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Vestibular Contributions to Health and Disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889455201 Year: Pages: 243 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-520-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-23 14:53:42
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This eBook reviews recent developments in vestibular physiology and pathophysiology and covers a range of topics, including diagnostic tests, treatment approaches, central and peripheral vestibular mechanisms, and vestibulo-automonic interactions.

Eye movement-related brain activity during perceptual and cognitive processing

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192731 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-273-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The recording and analysis of electrical brain activity associated with eye movements has a history of several decades. While the early attempts were primarily focused on uncovering the brain mechanisms of eye movements, more recent approaches use eye movements as markers of the ongoing brain activity to investigate perceptual and cognitive processes. This recent approach of segmenting brain activity based on eye movement behavior has several important advantages. First, the eye movement system is closely related to cognitive functions such as perception, attention and memory. This is not surprising since eye movements provide the easiest and the most accurate way to extract information from our visual environment and the eye movement system largely determines what information is selected for further processing. The eye movement-based segmentation offers a great way to study brain activity in relation to these processes. Second, on the methodological level, eye movements constitute a natural marker to segment the ongoing brain activity. This overcomes the problem of introducing artificial markers such as ones for stimulus presentation or response execution that are typical for a lab-based research. This opens possibilities to study brain activity during self-paced perceptual and cognitive behavior under naturalistic conditions such as free exploration of scenes. Third, by relating eye movement behavior to the ongoing brain activity it is possible to see how perceptual and cognitive processes unfold in time, being able to predict how brain activity eventually leads to behavior. This research topic illustrates advantages of the combined recording and analysis of eye movements and neural signals such as EEG, local field potentials and fMRI for investigation of the brain processes in humans and animals. The contributions include research papers, methodology papers and reviews demonstrating conceptual and methodological achievements in this rapidly developing field.

Unheil durch Dämonen?

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ISBN: 9783205784852 Year: Pages: 218 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/OAPEN_437183 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 4098
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:49:21
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Narratives about people haunted by demons have a long tradition in the Middle East. The Koranaddresses the existence of demons, although their overall significance in it is limited. In contrast,dangerous demons and accompanying phenomena, such as the evil eye and witchcraft, play a vital rolein concepts of folk religion. Particularly in peripheral and rural areas of the present-day Syrian ArabRepublic, many people have stories to tell about their own encounters with such supernatural beings.In my research, I have collected such narratives, orally transmitted over time, and I have reconstructedsubsequent discourses. More specifically, I have pursued the two following questions: In which spatialand temporal spheres do demons appear? And: Which human behaviours are likely to cause dangerousdemons to appear?My analysis firstly replicated and extended structural approaches which presume demons and othermetaphysical entities in spatial and temporal border zones.Secondly, evidence was collected to demonstrate that demons appear primarily when humans are facedwith uncertainties - regarding ethical-moral decisions, regarding the realm of sexuality, or theconstruction of individual and collective identities.Narratives about encounters with demons inevitably lead to discourses about important issues of greaturgency. In theory they can be described as conflict-laden topics regarding ethics and morals, sexuality,social change, and identity. However, the topics of these discourses are not abstract theories claiminguniversal validity. Quite the contrary: On the basis of concrete events in concrete contexts, concreteoptions for a virtuous and good life are discussed.These concretizations, in the narratives as well as in the discourses, form an effective strategy increating security in a world full of uncertainties. The folk religious concepts regarding the demons’influence therefore provide an opportunity to cope with negative experiences of contingency.Moreover, particular relevance of the local-cultural beliefs in demons lies in dealing with valueconflicts. Focusing on situations of daily life, such local-cultural concepts appear to be valid even whencontrasted with other, concurring models of reality. Viewed in this light, they are essential, practical,and useful for the people in the Syrian periphery - at least today, and perhaps also tomorrow.

Perception of visual advertising in different media: from attention to distraction, persuasion, preference and memory

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194162 Year: Pages: 124 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-416-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-10 11:59:06
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This Research Topic aims to showcase the state of the art in visual advertising research. Although visual processes are a central component of consumer behavior, they have been largely neglected in models explaining consumer perception of advertising. Rather than being the mere input into the cognitive or affective systems, the visual processes both voluntarily and involuntarily affect the amount and quality of information that is passed into further mental processing. Moreover, advertisements provide a well- designed, rich and stimulating environment to study visual processes in real-life conditions. Consumers encounter thousands of advertisement messages per day. Previous research on visual perception of advertising mostly considers print advertising. However, advertising messages increasingly appear in a variety of formats and in different media. Part of these messages are still conveyed through traditional media, such as newspapers, magazines, television, as well as outdoor and supermarket advertising. In addition, the amount and diversity of visual marketing stimuli is rapidly growing in terms of different advertising formats appearing in online and social media, smartphones and tablets. This challenges the marketing professionals and academics to better understand the impact of marketing on consumers. At the same time, the technical development of the research methods allows better opportunities to investigate advertising perception in different environments. Traditionally, papers investigating the psychological processes underlying advertising perception are published in journals widespread across different disciplines, such as marketing, applied psychology and human computer interaction journals. With this Research Topic, we aim to create a forum in which experts in different fields define the state of the art and future directions of the research on the visual aspects of marketing. We include reviews and original research papers involving both empirical and theoretical studies on visual perception of advertising across different media.

