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Le ferment divin

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ISBN: 9782735119356 DOI: 10.4000/books.editionsmsh.2389 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions de la Maison des sciences de l’homme
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:29
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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Dans de très nombreuses sociétés à État, la civilisation commence avec la maîtrise de la fermentation, étape décisive, mais toujours incertaine, qui lui permet de s'extraire de l'état de nature tout en préservant des liens privilégiés avec celle-ci. Élément vivant utilisé dans un but festif ou alimentaire, source d'énergie disponible en toutes saisons, le produit fermenté - qu'il s'agisse de boissons alcoolisées ou de pains - entretient un rapport symbolique, voire analogique avec le sang. On le retrouve ainsi dans de très nombreux sacrifices, rites funéraires ou fêtes de fertilité. Produit à l'élaboration toujours aléatoire, il symbolise tout à la fois l'importance de la technique humaine et le respect dû aux dieux. La boisson fer-mentée est un cadeau divin, elle est parfois la divinité elle-même, et l'homme civilisé l'ingère selon certaines règles pour se nourrir, communier avec son dieu, et se réjouir avec ses semblables. Les détenteurs du pouvoir terrestre se sont toujours efforcés de la contrôler pour se légitimer mais aussi pour en maîtriser les abus, dommageables pour l'ensemble de la collectivité. C'est lorsque la boisson se désacralise qu'elle se désocialise et remet en jeu l'avenir du peuple. En collaborant à l'étude de ce Ferment divin, anthropologues et historiens nous font suivre de manière originale et passionnante le parcours de notre culture, depuis son origine indo-européenne - avec le soma et son substitut - jusqu'à la rencontre avec le Nouveau Monde où seront mis en évidence les effets destructurants de nos boissons distillées venues prendre la place des liqueurs fermentées traditionnelles.

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fermentation --- divin --- civilisation

Microorganisms for Functional Food

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889198825 Year: Pages: 160 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-882-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-01-19 14:05:46
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Nowadays, most of Western consumers are aware that a targeted diet could be an important tool for fighting ageing and diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Microorganisms may be exploited for setting up novel foods that, beside their nutritional value, may positively impact on consumers’ health. Some microorganisms may benefit host when ingested as viable cells carried by food and beverages. This falls in the intriguing field of probiotics, recently brought forward by the numerous probiotic claims rejected by the European Food Safety Authority. This research topic includes research articles and reviews/perspectives that (i) contribute to understand the mechanism underlying the health effects of probiotic microorganisms; (ii) show integrated approaches for selecting new probiotics; (iii) report about non-dairy food items as novel carriers of probiotics; and (iv) deal with biologically active compounds from microorganisms.

Dietary Fibers and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038425816 9783038425823 Year: Pages: X, 383 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-582-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:50:03
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Dietary fiber has long been recognized for its role in digestive function. However, currently there is scientific debate about definitions (descriptive and analytical), optimal intake, and essentiality in the human diet. Dietary fiber is a key substrate for bacterial metabolism in the colon, which makes research on dietary fiber an important issue that complements current interest in the gut microbiota. Dietary fiber is also important for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. This Special Issue will highlight recent research on dietary fiber content in foods and function in human health, ranging from digestive function to chronic disease prevention and management.

Engineering Rumen Metabolic Pathways: Where We Are, and Where Are We Heading

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889454266 Year: Pages: 280 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-426-6 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-16 17:17:57
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Ruminants were domesticated in the Middle East about 10,000 years ago and have since become an inseparable part of human diet, society, and culture. Ruminants can transform inedible plant fiber and non-protein nitrogen into meat, milk, wool and traction, thus allowing human utilization of non-tillable land and industrial by-products. The nutritional flexibility of ruminants is conferred by the rumen´s complex microbial community.Driven by rising income and population growth in emergent economies, the global demand for livestock products, including milk and meat from ruminants, has been increasingly growing, and is predicted to continue growing in the next few decades. The increase in production necessary to satisfy this rising demand is putting much pressure on already dwindling natural resources. There are also concerns about the emissions of methane and nitrous oxide, potent greenhouse gases associated to ruminant production. The need to make ruminant production more efficient in the use of natural resources poses a big challenge to ruminant science, and within it, rumen microbiology. Recent years have seen important advances in basic and applied rumen microbiology and biochemistry. The knowledge generated has significant implications for the efficiency and sustainability of ruminant production and the quality of ruminant products for human health. The present compilation is an update of recent advances in rumen microbiology and ruminant digestion and fermentation, including original research, reviews, and hypothesis and theory articles. We hope that the experimental results, discussion, models and ideas presented herein are useful to foster future research contributing to sustainable ruminant production.

