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The metabolic challenges of immune cells in health and disease

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196227 Year: Pages: 80 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-622-7 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Allergy and Immunology --- Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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Obesity and its co-morbidities, including atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and diabetes, are a world-wide epidemic. Inflammatory immune responses in metabolic tissues have emerged as a universal feature of these metabolic disorders. While initial work highlighted the contribution of macrophages to tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, recent studies demonstrate that cells of the adaptive immune compartment, including T and B lymphocytes and dendritic cells also participate in obesity-induced pathogenesis of these conditions. However, the molecular and cellular pathways by which the innate and adaptive branches of immunity control tissue and systemic metabolism remain poorly understood. To engage in growth and activation, cells need to increase their biomass and replicate their genome. This process presents a substantial bioenergetic challenge: growing and activated cells must increase ATP production and acquire or synthesize raw materials, including lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. To do so, they actively reprogram their intracellular metabolism from catabolic mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis and other anabolic pathways. This metabolic reprogramming is under the control of specific signal transduction pathways whose underlying molecular mechanisms and relevance to physiology and disease are subject of considerable current interest and under intense study. Recent reports have elucidated the physiological role of metabolic reprogramming in macrophage and T cell activation and differentiation, B- and dendritic cell biology, as well as in the crosstalk of immune cells with endothelial and stem cells. It is also becoming increasingly evident that alterations of metabolic pathways play a major role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders. Due to the scientific distance between immunologists and experts in metabolism (e.g., clinicians and biochemists), however, there has been limited cross-talk between these communities. This collection of articles aims at promoting such cross-talk and accelerating discoveries in the emerging field of immunometabolism.

Biomass Processing for Biofuels, Bioenergy and Chemicals

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ISBN: 9783039289097 / 9783039289103 Year: Pages: 428 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-910-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Biomass can be used to produce renewable electricity, thermal energy, transportation fuels (biofuels), and high-value functional chemicals. As an energy source, biomass can be used either directly via combustion to produce heat or indirectly after it is converted to one of many forms of bioenergy and biofuel via thermochemical or biochemical pathways. The conversion of biomass can be achieved using various advanced methods, which are broadly classified into thermochemical conversion, biochemical conversion, electrochemical conversion, and so on. Advanced development technologies and processes are able to convert biomass into alternative energy sources in solid (e.g., charcoal, biochar, and RDF), liquid (biodiesel, algae biofuel, bioethanol, and pyrolysis and liquefaction bio-oils), and gaseous (e.g., biogas, syngas, and biohydrogen) forms. Because of the merits of biomass energy for environmental sustainability, biofuel and bioenergy technologies play a crucial role in renewable energy development and the replacement of chemicals by highly functional biomass. This book provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical research addressing recent progress in biomass conversion processes. It also covers studies on advanced techniques and methods for bioenergy and biofuel production.

Keywords

lignocellulose --- pretreatment --- hardwood --- extrusion --- enzymatic digestibility --- bioethanol --- renewable energy --- biofuel --- environment --- technology development --- co-combustion --- sewage sludge --- thermogravimetric analysis --- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy --- synergistic effect --- single-pellet combustion --- biodiesel --- fatty acid methyl ester --- free fatty acids --- oxidation stability --- antioxidant --- hydrogen --- coffee mucilage --- organic wastes --- dark fermentation --- anaerobic digestion --- biodiesel --- bio-jet fuel --- triacylglycerides --- Fatty Acid Methyl Ester --- lipids --- hydrodeoxygenation --- drop-in fuel --- rubber seed oil --- biodiesel production --- nanomagnetic catalyst --- subcritical methanol --- FAME yield --- Box-Behnken design --- GCI --- biodiesel --- diesel --- combustion --- emission --- renewable energy --- microwave --- free fatty acid --- crude oil --- renewable energy --- biomass --- waste --- black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) --- instar --- lipid --- fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) --- fermentation --- Rancimat method --- butylated hydroxyanisole --- tert-butylhydroquinone --- fatty acid methyl esters --- viscosity --- response surface --- anaerobic treatment --- biogas --- kinetic study --- potato peels --- cow manure --- thermophilic --- mesophilic --- palm oil mill effluent --- acclimatization --- direct carbon fuel cell --- biochar --- pyrolysis --- power density --- pre-treatment --- post-treatment --- combustion characteristics --- injection strategies --- compression ratio --- intake temperature --- torrefaction --- vacuum --- biomass pretreatment --- bioenergy --- energy yield --- biochar --- rice straw --- rice husk --- power generation --- gasification --- alternative fuel --- Rhus typhina biodiesel --- non-edible oil --- base-catalyzed transesterification --- Physico-chemical properties --- concentration polarization --- draw solution --- feed solution --- forward osmosis --- pressure-retarded osmosis --- operating conditions --- membrane fouling --- osmotic membrane --- bioenergy --- biofuel --- nanotechnology --- nano-catalysts --- nano-additives --- crude glycerol --- glycerol carbonate --- dimethyl carbonate --- microwave irradiation --- reaction kinetics

