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Vitamin E

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ISBN: 9783038429050 9783038429067 Year: Pages: VIII, 150 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2018-05-22 09:52:09
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Vitamin E is the major lipid-soluble antioxidant in the cell antioxidant system and is exclusively obtained from the diet. In 1922, vitamin E was discovered as a dietary factor essential for reproduction in rats. Meanwhile, vitamin E has revealed many more important molecular properties, such as the scavenging of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species with consequent prevention of the oxidative damage associated with many diseases. In addition, the modulation of signal transduction and gene expression in antioxidant and non-antioxidant manners was shown for vitamin E.This Special Issue highlights some of the recent advances in vitamin E research, showing on the one hand the status quo and providing, on the other hand, new insights into functions and physiological relevance. Thus, the current knowledge of tocochromanol biosynthesis in plants and future challenges regarding the understanding of its regulation are presented. Another paper describes the fate of vitamin E in the human gastrointestinal lumen during digestion. During the metabolism of vitamin E, the long-chain metabolites 13’-hydroxychromanol and 13’-carboxychromanol are formed by oxidative modification of the side-chain. Their occurrence in human serum indicates a physiological relevance. Another paper describes the membrane distribution of α-tocopherol in brain regions of adult rhesus monkeys, also looking for associations between membrane α-tocopherol and the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Are Rodent Models Fit for Investigation of Human Obesity and Related Diseases?

Authors: --- --- --- --- et al.
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454259 Year: Pages: 161 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-425-9 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Nutrition and Food Sciences --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Not only developed countries, but also most developing areas of the world, have experienced a surge in obesity prevalence over recent decades. Obesity complications are now among the leading causes of premature mortality, encompassing conditions such as coronary heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes. This places a heavy burden on contemporary healthcare systems. While rodent models have limitations as experimental models of human obesity-related disease, study of rats and mice either spontaneously prone - or resistant - to obesity, or genetically engineered to illuminate underlying mechanisms has yielded key information about the metabolic defects linked to obesity, and their associated diseases. This topic includes both original research studies and reviews of the use of animal studies in specific areas of obesity-related disease. Various methodological approaches are discussed, with evaluation of the extent to which use of animal models has facilitated progress, or, conversely, has proved a cul de sac in investigation of human disease mechanisms. Consideration is also given to future strategies to use such rodent models optimally to enhance comprehension and treatment of pandemic human obesity-related diseases.

Nutritional Intake and the Risk for Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)

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ISBN: 9783038975984 / 9783038975991 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-599-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Internal medicine --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-02-13 10:25:01
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The aim of this Special Issue focusing on “Nutritional Intake and the Risk of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease” is to provide an in-depth overview of the role of the intake of different macro- and micronutrients in the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, as well as in its prevention and treatment. General over-nutrition but also alterations of the dietary pattern (e.g., towards a higher intake of fat, cholesterol, and sugar—and herein especially fructose) are discussed as being critical in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it has also been suggested that a general reduction of caloric intake and/or modulation of dietary composition, be it in regard to fat or to sugar intake, may have beneficial effects on the liver status in settings of NAFLD. Furthermore, in more recent years, the intake of pre- and probiotics, but also of specific micronutrients or secondary plant compounds, has also been considered a means in the prevention and therapy of this disease. Despite intense research efforts during the last decades, our understanding of the effects of nutritional intake on the development as well as on the prevention and cure of NAFLD is still limited.Providing a better understanding of the effects of diet and especially of specific macro- and micronutrients as well as pre- and probiotics and secondary plant compounds in the context of the development of NAFLD and its progression could lead to novel prevention and therapeutic strategies for this metabolic liver disease. This Special Issue will thus include original research and scientific perspectives on the relationship between NAFLD and dietary constituents that may 1) be involved in the development of the disease and 2) prevent its onset and progression. Mechanistic insights defining the contribution of certain nutritional factors (e.g., macronutrients like fat and sugar but also micronutrients and secondary plant compounds as well as pre- and probiotics) to the occurrence and management of NAFLD will improve our understanding of the disease and eventually lead to the development of universally accepted prevention and therapeutic strategies.