Microbiota of Grapes: Positive and Negative Role on Wine Quality

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451210 Year: Pages: 231 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-121-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Microbiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-07-06 13:27:36
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During spontaneous food/beverage fermentations, the microbiota associated with the raw material has a considerable importance: this microbial consortium evolves in reason of the nutrient content and of the physical, chemical, and biological determinants present in the food matrix, shaping fermentation dynamics with significant impacts on the ‘qualities’ of final productions. The selection from the indigenous micro-biodiversity of ‘virtuous’ ecotypes that coupled pro-technological and biotechnological aptitudes provide the basis for the formulation of ‘tailored’ starter cultures. In the fermenting food and beverage arena, the wine sector is generally characterized by the generation of a high added value. Together with a pronounced seasonality, this feature strongly contributes to the selection of a large group of starter cultures. In the last years, several studies contributed to describe the complexity of grapevine-associated microbiota using both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches. The grape-associated microbial communities continuously change during the wine-making process, with different dominances that correspond to the main biotechnological steps that take place in wine. In order to simplify, following a time trend, four major dominances can be mainly considered: non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomyces, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and spoilage microbes. The first two dominances come in succession during the alcoholic fermentation: the impact of Saccharomyces (that are responsible of key enological step of ethanol production) can be complemented/integrated by the contributions of compatible non-Saccharomyces strains. Lactic acid bacteria constitute the malolactic consortium responsible of malolactic fermentation, a microbial bioconversion often desired in wine (especially in red wine production). Finally, the fourth dominance, the undesired microbiota, represents a panel of microorganisms that, coupling spoilage potential to the resistance to the harsh conditions typical of wine environment, can cause important economic losses. In each of these four dominances a complex microbial biodiversity has been described. The studies on the enological significance of the micro-biodiversity connected with each of the four dominances highlighted the presence of a dichotomy: in each consortia there are species/strains that, in reason of their metabolisms, are able to improve wine ‘qualities’ (resource of interest in starter cultures design), and species/strains that with their metabolism are responsible of depreciation of wine. Articles describing new oenological impacts of yeasts and bacteria belonging to the four main categories above mentioned (non-Saccharomyces, Saccharomycetes, lactic acid bacteria, and spoilage microbes) are welcome. Moreover, in this Research Topic, we encourage mini-review submissions on topics of immediate interest in wine microbiology that link microbial biodiversity with positive/negative effects in wine.

Carboxylic Acid Production

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ISBN: 9783038425526 9783038425533 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-553-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-04 15:30:04
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Carboxylic acids are truly central compounds in cellular metabolism. Carbon dioxide is captured from the atmosphere through formation of carboxylic groups and is also released, in part, by decarboxylation reactions. The reactivity of the carboxylic group with amino- or hydroxyl-groups enables the formation of peptide and ester bonds. The functionality of the carboxylic group is also of huge importance in our industrial world for a wide range of applications. The loosely bound hydrogen provides weak acid functionality, much desired for food industry applications in preservatives and flavour compounds. Citric acid is one of our oldest industrial fermentation products. The presence of two carboxylic groups, or a combination of one carboxylic group and another functional group, make the compounds interesting building blocks for polymer production. A number of carboxylic acids, including, e.g., lactic, succinic, 3-hydroxypropionic and itaconic acids, have been identified and recognized as suitable platform chemicals for a foreseen growing carbohydrate based economy. Economic margins are, however, tight when competing with petroleum based production, and production strains, fermentation technology and—not least—downstream processing, all need to be improved to enable viable commercial production.This Special issue will cover current developments within this exciting field. Topics will include: Fermentation physiology of natural carboxylic acid producers; screening and isolation of novel producers; metabolic engineering for improving intrinsic carboxylic acid production; metabolic engineering for expanding product range to non-endogenous carboxylic acids; production from lignocellulosic derived sugars or by-product streams; downstream processing for recovery of carboxylic acids; bioprocess design—including continuous processes and integration.All production organisms—fungi, yeasts, bacteria—are welcome.

Gram-positive phages: From isolation to application

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889194933 Year: Pages: 120 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-493-3 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2015-11-16 15:44:59
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Phage biology is one of the most significant and fundamental aspects of biological research and is often used as a platform for model studies relating to more complex biological entities. For this reason, phage biology has enjoyed focused attention and significant advances have been made in the areas of phage genomics, transcriptomics and the development and characterisation of phage-resistance mechanisms. In recent years, considerable research has been performed to increase our understanding of the interactions of these phages with their hosts using genomic, biochemical and structural approaches. Such multidisciplinary approaches are core to developing a full understanding of the processes that govern phage infection, information that may be harnessed to develop anti-phage strategies that may be applied in food fermentations or applied in a positive sense in phage therapy applications. The co-evolutionary processes of these phages and their hosts have also been a considerable focus of research in recent years. Such data has promoted a deeper understanding of the means by which these phages attach to and infect their hosts and permitted the development of effective anti-phage strategies. Furthermore, the presence and activity of host-encoded phage-resistance systems that operate at various stages of the phage cycle and the potential for the application of such systems consolidates the value of research in this area. Conversely, phages and their components have been applied as therapeutic agents against a number of pathogens including, among others, Clostridium difficile, Lactococcus garviae, Mycobacterium spp., Listeria spp. and the possibilities and limitations of these systems will be explored in this topic. Additionally, phage therapeutic approaches have been applied to the prevention of development of food spoilage organisms in the brewing and beverage sectors and exhonorate the positive applications of phages in the industrial setting. This research topic is aimed to address the most current issues as well as the most recent advances in the research of phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria covering areas such as phages in food fermentations, their impact in industry, phage ecology, genomics, evolution, structural analysis, phage-host interactions and the application of phages and components thereof as therapeutic agents against human and animal pathogens.

