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Dietary Fibers and Human Health

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ISBN: 9783038425816 9783038425823 Year: Pages: X, 383 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03842-582-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2017-12-27 08:50:03
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Dietary fiber has long been recognized for its role in digestive function. However, currently there is scientific debate about definitions (descriptive and analytical), optimal intake, and essentiality in the human diet. Dietary fiber is a key substrate for bacterial metabolism in the colon, which makes research on dietary fiber an important issue that complements current interest in the gut microbiota. Dietary fiber is also important for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. This Special Issue will highlight recent research on dietary fiber content in foods and function in human health, ranging from digestive function to chronic disease prevention and management.

Hollow core optical fibers

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ISBN: 9783039210886 9783039210893 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-089-3 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The possibility of guiding light in air has fascinated optical scientists and engineers since the dawn of optical fiber technology. In the last few years, hollow core optical fibers have been attracting the attention of an expanding worldwide research community, furthering the design, fabrication and device implementation of specialty optical fibers. Hollow core optical fibers are entering almost any specific application field of optics from medicine to security; from telecommunication to industrial processing; from instrumentation to biology. In parallel to the increased number of applications, major advances are still being made on the optimization of hollow core fiber designs and on the study of its underlying guiding properties, as well as in the use of different materials and fabrication techniques, which, in turn, are providing even more ways of exploitation of this technology and new technical challenges. This Special Issue of Fibers rides the wave of this increasing interest in the field of hollow core optical fibers by providing an overview of the recent progress in this field as well as an updated and indicative sample of current research activities worldwide.

Experimentelle Untersuchungen und Bemessungsansätze für faserverstärktes Mauerwerk unter Erdbebenbeanspruchungen

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Book Series: Karlsruher Reihe Massivbau, Baustofftechnologie, Materialprüfung / Institut für Massivbau und Baustofftechnologie ; Materialprüfungs- und Forschungsanstalt Karlsruhe ISSN: 1869912X ISBN: 9783731503729 Year: Volume: 76 Pages: IX, 301 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000046876 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Several experimental campaigns are conducted to find feasible fiber reinforcements for buildings under earthquake conditions. Therefore tensile tests for the description of the bonding behavior of the fibers, shear tests on three-stone small specimen, small static cyclic shear wall tests, bending tests of wall segments, large format dynamically loaded wall plates and five building experiments were performed under realistic time history acceleration. At the end a calculation method is proposed.

Optomechatronics

ISBN: 9783038420019 9783038420088 Year: Pages: 276 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2016-05-20 15:03:42
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The field of optomechatronics provides synergistic effects of optics, mechanics and electronics for efficient sensor development. Optical sensors for the measurement of mechanical quantities, equipped with appropriate electronic signal (pre)processing means have a wide range of applications, from surface testing, stress monitoring, thin film analysis to biochemical sensing. The aim of this special issue is to provide an overview of actual research and innovative applications of optomechatronics in sensors. Papers addressing, inter alia, optical sensor principles, fiber-optic sensors, electronic speckle pattern interferometry, surface analysis, thin film measurement, FGB sensors, and biochemical sensors are provided.

Discontinuous Fiber Composites

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ISBN: 9783038974918 9783038974925 Year: Pages: 210 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-492-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Chemistry (General) --- General and Civil Engineering --- Materials
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-15 12:25:03
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Discontinuous fiber-reinforced polymers have gained importance in the transportation industries due to their outstanding material properties, lower manufacturing costs and superior lightweight characteristics. One of the most attractive attributes of discontinuous fiber reinforced composites is the ease with which they can be manufactured in large numbers, using injection and compression molding processes.Typical processes involving discontinuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite materials include injection and compression molding processes as well as extrusion. Furthermore, the automotive and appliance industries also use thermosets reinforced with chopped fibers in the form of sheet molding compound and bulk molding compound, for compression and injection-compression molding processes, respectively.A big disadvantage of discontinuous fiber composites is that the configuration of the reinforcing fibers is significantly changed throughout production process, reflected in the form of fiber attrition, excessive fiber orientation, fiber jamming and fiber matrix separation. This process-induced variation of the microstructural fiber properties within the molded part introduces heterogeneity and anisotropies to the mechanical properties, which can limit the potential of discontinuous fiber reinforced composites for lightweight applications.The main aim of this Special Issue is to collect various investigations focused on the processing of discontinuous fiber reinforced composites and the effect processing has on fiber orientation, fiber length and fiber density distributions throughout the final part. Papers presenting investigations on the effect fiber configurations have on the mechanical properties of the final composite products and materials are welcome in the Special Issue. Researchers who are modeling and simulating processes involving discontinuous fiber composites as well as those performing experimental studies involving these composites are welcomed to submit papers. Authors are encouraged to present new models, constitutive laws and measuring and monitoring techniques to provide a complete framework on these groundbreaking materials and facilitate their use in different engineering applications.