Fatty Acids and Cardiometabolic Health

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038978909 9783038978916 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-891-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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The impact of fat intake on hypercholesterolemia and related atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been studied for decades. However, the current evidence base suggests that fatty acids also influences cardiometabolic diseases through other mechanisms including effects on glucose metabolism, body fat distribution, blood pressure, inflammation, and heart rate. Furthermore, studies evaluating single fatty acids have challenged the simplistic view of shared health effects within fatty acid groups categorized by degree of saturation. In addition, investigations of endogenous fatty acid metabolism, including genetic studies of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes, and the identification of novel metabolically derived fatty acids have further increased the complexity of fatty acids’ health impacts. This Special Issue aims to include original research and up-to-date reviews on genetic and dietary modulation of fatty acids, and the role and function of dietary and metabolically derived fatty acids in cardiometabolic health.

Metabolomics in Neurodegenerative Disease

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ISBN: 9783039280407 / 9783039280414 Year: Pages: 184 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-041-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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The range of human neurodegenerative diseases continues to pose significant unmet medical needs for societies around the world. The progressive and terminal nature of these conditions places a considerable personal burden on the individual affected but also on public health systems and health services. Tens of millions of people are indiscriminately affected by various dementias, which are rising at an alarming rate. There are no cures for many conditions, and it is clear that treatments applied as early as possible could greatly improve outcomes for patients. Therefore, new disease classification and diagnostic tools should be a key priority. Metabolomics represents a relatively new field of analytical science, which can be extremely useful in the early diagnosis of disease. The relatively unique feature of metabolites is that they sit at the intersection between the genetic background of an organism and its environment. Because many neurodegenerative diseases are not genetically inherited (instead having a range of known genetic risk factors and also a large number of unknown environmental triggers) the field of metabolomics offers great promise for the discovery of new, biologically, and clinically relevant biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders. It is already bringing forward new knowledge in terms of the mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease.

Genome Mining and Marine Microbial Natural Products

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039280902 9783039280919 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-091-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Microbiology --- Biology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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Two review papers, eight research articles, and one brief report were published in this Special Issue. They showed the rich resources that are present within the genomes of marine microorganisms and discussed the use of recently developed tools and technologies to exploit this genetic richness. Examples include the rational supply of precursors according to the relevant biosynthetic pathway and stress driven discovery together with the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors to facilitate the discovery of new bioactive molecules with potential biopharmaceutical applications. We believe that the content of this Special Issue reflects the current state-of-the-art research in this area and highlights the interesting strategies that are being employed to uncover increasing numbers of exciting novel compounds for drug discovery from marine genetic resources.

Early Life Nutrition and Future Health

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ISBN: 9783039282500 9783039282517 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-251-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:08
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Inequity starts before birth and is programmed in part by nutritional exposures. If these exposures occur around the time of conception, during pregnancy, and/or in infancy or childhood (all critical periods of development) they may alter a child’s health trajectory and impact risk for impaired cognition and learning, and cardiometabolic, immune, and neuropsychiatric diseases and disorders. This Special Issue on “Early Life Nutrition and Future Health” has the following aims: 1) understand the origins of offspring health inequities from an early nutritional perspective; 2) uncover new insights into the environmental, biological, and social mechanisms that underpin these health outcomes in offspring; and 3) present novel targets and approaches to optimise health trajectories and prevent chronic diseases and disorders in later life and across generations. The research projects included herein highlight novel mechanistic, epidemiologic, and intervention studies that target key windows where nutrition has the greatest influence on future health (preconception, prenatal, and postnatal periods) and that explore vulnerable populations and animal models of early life nutritional programming.

Bioactive Components in Fermented Foods and Food By-Products

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288519 / 9783039288526 Year: Pages: 140 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-852-6 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Food fermentation is one of the most ancient processes of food production that has historically been used to extend food shelf life and to enhance its organoleptic properties. However, several studies have demonstrated that fermentation is also able to increase the nutritional value and/or digestibility of food. Firstly, microorganisms are able to produce huge amounts of secondary metabolites with excellent health benefits and preservative properties (i.e., antimicrobial activity). Secondarily, fermented foods contain living organisms that contribute to the modulation of the host physiological balance, which constitutes an opportunity to enrich the diet with new bioactive molecules. Indeed, some microorganisms can increase the levels of numerous bioactive compounds (e.g., vitamins, antioxidant compounds, peptides, etc.). Moreover, recent advances in fermentation have focused on food by-products; in fact, they are a source of potentially bioactive compounds that, after fermentation, could be used as ingredients for nutraceuticals and functional food formulations. Because of that, understanding the benefits of food fermentation is a growing field of research in nutrition and food science. This book aims to present the current knowledge and research trends concerning the use of fermentation technologies as sustainable and GRAS processes for food and nutraceutical production.

Marine Natural Products and Obesity

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211913 9783039211920 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-192-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been prolific in the production of bioactive compounds for many diseases, e.g., cancer, and promise to be an excellent source for natural-derived molecules and novel nutraceuticals. Bioactive compounds with beneficial activities towards obesity have been described from diverse marine organism including marine algae, bacteria, sponges, fungi, crustaceans or fish. This Special Issue will highlight the progress in the following topics: Bioactive compounds for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities (diabetes, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia) from marine organisms; the isolation of novel compounds, the bioactivity screening of marine organisms and the elucidation of molecular mode of action of marine bioactive compounds.

