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Nervenschwäche und Krieg

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ISBN: 3205772148 Year: Pages: 454 Seiten DOI: 10.26530/oapen_437155 Language: German
Publisher: Böhlau Grant: Austrian Science Fund - D 3578
Subject: Psychology
Added to DOAB on : 2013-03-27 11:48:53
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Since the 1880s neurasthenia - a term popularised by New York-physician George Beard - was discussed an a phenomenon of modernity, but over a long period of debate, psychiatry were not able to define what this "modern malady" exactly meant nor was it able to find any discernible causes for the epidemic disease. Neurasthenia was not simply a diagnostic term, which was often applied by fin de siècle-physicians to their workaday routine, but a kind of lifestyle, a sign of a certain emotional sensitivity in modern times. In the last decade historical research on neurasthenia has focused on Britain, Germany and the Netherlands. But what happened in Austria-Hungary, especially in Vienna? Focusing on Viennese psychiatry, part one of the book analyses the "invention" of Neurasthenia and the adoption of Beards thesis in Austrian medicine, bringing out various figures and alternative methods of explanations of the disease that was identified as a central, yet unwanted feature of modern manliness. Based on this the outcome of war could be seen as an instance of 'nerve-corrections'. Like many medical professionals in Austria-Hungary, psychiatrists had reacted to the war with nearly unanimous support: patriotic habits went hand in hand with high psychiatric expectations of the powerful mental effects of war. These hopes were badly disappointed. In the more recent literature on the medical and cultural history of the Great War, the phenomenon of the epidemic mental breakdowns of soldiers has been given a prominent place. 'Shellshock' and 'war neurosis' are now key words and frequent metaphors for the shattering effects of an industrialized war. In a sense these psychiatric labels symbolically represent the destructive impact of mechanized weapons on body and soul, the loss of narrative structures and the traumatic after-effects of modern warfare. How can Viennese-centred Austrian psychiatry in the First World War be characterized? With regard to new studies on the history of trauma, war and psychiatry I intend to emphasize two interpretations. Firstly, as in German and other European psychiatric war communities, models of rationalisation and modernisation are of significance when focusing on this topic. Viennese psychiatrists were neither particularly brutal nor especially tolerant in the way they dealt with the situation. Instead, as in other European countries in the Great War, they acted in keeping with military requirements and standards. Secondly, the specific political and cultural context of the Austro-Hungarian situation is of utmost importance as well. Shell-shock was a phenomenon that affected all nations, but reactions differed according to different national traditions and different medical ways of understanding, representing and acting. In a comparative cultural history of World War One, Austria-Hungary is a model of a shattered society, paralysed by ethnic conflicts and cultural differences. In this context, the therapeutic response to war neurosis was affected by language confusion, national stereotypes and malingering. The German-Austrian psychiatrists not only emerged as a group of experts who had taken responsibility for the efficient treatment of war neurosis, but also as a pressure group that intended to keep centrifugal forces of the multinational empire under control.

Vanités, compositions de la fin

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9782367813158 DOI: 10.4000/books.pulm.1827 Language: French
Publisher: Presses universitaires de la Méditerranée
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2020-09-09 12:19:33
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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La Vanité serait-elle prise dans les effets de la fragilité et de la ­futilité de la vie humaine qu’elle dénonce — et, forme morte hors de l’iconographie du xviie siècle, période à laquelle elle a connu son apogée, appelée à retourner en poussière ? La délestant de sa majuscule pour mieux l’appréhender, ce volume se propose de pratiquer une extension du domaine de la vanité, pour montrer qu’au contraire elle a constitué, à différentes époques, une figure rhétorique et poétique d’une grande vitalité, à même de renvoyer au lecteur/spectateur la conscience aiguë, et parfois jouissive, de sa propre dérision. Car ce ne sont pas seulement les « Vanités » qui sont en question ici, mais les vanités comme « compositions de la fin », autrement dit comme combinaisons, effets de structure. La perspective est nouvelle, dès lors qu’elle sort de l’acception générique et historique de la Vanité pour s’attacher à ses mises en forme, ses variations. Adoptant une démarche résolument interdisciplinaire, les auteurs convoquent iconographie, musicologie, littérature, stylistique, philosophie, psychanalyse, histoire et théologie pour servir la question de fond, celle d’une poétique de la vanité.

Keywords

composition --- crise --- fin --- interdisciplinarité --- savoir --- vanité

Les fins de siècles en Espagne

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ISBN: 9782878542660 9782878547191 Year: Language: French
Publisher: Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle
Added to DOAB on : 2017-06-20 15:08:11
License: OpenEdition licence for Books

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« Toutes les fins de siècle se ressemblent», voilà ce qu'écrivait Joris-Karl Huysmans, en 1891, dans Là-bas. Cette affirmation lapidaire, qui semble faire l'objet d'un très vague consensus, mérite d'être vérifiée. Cette impression de crise, de mal être ou de mal de vivre, de société en mutation qui tangue entre un conservatisme frileux et l'aspiration fébrile à la modernité, prend-elle vraiment, au tournant des siècles, une acuité particulière? Ce passage d'un siècle à l'autre met-il en jeu d...