Marine Natural Products and Obesity

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039211913 / 9783039211920 Year: Pages: 194 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-192-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Medicine (General) --- Internal medicine
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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Obesity and related co-morbidities are increasing worldwide and pose a serious health problem. Changes in lifestyle and diet would be the best remedies to fight obesity; however, many people will still rely on medical aid. Marine organisms have been prolific in the production of bioactive compounds for many diseases, e.g., cancer, and promise to be an excellent source for natural-derived molecules and novel nutraceuticals. Bioactive compounds with beneficial activities towards obesity have been described from diverse marine organism including marine algae, bacteria, sponges, fungi, crustaceans or fish. This Special Issue will highlight the progress in the following topics: Bioactive compounds for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related co-morbidities (diabetes, fatty liver, hyperlipidemia) from marine organisms; the isolation of novel compounds, the bioactivity screening of marine organisms and the elucidation of molecular mode of action of marine bioactive compounds.

Health Benefits of Mediterranean Diet

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ISBN: 9783039214938 / 9783039214945 Year: Pages: 274 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-494-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Social Sciences --- Sociology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Growing evidence shows that a dietary pattern inspired by Mediterranean dietprinciples is associated with numerous health benefits. A Mediterranean-typediet has been demonstrated to exert a preventive effect toward cardiovasculardiseases, in both Mediterranean and non-Mediterranean populations. Part ofthese properties may depend on a positive action toward healthier metabolism,decreasing the risk of diabetes and metabolic-syndrome-related conditions.Some studies also suggested a potential role in preventing certain cancers. Finally,newer research has showed that a higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet isassociated with a lower risk of cognitive decline, depression, and other mentaldisorders. Overall, a better understanding of the key elements of this dietarypattern, the underlying mechanisms, and targets, are needed to corroboratecurrent evidence and provide insights on new and potential outcomes.ThisSpecial Issue welcomes original research and reviews of literature concerningthe Mediterranean diet and various health outcomes:Observational studies onestablished nutritional cohorts (preferred), case-control studies, or populationsample on the association with non-communicable diseases;Level of evidenceon the association with human health, including systematic reviews and metaanalyses;Evaluation of application of Mediterranean diet principles in non-Mediterranean countries;Description of mechanisms of action, pathways, andtargets at the molecular level, including interaction with gut microbiota.

Keywords

Mediterranean diet --- dietary intervention --- diet --- nutrition --- translation --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- cardiovascular disease --- Mediterranean diet --- physical activity --- self-concept --- socioeconomic factors --- Mediterranean diet --- diabetes --- cardiovascular risk --- glucose control --- plasma lipids --- relative Mediterranean diet score --- Mediterranean diet --- questionnaire --- children --- adolescents --- obesity --- Mediterranean diet --- athletes --- Spain --- dietary intake --- catechins --- resveratrol --- olive oil --- wine --- BMI --- Mediterranean diet --- barriers --- dietary change --- childbearing age --- diet quality --- depressive symptoms --- risk factors --- epidemiology --- immune system --- prevention --- hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal-HPA axis --- Mediterranean diet --- motivational climate --- sports --- university students --- Mediterranean diet --- metabolomics --- microbiome --- Mediterranean diet --- DNA damage --- DNA repair --- telomere length --- dietary intervention study --- Mediterranean diet --- sleep quality --- cognitive decline --- dementia --- weight status --- mental health --- obesity --- cohort --- Italy --- Mediterranean diet --- quality of life --- mental health --- fruit --- vegetable --- dairy --- nuts --- fish --- whole-grain --- food groups --- Mediterranean diet --- pregnancy --- offspring --- child health --- Mediterranean diet --- Mediterranean diet pyramid --- noncommunicable diseases --- Mediterranean Diet --- public health policy --- childhood obesity --- healthy lifestyle --- health communication --- n/a

Carotenoids and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783039218325 / 9783039218332 Year: Pages: 308 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-833-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-07 09:08:26
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Carotenoids are a group of approximately 600 compounds synthesized by photosynthetic organisms. These pigments are abundant in fruits and vegetables, as well as in certain animal products such as eggs and salmon, being responsible for their colorful appearance. The bioactive properties of certain carotenoids in human health are clear, as some of these compounds have antioxidant properties and serve as the only precursors of vitamin A in nature. The aim of this Special Issue entitled “Carotenoids and Human Health” is to provide the scientific community with an updated perspective of this exciting and growing research area. We compiled 19 papers from some of the most prominent scientists in the carotenoid field, including seven literature reviews and 12 original publication, covering topics such as cancer, obesity, vision, cognitive function, and skin health.

