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Molecular Regulation and Therapeutic Potential of Thermogenic Fat Cells

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198696 Year: Pages: 127 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-869-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Internal medicine --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Obesity has emerged as a major threat to public health in both the western and developing world. Essentially a disorder of energy balance, obesity occurs when energy intake and storage exceeds expenditure. Much of energy homeostasis depends on the activity and function of adipose tissue. Adipocytes in mammals fall into two categories classified by their primary functions: white fat cells that mediate energy storage and thermogenic fat cells that counteract hypothermia and obesity through adaptive thermogenesis. Whereas white fat and its function as an energy reservoir and endocrine organ have been studied for decades and are relatively well understood, until recently many aspects of the thermogenic fat biology have remained elusive. Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that thermogenic fat cells arise from at least two different developmental origins: the ones of a skeletal muscle-like lineage are now called “classical” brown fat cells, and the rest of the thermogenic fat cells are normally referred to as the beige fat cells. The last decade has witnessed an explosion of interest and studies focusing on the regulation of thermogenic fat cells and potential therapeutics targeting these adipocytes. Here we summarize the recent advancements in our understanding of these metabolically active fat cells.

Impact of Diet on Learning, Memory and Cognition

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889452286 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-228-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-10-13 14:57:01
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Changes in food composition and availability have contributed to the dramatic increase in obesity over the past 30-40 years in developed and, increasingly, in developing countries. The modern diet now contains many foods that are rich in saturated fat and refined sugar. People who eat excessive amounts of this diet are not only likely to become overweight, even obese, develop metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, some forms of cancer, but also undergo a more rapid rate of normal age-related cognitive decline and more rapid progression of neurological diseases such as dementia. A central problem is why people persist in consuming this diet in spite of its adverse health effects and when alternative food choices are available. As high fat / high sugar foods are inherently rewarding, eating for pleasure, like taking psychoactive drugs, can modulate reward neurocircuitry, causing changes in responsiveness to reward-predicting stimuli and incentive motivation. Indeed, the excessive ingestion in modern societies and the resulting obesity epidemic may be viewed as a form of food addiction. Thus, a diet high in palatable foods is proposed to impact upon reward systems in the brain, modulating appetitive learning and altering reward thresholds. Impairments in other forms of cognition have been associated with obesity, and these have a rapid onset. The hippocampus appears to be particularly vulnerable to the detrimental effects of high fat and high sugar diets. Recent research has shown that as little as one week of exposure to a high fat, high sugar diet leads to impairments in place but not object recognition memory in the rat. Excess sugar alone had similar effects, and the detrimental effects of diet consumption was linked to increased inflammatory markers in the hippocampus, a critical region involved in memory. Furthermore, obesity-related inflammatory changes have also been described in the human brain that may lead to memory impairments. These memory deficits may contribute to pathological eating behaviour through changes in the amount consumed and timing of eating. The aim of this eBook is to present up-to-date information about the impact of diet and diet-induced obesity on reward driven learning, memory and cognition, encompassing both animal and human literature, and also potential therapeutic targets to attenuate such deficits.

Keywords

Diet --- Obesity --- Memory --- Cognition --- Famine --- Fat --- Sugar --- Behavior --- Neurodevelopment

Kinanthropometry IX

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ISBN: 9780203970157 9780415380539 9780415484930 9781134179596 9781134179589 9781134179541 Year: DOI: 10.4324/9780203970157 Language: English
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Subject: Sports Science --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-11-08 11:21:20
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This is an edited collection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Ninth International Conference of the Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. Defined as the relationship between human body structure and function, kinanthropometry is an area of growing interest, and these proceedings will be of use to students, academics and professionals in the areas of ergonomics, sports science, nutrition, health, and other allied fields. The assembled works represent the latest research findings across kinanthropometry, moving the discipline forward and promoting good practice and the exchange of expertise.

