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The biology of the first 1000 days

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Oxidative stress and disease ISBN: 9781498756792 Year: Pages: 518 Language: English
Publisher: CRC Press
Subject: Medicine (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-17 11:45:55
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Abstract

The first 1,000 days, from conception to 2 years of age, is a critical window of growth and development. Exposures to dietary, environmental, hormonal, and other stressors
during this period have been associated with an increased risk of adverse health
outcomes. Researchers using cell culture, animal models, and humans have identified
this time as a period of rapid physiological change and plasticity with significant
potential for lasting effects. As such, interventions during the first 1,000 days will
have the greatest impact on outcomes, particularly in low- and middle-income countries
where the need is greatest.
To date, there is no single resource that compiles our knowledge of the biology
of the first 1,000 days. Our knowledge and understanding of the biology behind
the first 1,000 days is still limited. This greater understanding is helping us inform
effective nutrition policy and programming. The strength of this book lies in its
cross- disciplinary nature that encompasses the full range of human biology, providing
a more holistic perspective during this critical time frame. Moreover, we have
broadened the scope and included important periods before and after the 1,000 days.
We have designed this book as a comprehensive resource for those involved in
global health and nutrition policy, strategy, programming, or research. This book
will also be a resource for students learning about nutrition and health across the
1,000 days. The book includes an exceptional group of contributors who are experts
in their given fields. As biology underlies the core of each discussion, it allows
the readers to answer the what and why, and, we hope, the how for new discovery
research and more effective interventions.
Each chapter in this volume provides insight into a specific life stage, disease
state, nutrient, and stressor in the first 1,000 days. As such, each chapter can be read
independently, providing a comprehensive overview of that subject. However, there
is continuity between chapters allowing this collection of chapters to be read cover
to cover. The first chapters set the stage, providing a succinct resource to understand
the well-established biological mechanisms that underlie growth regulation and
nutrient recommendations throughout the first 1,000 days. The next chapters move
on to the evidence behind nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions
to combat adverse outcomes and disease states in the first 1,000 days. This book
also features emerging research areas, such as the gut microbiome, environmental
enteric dysfunction, and the role of epigenetics in health and development. The final
chapter pushes the boundaries of discovery research, exploring novel areas such as
proteomics and metabolomics, and how insults such as environmental enteric dysfunction
affect metabolism in the first 1,000 days.
We approached this book with the ambition to shed more light on the biology during
1,000 days, but there was also a need to put the biology into a broader context of
nutrition and health. There are still many gaps in our understanding of the biology
of the first 1,000 days. It is only by bridging this knowledge gap through research
that we can inform effective interventions to improve outcomes during the first 1,000
days.

Promiscuous functions of the prion protein gene family

Authors: ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889196050 Year: Pages: 113 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-605-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Science (General) --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2016-08-16 10:34:25
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The cellular prion protein PrPC is a ubiquitous GPI-anchored protein. While PrPC has been the focus of intense research for its involvement in a group of neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), much less attention has been devoted to its physiological function. This notably relates to the lack of obvious abnormalities of mice, goat or cattle lacking PrPC. This apparently normal phenotype in these PrPC-deficient animals however contrasts with the very high degree of conservation of the prion protein gene (Prnp) in mammalian species (over 80%), and the presence of genes with similarities to Prnp in birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. This high conservation together with its ubiquitous expression, - albeit at highest levels in the brain-, suggest that PrPC has major physiological functions. Dissecting PrPC function is further complicated by the occurrence, in mammals, of two potentially partially redundant homologues, Doppel, and Shadoo. The biological overlaps between members of the prion protein family are still under investigation and much debated. Similarly, although in vitro analyses have suggested various functions for PrPC, notably in cell death and survival processes, some have yielded conflicting results and/or discrepancies with in vivo studies. This Research Topic brings together the accumulated knowledge regarding the biological roles of the prion protein family, from the animal to the molecular scale.

Vitamin C in Health and Disease

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783038970293 9783038970309 Year: Pages: X, 288 Language: english
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Cardiovascular
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-09 11:31:26
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Vitamin C is a pivotal water soluble electron donor in nature and an essential nutrient in man. Despite its many years as a research focus, new and increasingly regulatory functions of vitamin C in human health are continually being unravelled. This improved mechanistic insight is starting to provide rationales explaining the extensive epidemiological literature that, for decades, has consistently shown strong associations between poor vitamin C status and increased morbidity and mortality.In this Special Issue, we include original research and literature reviews by experts in the field outlining the roles of vitamin C in early, daily and late life, as well as the roles of deficiency in cardiovascular disease, inflammation and cancer.

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