Love and its Critics

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9781783743506 Year: Pages: 576 DOI: 10.11647/OBP.0117 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-22 11:01:03
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"This book is a history of love and the challenge love offers to the laws and customs of its times and places, as told through poetry from the Song of Songs to John Milton’s Paradise Lost. It is also an account of the critical reception afforded to such literature, and the ways in which criticism has attempted to stifle this challenge. Bryson and Movsesian argue that the poetry they explore celebrates and reinvents the love the troubadour poets of the eleventh and twelfth centuries called fin’amor: love as an end in itself, mutual and freely chosen even in the face of social, religious, or political retribution. Neither eros nor agape, neither exclusively of the body, nor solely of the spirit, this love is a middle path. Alongside this tradition has grown a critical movement that employs a 'hermeneutics of suspicion', in Paul Ricoeur’s phrase, to claim that passionate love poetry is not what it seems, and should be properly understood as worship of God, subordination to Empire, or an entanglement with the structures of language itself – in short, the very things it resists. The book engages with some of the seminal literature of the Western canon, including the Bible, the poetry of Ovid, and works by English authors such as William Shakespeare and John Donne, and with criticism that stretches from the earliest readings of the Song of Songs to contemporary academic literature. Lively and enjoyable in its style, it attempts to restore a sense of pleasure to the reading of poetry, and to puncture critical insistence that literature must be outwitted. It will be of value to professional, graduate, and advanced undergraduate scholars of literature, and to the educated general reader interested in treatments of love in poetry throughout history."

Love and its Critics : From the Song of Songs to Shakespeare and Milton's Eden

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9791036500770 Language: English
Publisher: Open Book Publishers
Subject: Languages and Literatures
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-06 13:15:40
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This book is a history of love and the challenge love offers to the laws and customs of its times and places, as told through poetry from the Song of Songs to John Milton's Paradise Lost. It is also an account of the critical reception afforded to such literature, and the ways in which criticism has attempted to stifle this challenge. Bryson and Movsesian argue that the poetry they explore celebrates and reinvents the love the troubadour poets of the eleventh and twelfth centuries called fin'amor: love as an end in itself, mutual and freely chosen even in the face of social, religious, or political retribution. Neither eros nor agape, neither exclusively of the body, nor solely of the spirit, this love is a middle path. Alongside this tradition has grown a critical movement that employs a ‘hermeneutics of suspicion', in Paul Ricoeur's phrase, to claim that passionate love poetry is not what it seems, and should be properly understood as worship of God, subordination to Empire, or an entanglement with the structures of language itself - in short, the very things it resists. The book engages with some of the seminal literature of the Western canon, including the Bible, the poetry of Ovid, and works by English authors such as William Shakespeare and John Donne, and with criticism that stretches from the earliest readings of the Song of Songs to contemporary academic literature. Lively and enjoyable in its style, it attempts to restore a sense of pleasure to the reading of poetry, and to puncture critical insistence that literature must be outwitted. It will be of value to professional, graduate, and advanced undergraduate scholars of literature, and to the educated general reader interested in treatments of love in poetry throughout history.

Appartenances et pratiques des réseaux

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ISBN: 9782735508730 DOI: 10.4000/books.cths.2366 Language: French
Publisher: Éditions du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques
Subject: History
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-12 11:49:49
License: OpenEdition Licence for Books

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« Réseaux et Société » est au cœur des questions que se posent actuellement les sciences humaines et en particulier l’Histoire, sur la façon d’appréhender la société dans sa constitution et son évolution. Souvent employé de façon vague, voire galvaudée, le concept de réseau mérite d’être défini de façon plus serrée, et c’est l’un des principaux buts de ce volume. Il ne s’agit pas de se borner à une description des formes prises par les réseaux à un moment donné de l’histoire, mais de comprendre en quoi et comment ils sont constitutifs de la société. Le terme « réseau » est ici volontairement mis au pluriel et doit être étudié dans ses rapports à la société, considérée à l’inverse comme une entité. Les réseaux sont-ils ou non hiérarchisés, infinis ou limités, contraignants ou stimulants pour les individus qui la composent ? Le congrès d’un organisme comme le CTHS qui regroupe justement les sociétés savantes et le savoir en un complexe réticulé, paraît un lieu particulièrement bien venu pour en traiter. Encore faut-il, pour commencer, tenter de comprendre pourquoi cette interrogation est d’actualité et en quoi elle concerne le renouvellement des sciences humaines. Autrement dit, quels regards nouveaux ont conduit les études historiques à prendre en compte la notion de réseau pour définir la société ? C’est la question que je poserai en premier lieu avant de décrire rapidement les moyens techniques qui ont pu être mis à la disposition de ces nouvelles recherches et de prendre quelques exemples, empruntés essentiellement à la société médiévale, pour illustrer la façon dont les réseaux peuvent structurer ou déstructurer la société.