The Molecular and Cellular Basis for Parkinson's Disease

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ISBN: 9783039215485 9783039215492 Year: Pages: 230 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-549-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Neurology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The focus on dopamine-sensitive motor symptoms, in association with the improvement of motor complications in the heterogeneous disease entity Parkinson's disease, has led to a certain standstill in research. This Special Issue provides new concepts and new ideas on the pathogenesis, genetics, and clinical maintenance of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Not only new experimental findings, but also clinical outcomes, case series, and research on alternative, non-pharmacological therapies are included. The objective is to bridge the currently increasing gap between experimental and clinical research on Parkinson's disease and related disorders.

Keywords

epigenetics --- Parkinson’s disease --- brain --- DNA methylation --- Parkinson’s disease --- fatty acid ?-oxidation --- long-chain acylcarnitine --- Parkinson’s disease --- fatty acyls --- glycerolipids --- glycerophospholipids --- sphingolipids --- sterol lipids --- lipoproteins --- ?-synuclein-mediated pathology --- disease-modifying effects --- neuroprotection --- autophagy --- cysteinyl-dopamine --- hypochlorite --- oxidative stress --- Parkinson’s disease --- redox cycling --- Parkinson’s disease --- brain iron --- motor dysfunction --- neurometabolites --- magnetic resonance imaging --- magnetic resonance spectroscopy --- GABA --- spectroscopy --- Parkinson’s disease --- neuroinflammation --- alpha-Synuclein --- immunotherapy --- mesenchymal stem cells --- secretome --- exosomes --- Parkinson’s disease --- microRNAs --- Parkinson disease --- multiprofessional therapy --- inpatient treatment --- multimodal complex treatment --- caffeic acid --- chlorogenic acid --- rotenone --- Parkinson’s disease --- neuroprotection --- dopaminergic neuron --- myenteric plexus --- enteric glial cell --- metallothionein --- Parkinson’s disease --- microbiota --- molecular mimicry --- microbiome --- alpha-synuclein --- curli --- gut-brain axis --- neurodegeneration --- glucocerebrosidase --- Parkinson’s disease --- Gaucher’s disease --- Lewy Body Dementia --- REM sleep behavior disorders --- [123I]FP-CIT-SPECT --- DAT --- nigral cells --- Parkinson’s disease --- parkinsonisms --- cell line --- differentiation --- HOG --- immature oligodendrocyte --- Krabbe’s disease --- oligodendrocyte --- mature oligodendrocyte --- MO3.13 --- myelin --- multiple sclerosis --- schizophrenia --- SH-SY5Y

The Close Linkage between Nutrition and Environment through Biodiversity and Sustainability: Local Foods, Traditional Recipes and Sustainable Diets

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ISBN: 9783039213832 9783039213849 Year: Pages: 216 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-384-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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The Close Linkage between Nutrition and Environment through Biodiversity and Sustainability: Local Foods, Traditional Recipes, and Sustainable Diets” is focused on the close correlation between the potential benefits and “functional role” of food and territory, and it includes papers on the characterization of local foods and traditional recipes as well as on the promotion of traditional dietary patterns and sustainable diets.

Keywords

Italian garlic --- carbohydrates --- fructans --- dietary fibre --- soluble sugars --- cultivar --- environmental conditions --- agave sap --- actinomycetes --- anticancer activity --- saponins --- metabolomics --- ecosystem goods and services --- environmental sustainability --- livelihood needs --- Schinziophyton rautanenii --- Southern Africa --- sustainable development goals --- sustainable diets --- alkaloids --- antimicrobial activity --- germplasm --- Klebsiella --- landraces --- lupanine --- Pseudomonas --- varieties --- traditional food --- antimicrobial --- bioassay --- PIRG --- fractions --- consumer culture theory --- post millennials --- cheese --- loyalty --- Cyprus --- traditional food --- traditional sausages --- conventional sausages --- traditional hams --- conventional hams --- traditional meat products --- pork --- fatty acids --- mountain --- sustainability --- altitude --- food --- health --- FTIR-ATR --- traditional Italian recipes --- chemometrics --- PCA --- Olea europaea L. --- olive oil --- geographical origin --- processing system --- harvesting time --- olive oil quality --- fatty acid composition --- sensorial evaluation --- consumer preferences --- agro-ecology biodiversity --- climate resilience --- health --- local foods --- bioactive components --- traditional recipes --- traditional dietary patterns --- edible plants --- Mediterranean --- innovative gastronomy --- tetraploid wheat --- metallomics --- macronutrients --- micronutrients --- plants adaptability --- Provolone del Monaco --- traditional foods --- biodiversity --- sustainability --- nutritional composition --- bioactive components --- typical/local foods --- environmental and socio-demographic factors --- traditional recipes --- sustainable diets --- traditional dietary patterns --- Food Composition Databases

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