Keywords

body --- composition --- endomorphic --- mesomorphs --- fat --- free --- mass --- dual --- energy --- x-ray

Hormonal and Neuroendocrine Regulation of Energy Balance

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198856 Year: Pages: 117 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-885-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Physiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Alteration in adequate energy balance maintenance results in serious disturbances such as obesity and its related metabolic disorders. In Mammals, energy balance is homeostatically controlled through hormonal and neuroendocrine systems which cooperation is based on cross-talk between central and peripheral signals. The hypothalamus as well as peripheral hormones among which adipokines from adipose tissue and thyroid hormones play a crucial role in energy homeostasis. Unraveling the physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms through which hormonal and neuroendocrine systems regulate energy balance has been a long-standing challenge in biology and is now more necessary when considering the world-wide increasing prevalence of obesity. Indeed, recognizing and understanding the biochemical and nutrient signaling pathways contributing to the nervous and endocrine integration of physiological mechanisms involved in the normal and/or abnormal regulation of energy balance is fundamental also to the development of new, effective, and targeted treatments for obesity. Recent studies have highlighted the role of hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin-expressing neurons in the regulation of energy homeostasis by controlling energy expenditure and food intake. This is accomplished through a precise balance of production and degradation of a-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, an anorexigenic neuropeptide which is degraded to an inactive form unable to inhibit food intake by the key enzyme prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP), thus suggesting that pharmacologic approaches targeting PRCP may provide a novel and effective option for the management of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. Indeed, efforts have been made to generate potent, brain-penetrant PRCP inhibitors. Weight loss due to negative energy balance is a goal for obese subjects not always reachable by dietary caloric restriction or increased physical activity. Lipid-lowering therapies have been suggested to have potential benefits, however, the establishment of comprehensive therapeutic strategies is still awaited. Recently, it has been reported that thyroid hormone (TH)- derivatives such as 3,5-diiodothyronine and 3-iodothyronamine possess interesting biological activities, opening new perspectives in thyroid physiology and TH derivatives therapeutic usage. Moreover, several studies, focusing on the interaction between thyroid hormone (TH), the autonomic nervous system and the liver, revealed an important role for the hypothalamus in the differential effects of TH on autonomic outflow to peripheral organs controlling energy balance. This Research Topic aims to give a comprehensive and integrate view of the factors involved in the endocrine and neuroendocrine signaling in energy balance regulation to highlight their involvement into physiological processes and regulatory systems as well as their perturbation during pathological processes.

Marine Natural Products and Obesity

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211913 9783039211920 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-192-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been prolific in the production of bioactive compounds for many diseases, e.g., cancer, and promise to be an excellent source for natural-derived molecules and novel nutraceuticals. Bioactive compounds with beneficial activities towards obesity have been described from diverse marine organism including marine algae, bacteria, sponges, fungi, crustaceans or fish. This Special Issue will highlight the progress in the following topics: Bioactive compounds for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities (diabetes, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia) from marine organisms; the isolation of novel compounds, the bioactivity screening of marine organisms and the elucidation of molecular mode of action of marine bioactive compounds.

Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Human

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ISBN: 9783039214617 9783039214624 Year: Pages: 162 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-462-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:39:37
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Data on nutritional status of human populations are periodically needed, as well as their relationships with anthropometry, body composition, body image and energy expenditure, and also with health lifestyle outcomes. All these parameters contribute jointly to give a complete knowledge on dietary and lifestyle habits, and hence how to proceed to improve it in order to enjoy an optimal healthy status. So, you are kindly invited to submit proposals for manuscripts that fit the objectives and the topics of this Nutrients Special issue.The aim of this proposed Nutrients Special Issue on ""Anthropometry, Body Composition and Resting Energy Expenditure in Humans"" is to publish selected papers detailing specific aspects of anthropometric, body composition and energy expenditure data in human populations and their relationships with nutritional status, as well as nutritional surveys and trials that examine measured differences or changes in these parameters are also cordially invited.

Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health

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ISBN: 9783038978909 9783038978916 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-891-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts. This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Improving Practice and Performance in Basketball

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ISBN: 9783039216949 9783039216956 Year: Pages: 106 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-695-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Sports Science
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Despite being one of the most popular sports worldwide, basketball has received limited research attention compared to other team sports. Establishing a strong evidence base with high-quality and impactful research is essential in enhancing decision-making processes to optimize player performance for basketball professionals. Consequently, the book entitled Improving Performance and Practice in Basketball provides a collection of novel research studies to increase the available evidence on various topics with strong translation to practice in basketball. The book includes work by 40 researchers from 16 institutions or professional organizations from 9 countries. In keeping with notable topics in basketball research, the book contains 2 reviews focused on monitoring strategies to detect player fatigue and considerations for travel in National Basketball Association players. In addition, 8 applied studies are also included in the book, focused on workload monitoring, game-related statistics, and the measurement of physical and skill attributes in basketball players. This book also has a strong focus on increasing the evidence available for female basketball players, who have traditionally been under-represented in the literature. The outcomes generated from this book should provide new insights to inform practice in many areas for professionals working in various roles with basketball teams.