Optimization of Heat and Mass Exchange

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039287420 / 9783039287437 Year: Pages: 182 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-743-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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This Special Issue of Processes operates on the basis of a rigorous peer-review with a single-blind assessment and at least two independent reviewers, thereby ensuring a high quality final product. I would like to thank our reviewers, for providing the authors with constructive comments, and Editorial Board, for their professional advice that led to the final decision. I am sure that, in coming years, readers of this Special Issue will find the scientific manuscripts interesting and beneficial to their research.

Selected Problems in Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer

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ISBN: 9783039214273 9783039214280 Year: Pages: 460 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-428-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Fluid flow and heat transfer processes play an important role in many areas of science and engineering, from the planetary scale (e.g., influencing weather and climate) to the microscopic scales of enhancing heat transfer by the use of nanofluids; understood in the broadest possible sense, they also underpin the performance of many energy systems. This topical Special Issue of Energies is dedicated to the recent advances in this very broad field. This book will be of interest to readers not only in the fields of mechanical, aerospace, chemical, process and petroleum, energy, earth, civil ,and flow instrumentation engineering but, equally, biological and medical sciences, as well as physics and mathematics; that is, anywhere that “fluid flow and heat transfer” phenomena may play an important role or be a subject of worthy research pursuits.

Keywords

performance characteristics --- Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) elements --- heat transfer --- thermal performance --- Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation --- air heater --- impingement heat transfer enhancement --- orthogonal jet --- turbulence --- flat plate --- Colebrook equation --- Colebrook-White --- flow friction --- iterative procedure --- logarithms --- Padé polynomials --- hydraulic resistances --- turbulent flow --- pipes --- computational burden --- thermodynamic --- numerical simulation --- thermal effect --- axial piston pumps --- microbubble pump --- bubble generation --- pump efficiency --- bubble size --- concentration --- particle counter --- flow-induced motion --- sharp sections --- T-section prism --- load resistances --- section aspect ratios --- energy conversion --- thermosyphon --- phase change --- two-phase flow --- visualization --- superheated steam --- triaxial stress --- thermogravimetry --- X-ray microtomography --- thermal cracking --- microbubbles --- fluidics --- flow oscillation --- oscillators --- energetics --- pressure loss --- pressure drop --- friction factor --- multiphase flow --- flow rate --- flow regime --- POD --- entropy generation --- boundary layer --- laminar separation bubble --- two-phase flow --- pump performance --- computational fluid dynamics --- centrifugal pump --- flow behavior --- magnetic field --- ferrofluid --- porous cavity --- heat transfer --- mass transfer --- numerical modeling --- numerical modeling --- surrogate model --- correlation --- fin-tube --- spiral fin-tube --- CFD --- ( A g ? F e 3 O 4 / H 2 O ) hybrid nanofluid --- nonlinear thermal radiation --- heat transfer --- chemical reaction --- mass transfer --- method of moment --- numerical results --- transient analysis --- pumps --- moment of inertia --- water hammer --- pipe flow --- wind turbine --- downwind --- tower shadow --- load --- tower --- BEM --- actuator disc --- CANDU-6 --- PHWR --- moderator --- turbulence --- OpenFOAM --- printed circuit heat exchanger --- supercritical LNG --- zigzag type --- heat transfer performance --- gas turbine engine --- particle deposition --- capture efficiency --- multiphase flow --- tip leakage flow --- detached-eddy simulation --- vortex breakdown --- transonic compressor --- POD --- tip leakage flow --- decomposition region --- decomposition dimensionalities --- vortex identification --- SPIV --- fire-spreading characteristics --- real vehicle experiments --- toxic gases --- temperature distributions --- unsteady heat release rate --- thermal energy recovery --- flue gas --- dew point temperature --- condensation --- Aspen® --- thermoacoustic electricity generator --- multi-stage --- traveling-wave heat engine --- push-pull --- inertance-compliance --- acoustic streaming --- n/a

Miniaturized Transistors

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039210107 9783039210114 Year: Pages: 202 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-011-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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What is the future of CMOS? Sustaining increased transistor densities along the path of Moore's Law has become increasingly challenging with limited power budgets, interconnect bandwidths, and fabrication capabilities. In the last decade alone, transistors have undergone significant design makeovers; from planar transistors of ten years ago, technological advancements have accelerated to today's FinFETs, which hardly resemble their bulky ancestors. FinFETs could potentially take us to the 5-nm node, but what comes after it? From gate-all-around devices to single electron transistors and two-dimensional semiconductors, a torrent of research is being carried out in order to design the next transistor generation, engineer the optimal materials, improve the fabrication technology, and properly model future devices. We invite insight from investigators and scientists in the field to showcase their work in this Special Issue with research papers, short communications, and review articles that focus on trends in micro- and nanotechnology from fundamental research to applications.