Keywords

carotenoids --- lycopene --- gastric cancer --- H. pylori --- smoking --- case-control study --- Korea --- cancer-related cognitive impairment --- cognition --- carotenoid --- memory --- inflammation --- mango by-products --- lutein --- ?-carotene --- ?-tocopherol --- mangiferin --- food ingredients --- astaxanthin --- Akkermansia --- alcoholic fatty liver disease --- inflammation --- gut microbiota --- lycopene --- carotene --- retinoic acid --- retinoid --- vitamin A --- RAR --- RXR --- ?-carotene --- ?-carotene --- ?-cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- lutein --- provitamin A --- retinol --- vitamin A --- breastfeeding --- new-born --- full-term mothers --- preterm mothers --- xanthophylls --- carotenes --- lutein --- colostrum --- mature milk --- ?-Cryptoxanthin --- carotenoids --- Caenorhabditis elegans --- fat reduction --- oxidative stress --- transcriptomic analysis --- metabolic syndrome --- aging --- prostate cancer --- tomato --- lycopene --- androgen --- cell culture --- animal --- obesity --- hippocampus --- nutrition --- overweight --- carotenoids --- Phaeodactylum tricornutum --- microalgae --- fucoxanthin --- eicosapentanoic acid --- obesity --- browning --- brown adipose tissue --- carotenes --- xanthophylls --- bioavailability --- intestine --- membrane transporters --- Vitamin A --- adipocyte --- ?-carotene oxygenase 1 --- hypertension --- carotenoids --- tomato extract --- lycopene --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- bioavailability --- glaucoma --- antioxidants --- oxidative stress --- macular pigment --- lutein --- colourless carotenoids --- cosmeceuticals --- functional foods --- nutraceuticals --- nutricosmetics --- photoprotection --- phytoene --- phytofluene --- public health --- nutrition --- chronic disease --- lutein --- zeaxanthin --- lycopene --- beta-carotene --- alpha-carotene --- beta-cryptoxanthin --- adipocytes --- adipose tissue --- brain --- carotenoids --- obesity --- retinoids --- carotenoids --- bioactive compounds

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Coeliac Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038977988 9783038977995 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-799-5 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Nutrition and Food Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-04-25 16:37:17
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Coeliac Disease (CD) affects at least 1% of the population. “Classical” CD refers to gastrointestinal presentations with anaemia and gastrointestinal symptoms. CD can, however, present with extraintestinal manifestations, the commonest of which are dermatitis herpetiformis and neurological presentations (e.g., ataxia, neuropathy, encephalopathy). Recognition and research into the pathophysiology of such manifestations is likely to enhance our understanding of this complex autoimmune disorder.

Keywords

dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- fracture --- bone health --- quality of life --- Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) --- children and adults --- motor and vocal/phonic tics --- obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) --- non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) --- gluten-free diet --- one-year adherence --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- prevalence --- epidermal transglutaminase --- gluten-free diet --- long-term prognosis --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- coeliac disease --- gluten-free diet --- small bowel --- villous atrophy --- prognosis --- gluten neuropathy --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- quality of life --- male --- extra-intestinal --- gastrointestinal --- celiac disease --- celiac disease --- dermatitis herpetiformis --- urticaria --- atopic dermatitis --- psoriasis --- recurrent aphtous ulceration --- rosacea --- alopecia areata --- cutaneous vasculitis --- gluten-free diet --- celiac disease --- glandular autoimmunity --- autoimmune thyroid disease --- type 1 diabetes --- polyglandular autoimmune syndrome --- coeliac disease --- osteoporosis --- fractures --- celiac disease --- non-celiac gluten sensitivity --- psychiatric disorders --- depression --- anxiety disorders --- eating disorders --- ADHD --- autism --- psychosis --- autoimmunity --- celiac hepatitis --- gut–liver axis --- liver immunity --- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease --- tolerance --- intestinal barrier --- celiac disease --- extraintestinal --- recognition --- diagnosis --- clinical presentation --- gluten-free diet --- prognosis --- movement disorders --- coeliac disease --- gluten --- gluten free diet --- celiac disease --- gluten --- gliadin --- autoantibody --- B cell --- T cell --- transglutaminase --- synapsin --- ganglioside --- gluten sensitivity --- gastrointestinal symptoms --- molecular mimicry --- intermolecular help --- biomarker --- autoimmune pancreatitis --- coeliac disease --- pancreatic disorders --- screening --- Gluten ataxia --- antigliadin antibodies --- coeliac disease --- MR spectroscopy --- gluten sensitive enteropathy --- antigliadin antibody titre --- gluten sensitivity --- coeliac disease --- gluten free diet --- migraine --- headache --- fatigue --- energy --- celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- gluten --- latent celiac disease --- potential celiac disease --- extra-intestinal manifestations --- mild enteropathy --- early developing celiac disease --- genetic gluten intolerance --- natural history --- celiac trait --- celiac disease --- gluten neuropathy --- gluten ataxia --- prevalence --- incidence --- gluten-free diet