Safety and Microbiological Quality

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ISBN: 9783039214914 / 9783039214921 Year: Pages: 126 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-492-1 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology --- Microbiology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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The safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods covers complementary aspects of such products. Food fermentation is primary intended to improve food preservation, thereby modifying food properties. However, the management of chemical and microbiological hazards is a leading aspect for innovative processing in this domain. Similarly, microbiological quality in fermented foods is of peculiar importance: all microorganisms with a positive effect, including probiotic bacteria, fermentative bacteria, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, can be relevant. The fitness of pro-technological microorganisms impacts nutritional quality, but also sensory properties and processing reliability. This book provides a broad view of factors which determine the safety and microbiological quality of fermented foods. A focus is made on the interconnection between starter properties and the expectations related to a probiotic effect. All chapters underline the involvement of fermented foods towards better resource management and increasing food and nutritional security, especially in developing countries.

Advances in Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Production

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ISBN: 9783038426370 9783038426363 Year: Pages: X, 245 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-636-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biotechnology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-22 11:01:59
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Currently, we are witnessing highly dynamic research efforts related to the exciting field of novel biodegradable plastic-like materials. These activities originate from a growing public awareness of prevailing ecological problems associated to, e.g., rising piles of plastic waste, increasing greenhouse gas emissions, and ongoing depletion of such fossil resources usually used for the synthesis of “full carbon backbone” plastics. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters, a family of versatile plastic-like materials produced by living microbes, are a future-oriented alternative to traditional plastics. If accomplished in an optimized way, production and the entire lifecycle of PHA are embedded into nature´s closed carbon cycle, which is underlined by PHA´s main benefits of being “biobased”, “biosynthesized”, “biocompatible”, and “biodegradable”.Sustainable and economically feasible PHA synthesis, especially on an industrially relevant scale, requires all production steps to be understood and improved. Among other aspects, this calls for new powerful production strains to be screened; knowledge about the proteome and genome of PHA accumulating organisms to be consolidated; the kinetics of the bioprocesses to be thoroughly understood; abundantly available inexpensive raw materials to be tested; the monomer composition of PHA to be adapted; (bio)chemical engineering to be optimized; and novel PHA recovery strategies to be developed in order to reduce energy and chemical inventory.The present book provides a comprehensive compilation of articles addressing all these different aspects; the individual chapters were composed by globally recognized front running experts from special niches of PHA research. We are convinced that this book will be of major benefit to the growing scientific community active in biopolymer research.

Biofuels and Biochemicals Production

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ISBN: 9783038425540 9783038425557 Year: Pages: 196 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-555-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-01-10 12:39:10
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The high demand and depletion of petroleum reserves and the associated impact on the environment, together with volatility in the energy market price over the past three decades, have led to tremendous efforts in bio-based research activities, especially in biofuels and biochemicals. Most people associate petroleum with gasoline, however, approximately 6000 petroleum-derived products are available on the market today. Ironically, these petroleum-derived products have not elicited a high level of interest among the populace and media due, in part, to little awareness of the origins of these important products. Given the finite nature of petroleum, it is critical to devote substantial amounts of energy and resources on the development of renewable chemicals, as is currently done for fuels. Theoretically, the bioproduction of gasoline-like fuels and the 6000 petroleum-derived products are within the realm of possibility since our aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems contain abundant and diverse microorganisms capable of catalyzing unlimited numbers of reactions. Moreover, the fields of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering have evolved to the point that a wide range of microorganisms can be enticed or manipulated to catalyze foreign, or improve indigenous, biosynthetic reactions. To increase the concentration of products of interest and to ensure consistent productivity and yield, compatible fermentation processes must be used. Greater agricultural and chemical production during the past three decades, due in part to population increase and industrialization, has generated increasing levels of waste, which must be treated prior to discharge into waterways or wastewater treatment plants. Thus, in addition to the need to understand the physiology and metabolism of microbial catalysts of biotechnological significance, development of cost-effective fermentation strategies to produce biofuels and chemicals of interests while generating minimal waste, or better yet, converting waste into value-added products, is crucial. In this Special Issue, we invite authors to submit original research and review articles that increase our understanding of fermentation technology vis-à-vis production of liquid biofuels and biochemicals, and fermentation strategies that alleviate product toxicity to the fermenting microorganism while enhancing productivity. Further, original research articles and reviews focused on anaerobic digestion, production of gaseous biofuels, fermentation optimization using modelling and simulations, metabolic engineering, or development of tailor-made fermentation processes are welcome.

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