized solar cell --- half-textile --- spectral analysis --- parameter identification --- equivalent circuit --- black-box --- grey-box --- power spectral density --- optimization --- analytical model --- electromagnetic shielding effectiveness --- electric properties --- fabric --- woven textiles --- carbon nanomaterials --- smart fabrics --- in-line monitoring --- polymeric composites --- carbon nanotubes --- reduced graphene oxide --- textile electrode --- ECG --- motion sensor --- skin-electrode impedance --- electrically conductive textiles --- polymers --- smart textiles --- surface area evaluation --- microencapsulation --- biofunctional --- drug-delivery --- textile-based stretch sensors --- stitch structure --- wearable stretch sensor --- conductive thread --- conductivity --- metal flake --- coating --- e-textile --- encapsulation --- durability --- stiffness --- textile/polymer composite --- stretchable electronics --- smart textiles --- mechanical and electrical properties --- quasi-static and cyclic mechanical loading --- life-time expectancy --- smart textile --- thermal textile pixel --- thermal communication --- non-auditory and nonvisual communication --- thermal conductivity --- Peltier element --- SMART pattern-changing fabric --- pattern effect --- visual response --- visual brain --- event-related potential (ERP) --- psychotextiles --- art and design --- smart textiles --- textile sensors --- e-textiles --- visual brain --- thermal textile pixels --- stretchable electronics --- conductive textiles --- wearables --- stitch-based sensors --- biofunctional textiles --- ECG --- hybrid electrodes --- motion tracking --- carbon nanotextiles --- composites --- EMS textiles --- electrospun solar cells --- embroidered e-textiles --- targeted delivery --- psychotextiles --- energy harvesting --- multifunctional

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