Entropy in Image Analysis

Author:
ISBN: 9783039210923 / 9783039210930 Year: Pages: 456 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-093-0 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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Image analysis is a fundamental task for extracting information from images acquired across a range of different devices. Since reliable quantitative results are requested, image analysis requires highly sophisticated numerical and analytical methods—particularly for applications in medicine, security, and remote sensing, where the results of the processing may consist of vitally important data. The contributions to this book provide a good overview of the most important demands and solutions concerning this research area. In particular, the reader will find image analysis applied for feature extraction, encryption and decryption of data, color segmentation, and in the support new technologies. In all the contributions, entropy plays a pivotal role.

Keywords

image retrieval --- multi-feature fusion --- entropy --- relevance feedback --- chaotic system --- image encryption --- permutation-diffusion --- SHA-256 hash value --- dynamic index --- entropy --- keyframes --- Shannon’s entropy --- sign languages --- video summarization --- video skimming --- image encryption --- multiple-image encryption --- two-dimensional chaotic economic map --- security analysis --- image encryption --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- chosen-plaintext attack --- image information entropy --- blind image quality assessment (BIQA) --- information entropy, natural scene statistics (NSS) --- Weibull statistics --- discrete cosine transform (DCT) --- ultrasound --- hepatic steatosis --- Shannon entropy --- fatty liver --- metabolic syndrome --- multi-exposure image fusion --- texture information entropy --- adaptive selection --- patch structure decomposition --- image encryption --- time-delay --- random insertion --- information entropy --- chaotic map --- uncertainty assessment --- deep neural network --- random forest --- Shannon entropy --- positron emission tomography --- reconstruction --- field of experts --- additive manufacturing --- 3D prints --- 3D scanning --- image entropy --- depth maps --- surface quality assessment --- machine vision --- image analysis --- Arimoto entropy --- free-form deformations --- normalized divergence measure --- gradient distributions --- nonextensive entropy --- non-rigid registration --- pavement --- macrotexture --- 3-D digital imaging --- entropy --- decay trend --- discrete entropy --- infrared images --- low contrast --- multiscale top-hat transform --- image encryption --- DNA encoding --- chaotic cryptography --- cryptanalysis --- image privacy --- computer aided diagnostics --- colonoscopy --- Rényi entropies --- structural entropy --- spatial filling factor --- binary image --- Cantor set --- Hénon map --- Minkowski island --- prime-indexed primes --- Ramanujan primes --- Kapur’s entropy --- color image segmentation --- whale optimization algorithm --- differential evolution --- hybrid algorithm --- Otsu method --- image encryption --- dynamic filtering --- DNA computing --- 3D Latin cube --- permutation --- diffusion --- fuzzy entropy --- electromagnetic field optimization --- chaotic strategy --- color image segmentation --- multilevel thresholding --- contrast enhancement --- sigmoid --- Tsallis statistics --- q-exponential --- q-sigmoid --- q-Gaussian --- ultra-sound images --- person re-identification --- image analysis --- hash layer --- quantization loss --- Hamming distance --- cross-entropy loss --- image entropy --- Shannon entropy --- generalized entropies --- image processing --- image segmentation --- medical imaging --- remote sensing --- security

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