Genetic and Epigenetic Modulation of Cell Functions by Physical Exercise

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ISBN: 9783039284801 / 9783039284818 Year: Pages: 170 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-481-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Genetics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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From an evolutionary perspective, our species has relied upon physical activity for most of its history to survive and has had to escape from predators, to scavenge for food, and to use physique to work or build necessary means for everyday life. Physical activity has been part of our evolution and progress since the very beginning and, consequently, our entire body has been programmed to be active physically. In the last 20 years, scientific research has increasingly shown that our ancient survival principle has beneficial effects not only on the cells and organs involved in physical activities but on the metabolism of the entire organism, influencing the homeostasis and integration of all bodily functions, likely stimulating the production of hormones and other regulatory molecules, with each affecting vital signalling pathways. Most of the web of factors involved in molecular signalling upon exercise are suspected to be centrally controlled by the brain, which has been reported to be deeply modified by physical activity. Such complexity requires a multifaceted approach to shed light on the molecular interactions that occur between physical activity and its outcome at a cellular level.

Adipokines 2.0

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ISBN: 9783039285860 / 9783039285877 Year: Pages: 406 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-587-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Therapeutics
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Once viewed solely as fat storage cells, adipocytes and their adipokines have now been proven to be central for human health. Understanding that overweight and obesity may increase the risk for various diseases requires detailed characterization of adipokine function. Weight gain, weight regain, and fasting affect adipocyte health and accordingly their secretome. Different adipose tissue deposits exist and they vary in cellular composition and function. The evidence is strong of a role of adipokines in cancer, reproductive function, neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases ,and rheumatoid arthritis. Adipokines are considered useful biomarkers for adipose tissue and metabolic health, and may be used as diagnostic tools in rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or sepsis. This book contains 10 original articles and 9 review articles focusing on these bioactive peptides. Several articles deal with chemerin, an adipokine discovered more than 20 years ago. Data so far have resulted in promising insights related to its biological function. We are only beginning to understand the multiple roles of chemerin, the mechanisms regulating its activity, and the signaling pathways used by this chemokine. Adipokine receptor agonists and antagonists may result in the formulation of novel drugs and ultimately may lead to new therapeutic targets to be used in clinical practice.

Keywords

adipokines --- secreted frizzled-related protein 5 --- leptin --- ghrelin --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- obesity --- proteolysis --- Tango bioassay --- biologic activity --- chemerin receptors --- excessive gestational weight gain --- neonatal anthropometry --- leptin --- ghrelin --- Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease --- fatty liver --- free fatty acids --- label-free proteomic profiling --- adipokine --- obesity --- visceral fat --- sick fat --- annexins --- adipose tissue --- adiponectin --- cholesterol --- glucose homeostasis --- inflammation --- insulin --- lipid metabolism --- obesity --- triglycerides --- adipokine --- chemerin --- leukocyte --- cancer --- adipokines --- PCOS --- polycystic ovary morphology --- follicular fluid --- human granulosa cells --- chemerin --- chemerin receptors --- hypothalamus --- oestrous cycle --- early pregnancy --- pig --- alpha-fetoprotein --- liver steatosis --- hypertension --- adipokines --- SGBS adipocytes --- glucose restriction --- in vitro fat regain --- weight regain --- complement factors --- cathepsins --- extracellular remodeling --- adipokine --- rheumatic diseases --- inflammation --- osteoarthritis --- rheumatoid arthritis --- ovary --- testis --- adipose tissue --- polycystic ovary syndrome --- preeclempsia --- gestational diabetes --- testicular pathologies --- rheumatoid arthritis --- tocilizumab --- lipids --- adipokines --- adiponectin --- resistin --- leptin --- cancer --- obesity --- adipokine --- chemerin --- chemokine-like receptor 1 --- G protein-coupled receptor 1 --- C-C chemokine receptor-like 2 --- critical illness --- sepsis --- adipokines --- biomarker --- prognosis --- ICU --- adipokine --- adipose-brain axis --- brain health --- neurodegeneration --- depression --- energy metabolism --- inflammation --- hypothalamus --- microglia --- adiponectin --- adipokine --- myokine --- fitness --- metabolically healthy obese --- early-life programming --- epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) --- prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) --- EP3 receptor --- EP4 receptor --- exchange protein directly activated by cAMP isoform 2 (EPAC2) --- stimulating growth factor 2 (ST2) --- interleukin(IL)-33 --- Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) --- fat mass --- n/a

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