Structure, function, and plasticity of hippocampal dentate gyrus microcircuits

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193875 Year: Pages: 133 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-387-5 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Neurology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2015-12-03 13:02:24
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The hippocampus mediates several higher brain functions, such as learning, memory, and spatial coding. The input region of the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, plays a critical role in these processes. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dentate gyrus acts as a preprocessor of incoming information, preparing it for subsequent processing in CA3. For example, the dentate gyrus converts input from the entorhinal cortex, where cells have multiple spatial fields, into the spatially more specific place cell activity characteristic of the CA3 region. Furthermore, the dentate gyrus is involved in pattern separation, transforming relatively similar input patterns into substantially different output patterns. Finally, the dentate gyrus produces a very sparse coding scheme in which only a very small fraction of neurons are active at any one time. How are these unique functions implemented at the level of cells and synapses? Dentate gyrus granule cells receive excitatory neuron input from the entorhinal cortex and send excitatory output to the hippocampal CA3 region via the mossy fibers. Furthermore, several types of GABAergic interneurons are present in this region, providing inhibitory control over granule cell activity via feedback and feedforward inhibition. Additionally, hilar mossy cells mediate an excitatory loop, receiving powerful input from a small number of granule cells and providing highly distributed excitatory output to a large number of granule cells. Finally, the dentate gyrus is one of the few brain regions exhibiting adult neurogenesis. Thus, new neurons are generated and functionally integrated throughout life. How these specific cellular and synaptic properties contribute to higher brain functions remains unclear. One way to understand these properties of the dentate gyrus is to try to integrate experimental data into models, following the famous Hopfield quote: "Build it, and you understand it." However, when trying this, one faces two major challenges. First, hard quantitative data about cellular properties, structural connectivity, and functional properties of synapses are lacking. Second, the number of individual neurons and synapses to be represented in the model is huge. For example, the dentate gyrus contains ~1 million granule cells in rodents, and ~10 million in humans. Thus, full scale models will be complex and computationally demanding. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we collect important information about cells, synapses, and microcircuit elements of the dentate gyrus. We have put together a combination of original research articles, review articles, and a methods article. We hope that the collected information will be useful for both experimentalists and modelers. We also hope that the papers will be interesting beyond the small world of "dentology", i.e., for scientists working on other brain areas. Ideally, the dentate gyrus may serve as a blueprint, helping neuroscientists to define strategies to analyze network organization of other brain regions.

Solid State Lasers Materials, Technologies and Applications

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ISBN: 9783038428411 9783038428428 Year: Pages: VI, 170 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Optics and Lights
Added to DOAB on : 2018-04-24 12:46:59
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Solid-state lasers offer unique qualities in terms of flexibility, robustness, efficiency, and wavelength diversity. For these reasons, they are nowadays irreplaceable tools in many scientific and industrial applications. The engineering of new materials, the advances in photonics technologies, and the increasing demand for speed, cleanliness, and high-precision in industrial processes contribute to propel the research in this exciting and quickly developing field. Despite the impossibility to cover all the aspects of this very diversified topic in a single publication, this Special Issue "Solid State Lasers Materials, Technologies and Applications" offers an interesting insight into some of the latest developments in this field. Comprehensive review papers describe the state of the art of highly doped fiber lasers and amplifiers, deep-ultraviolet generation, and laser welding under vacuum with high-power lasers. Research articles present the latest results on picosecond pulse amplification, mid-infrared laser sources, parametric down-conversion modules, and coherent beam combining. Heavy-industry applications, such as laser welding and laser cladding, are also addressed.

Der Helixaktor - Zum Konzept eines vorverwundenen Biegeaktors

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe des Instituts für Technische Mechanik, Universität Karlsruhe (TH) ISSN: 16143914 ISBN: 9783866442320 Year: Volume: 9 Pages: VIII, 138 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000007955 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:58
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Biegeaktoren erlauben häufig nur eindimensionale Arbeitsräume. Der Helixaktor ist entlang seiner Stabachse vorverwunden und er kann dadurch zweidimensionale Arbeitsräume realisieren. Die Arbeit skizziert das Konzept des Aktors und seine optimale Gestaltung, sie diskutiert den Arbeitsraum und Wege zur Positionsregelung, insbesondere für lineare Manipulatoren mit redundanten Eingängen. Der Prototyp des Helixaktors wird durch Macro Fiber Composites angetrieben.

Charakterisierung und Modellierung der Steifigkeit von langfaserverstärktem Polypropylen

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Book Series: Schriftenreihe Kontinuumsmechanik im Maschinenbau / Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Technische Mechanik - Bereich Kontinuumsmechanik ISSN: 2192693X ISBN: 9783731506805 Year: Volume: 10 Pages: VIII, 186 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000070061 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:00
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Dynamical mechanical analysis is used to investigate the temperature dependent, anisotropic visco-elastic stiffness, damage induced stiffness degradation as well as physical aging of polypropylene and the anisotropic compression molded long fiber reinforced polypropylene. Based on micro-computer tomography data, the approximations of the linear elastic properties using the Mori-Tanaka method are presented.

Millimeter-Wave Radio-over-Fiber Links based on Mode-Locked Laser Diodes

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Book Series: Karlsruher Forschungsberichte aus dem Institut für Hochfrequenztechnik und Elektronik ISSN: 18684696 ISBN: 9783866449862 Year: Volume: 68 Pages: XXIII, 241 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000032868 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Radio communications in the range of 60 GHz enable multi-Gigabit/s network access in indoor environments. Due to the propagation characteristics of such signals only very short range radio transmission is feasible. In order to distribute these signals across large distances, analog transmission over optical fiber is considered. In this work, mode-locked laser diodes serve as optoelectronic oscillators for the generation of such signals. Their system-relevant properties are studied in detail.

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