Reduction of Environmental Distraction to Facilitate Cognitive Performance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194476 Year: Pages: 94 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-447-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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When faced with a difficult task, people often look at the sky or close their eyes. This behavior is functional: the reduction of distractions in the environment can improve performance on cognitive tasks, including memory retrieval. Reduction of visual distractions can be operationalized through eye-closure, gaze aversion, or by comparing exposure to simple and complex visual displays, respectively. Reduction of auditory distractions is typically examined by comparing performance under quiet and noisy conditions. Theoretical reasoning regarding this phenomenon draws on various psychological principles, including embodied cognition, cognitive load, and modality-specific interference. Practical applications of the research topic are diverse. For example, the findings could be used to improve performance in forensic settings (e.g., eyewitness testimony), educational settings (e.g., exam performance), occupational settings (e.g., employee productivity), or medical settings (e.g., medical history reporting). This Research Topic welcomes articles from all areas of psychology relating to the reduction of distractions to improve task performance. Articles can address (but are not limited to) new empirical findings, comprehensive reviews, theoretical frameworks, opinion pieces, or discussions of practical applications.

Good News - Bad News: The Two Faces of Immune Privilege

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193318 Year: Pages: 109 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-331-8 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-03-10 08:14:32
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Immune privilege was once thought to be the property of a few select sites that include the eye, brain, testis, pregnant uterus and (of all things) the hamster cheek pouch, and was believed to be mainly based on sequestration behind blood-tissue barriers. This view has changed. Immune privilege is now considered to constitute a more general phenomenon through which tissues are able to actively direct and control immune responses taking place in their “territory” to preserve their structural and functional integrity in the face of inflammatory processes. These positive aspects of immune privilege can be hijacked by tumors to their survival advantage and to the detriment of the host. This Research Topic dissects the beneficial and deleterious consequences of immune privilege in terms of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that various tissues and tumors use, each in its own fashion, to regulate immune processes that affect them, at the local and the systemic level.

Chapter: 'How to Attract Students’ Visual Attention' from book: Adaptive and Adaptable Learning: 11th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2016, Lyon, France, September 13-16, 2016, Proceedings (Book chapter)

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Book Series: Lecture Notes in Computer Science ISSN: 0302-9743 / 1611-3349 ISBN: 9783319451527 9783319451534 Year: Pages: 11 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-45153-4_3 Language: English
Publisher: Springer
Subject: Education
Added to DOAB on : 2017-11-27 16:51:33
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Attracting students’ visual attention is critical in order for teachers to teach classes, communicate core concepts and emotionally connect with their students. In this paper we analyze two months of video recordings taken from a fourth grade class in a vulnerable school, where, every day, a sample of 3 students wore a mini video camera mounted on eyeglasses. We looked for scenes from the recordings where the teacher appears in the students’ visual field, and computed the average duration of each event. We found that the student’s gaze on the teacher lasted 44.9 % longer when the teacher gestured than when he did not, with an effect size (Cohen’s d) of 0.69. The data also reveals different effects for gender, subject matter, and student Grade Point Average (GPA). The effect of teacher gesturing on students with a low GPA is higher than on students’ with a high GPA. These findings may have broad significance for improving teaching practices.

Sprache und Kognition. Ereigniskonzeptualisierung im Deutschen und Tschechischen

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Book Series: Konvergenz und Divergenz ISBN: 9783110615746 Year: Volume: 8 Pages: 308 DOI: 10.1515/9783110615746 Language: German
Publisher: De Gruyter
Subject: Linguistics
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-14 18:42:56
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Ist unser Denken und somit die Weltsicht für alle Menschen gleich oder sprachspezifisch? Auf diese uralte Fragestellung, der bereits Wilhelm von Humboldt nachgegangen ist, gibt dieses Buch eine eindeutig bejahende Antwort: Unsere Weltanschauung wird durch die Grammatik der eigenen Muttersprache(n) geprägt, sodass Menschen Ereignisse sprachspezifisch wahrnehmen, versprachlichen und auch erinnern. Diese grundlegenden Erkenntnisse sind durch den hier gewählten experimentellen Zugang psycholinguistischer Methoden (z.B. Eye-Tracking) erstmalig möglich.Der Einfluss von Sprache auf Kognition erweist sich darüber hinaus für Sprachkontakt als extrem relevant. Infolge des über Jahrhunderte andauernden Sprachkontakts zwischen dem Deutschen und Tschechischen hat sich das Aspekt-System des Tschechischen dahingehend geändert, dass die Ereigniskonzeptualisierung im Tschechischen wie im Deutschen verläuft und das Tschechische sich systematisch von anderen ost- und westslawischen Sprachen absetzt.