Keywords

flux calculation --- etching simulation --- process simulation --- topography simulation --- CMOS --- field-effect transistor --- ferroelectrics --- MOS devices --- negative-capacitance --- piezoelectrics --- power consumption --- thin-film transistors (TFTs) --- compact model --- surface potential --- technology computer-aided design (TCAD) --- metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) --- topography simulation --- metal gate stack --- level set --- high-k --- fin field effect transistor (FinFET) --- line edge roughness --- metal gate granularity --- nanowire --- non-equilibrium Green’s function --- random discrete dopants --- SiGe --- variability --- band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) --- electrostatic discharge (ESD) --- tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) --- Silicon-Germanium source/drain (SiGe S/D) --- technology computer aided design (TCAD) --- bulk NMOS devices --- radiation hardened by design (RHBD) --- total ionizing dose (TID) --- Sentaurus TCAD --- layout --- two-dimensional material --- field effect transistor --- indium selenide --- phonon scattering --- mobility --- high-? dielectric --- low-frequency noise --- silicon-on-insulator --- MOSFET --- inversion channel --- buried channel --- subthreshold bias range --- low voltage --- low energy --- theoretical model --- process simulation --- device simulation --- compact models --- process variations --- systematic variations --- statistical variations --- FinFETs --- nanowires --- nanosheets --- semi-floating gate --- synaptic transistor --- neuromorphic system --- spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) --- highly miniaturized transistor structure --- low power consumption --- drain engineered --- tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) --- polarization --- ambipolar --- subthreshold --- ON-state --- doping incorporation --- plasma-aided molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) --- segregation --- silicon nanowire --- n/a

Heat and Mass Transfer in Energy Systems

Authors: ---
ISBN: 9783039219827 9783039219834 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-983-4 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2020-01-30 16:39:46
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In recent years, the interest of the scientific community towards efficient energy systems has significantly increased. One of the reasons is certainly related to the change in the temperature of the planet, which has increased by 0.76 °C with respect to preindustrial levels, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and is still increasing. The European Union considers it vital to prevent global warming from exceeding 2 °C with respect to pre-industrial levels, as it has been proven that this will result in irreversible and potentially catastrophic changes. These changes in climate are mainly caused by greenhouse gas emissions related to human activities, and can be drastically reduced by employing energy systems for the heating and cooling of buildings, as well as for power production, characterized by high efficiency levels and/or based on renewable energy sources. This Special Issue, published in the Energies journal, includes 13 contributions from across the world, including a wide range of applications such as hybrid residential renewable energy systems, desiccant-based air handling units, heat exchanges for engine WHR, solar chimney systems, and other interesting topics.

Keywords

bubble absorber --- absorption cooling --- ammonia-lithium nitrate --- plate heat exchanger --- bentonite buffer material --- Ca-type bentonite --- thermal conductivity --- predictive models --- thermosyphon --- two-phase flow --- startup --- phase change --- operating state --- visualization --- fast thermal simulation --- crude oil pipeline --- batch transportation --- body-fitted coordinate-based proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model (BFC-POD-ROM) --- transport scheme determination --- waste heat recovery --- exhaust steam --- heat exchanger --- protracted fin --- turbo-electric generator --- exhaust emissions --- R744 --- two-phase ejector --- refrigeration --- dynamic simulation --- low-order model --- object-oriented modelling --- desiccant wheel --- solar heating and cooling --- hygroscopic materials --- dynamic simulations --- energy and environmental analysis --- solar chimney --- air flow --- analytical and experimental solutions --- method of calculation --- steelmaking --- electric arc furnace --- consumption --- electric energy --- melting --- refining --- tapping --- modeling --- linear regression --- genetic programming --- renewables --- ancillary services --- hybrid systems --- thermal storage --- energy storage --- microgrids --- heat pump --- model predictive control --- optimization --- Biot number --- genetic algorithms --- drying --- air-cooled steam turbine generator --- single-channel ventilation --- backflow --- radial ventilation duct --- fluid field --- ground source heat pump --- numerical and experimental studies --- ground-air heat exchanger --- geothermal energy --- computational fluid dynamics --- spirally corrugated pipe

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