Visual Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: A View into the Mechanisms of Madness?

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889195152 Year: Pages: 319 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-515-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-10-30 16:33:44
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Research on visual perception in schizophrenia has a long history. However, it is only recently that it has been included in mainstream efforts to understand the cognitive neuroscience of the disorder and to assist with biomarker and treatment development (e.g., the NIMH CNTRICS and RDoC initiatives). Advances in our understanding of visual disturbances in schizophrenia can tell us about both specific computational and neurobiological abnormalities, and about the widespread computational and neurobiological abnormalities in the illness, of which visual disturbances constitute well-studied, replicable, low-level examples. Importantly, far from being a passive sensory registration process, visual perception is active, inferential, and hypothesis-generating, and therefore can provide excellent examples of breakdowns in general brain functions in schizophrenia. Despite progress made in understanding visual processing disturbances in schizophrenia, many challenges exist and many unexplored areas are in need of examination. For example, the directional relationships between perceptual and cognitive disturbances (e.g., in attention, memory, executive function, predictive coding) remain unclear in many cases, as do links with symptoms, including visual hallucinations. The effect of specific visual disturbances on multisensory integration in schizophrenia has also not been explored. In addition, few studies of vision in schizophrenia have used naturalistic stimuli, including real-world objects, and almost no studies have examined processing during interaction with objects or visual exploration, which can provide important data on functioning of the perception for action pathway. Relatedly, studies of visual processing in schizophrenia have also not been conducted within contexts that include emotional stimulation and the presence of reinforcers - characteristics of many real-world situations - and the consequences of this are likely to be an incomplete view of how and when perception is abnormal in the condition. An additional important area involves treatment of visual disturbances in schizophrenia. Two major questions regarding this are: 1) can visual processing be improved in cases where it is impaired (and by what types of interventions affecting which cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms)? and 2) what are the clinical and functional benefits of improving specific visual functions in people with schizophrenia? Other important and understudied questions concern: 1) the extent to which indices of visual functioning can serve as biomarkers such as predictors of relapse, treatment response, and/or recovery; 2) the potential role of visual functioning in diagnosing and predicting illness; 3) the extent to which some visual perception disturbances are diagnostically specific to schizophrenia; and 4) the extent to which visual disturbances are truly manifestations of disease, as opposed to aspects of normal variation that, in combination with disease, serves to modify the clinical presentation. This Frontiers Research Topic explores some of these, and other issues facing this exciting interface between vision science and schizophrenia research. We include papers that span the entire range of different Frontiers paper types, including those that are data driven (using psychophysics, electroencephalography, neuroimaging, computational and animal models, and other methods), reviews, hypotheses, theories, opinion, methods, areas of impact, and historical perspectives.

At the doors of lexical access: The importance of the first 250 milliseconds in reading

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889192601 Year: Pages: 112 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-260-1 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Psychology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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Correct word identification and processing is a prerequisite for accurate reading, and decades of psycholinguistic and neuroscientific research have shown that the magical moments of visual word recognition are short-lived and markedly fast. The time window in which a given letter string passes from being a mere sequence of printed curves and strokes to acquiring the word status takes around one third of a second. In a few hundred milliseconds, a skilled reader recognizes an isolated word and carries out a number of underlying processes, such as the encoding of letter position and letter identity, and lexico-semantic information retrieval. However, the precise manner (and order) in which these processes occur (or co-occur) is a matter of contention subject to empirical research. There's no agreement regarding the precise timing of some of the essential processes that guide visual word processing, such as precise letter identification, letter position assignment or sub-word unit processing (bigrams, trigrams, syllables, morphemes), among others. Which is the sequence of processes that lead to lexical access? How do these and other processes interact with each other during the early moments of word processing? Do these processes occur in a serial fashion or do they take place in parallel? Are these processes subject to mutual interaction principles? Is feedback allowed for within the earliest stages of word identification? And ultimately, when does the reader's brain effectively identify a given word? A vast number of questions remain open, and this Research Topic will cover some of them, giving the readership the opportunity to understand how the scientific community faces the problem of modeling the early stages of word identification according to the latest neuroscientific findings.

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