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Plant responses to flooding

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Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889193042 Year: Pages: 142 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88919-304-2 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Botany --- Physiology --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2016-02-05 17:24:33
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Global warming has dramatically increased the frequency and severity of flooding events worldwide. As a result, many man-made and natural ecosystems have become flood-prone. For plants, the main consequence of flooding is the drastic reduction of oxygen availability that restricts respiratory energy production and finally affects survival. Flooding can negatively influence crop production and wild plant distributions, since most plants are sensitive to excessively wet conditions. However, plants have evolved a broad spectrum of adaptive responses to oxygen deficiency that eventually leads to tolerance. Many of these morphological and physiological adaptations have been described in some crops and wild plant species and considerable progress has been made in understanding the molecular aspects governing tolerance traits. Moreover, the molecular mechanism of plant oxygen sensing has been recently elucidated. However, many other aspects concerning plant acclimation responses to flooding remain unanswered. With this research topic we seek to build an online collection of articles addressing various aspects relating to “plant responses to flooding’’ which will reflect the exciting new developments and current state of the art in this vibrant and dynamic research field. All kinds of articles, including original research articles, short reviews, methods and opinions are welcome, in the attempt to broadly and freely disseminate research information, tools and protocols.

Keywords

Anoxia --- flooding --- hypoxia --- low oxygen --- submergence --- waterlogging

Applications of Remote Sensing/ GIS in Water Resources and Flooding Risk Managements

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ISBN: 9783038429821 9783038429814 Year: Pages: VIII, 222 Language: englisch
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-08-21 16:57:04
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Remote sensing and GIS play critical roles in water resource and flood inundation mapping and risk management. Remote sensing provides data sources for mapping water resources (snow and glaciers, water bodies, soil moisture and groundwater), measuring hydrological fluxes (ET, precipitation and river discharge), and monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while GIS provides the best tools for water resources, drought and flooding risk management and for setting up hydrologic models, inputting data processing and output analyses and visualizations. This Special Issue Book presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrologic models for water resources mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D model analysis and visualization of glaciers, UAV video image classification for turf grass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimates, TRMM and GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetograph analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of these technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and assist in better mitigating and adapting to the impact of drought and flooding.

Climate Change, Coasts and Coastal Risk

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ISBN: 9783038974819 / 9783038974826 Year: Pages: 298 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-482-6 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-08 11:04:26
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The combination of coastal climate change impacts and their effects on the ever-increasing human utilization of the coastal zone will invariably result in increasing coastal risk in the coming decades. However, while economic damage (potential consequence) caused by climate change-driven coastal inundation and erosion (potential hazard) is likely to increase, foregoing land-use opportunities in coastal regions and protecting or nourishing coasts is also costly. Managing the risk of coastline recession is therefore a balancing act.To avoid unacceptable future risks, it is imperative that risk-informed and sustainable coastal planning/management strategies are implemented sooner rather than later. This requires the development of methods for comprehensive coastal risk assessments which combine state-of-the-art consequence (or damage) modeling and coastal hazard modeling. This Special Issue contains 13 papers aimed at addressing this challenge.

Sea Level Variability and Change

Authors: --- --- ---
Book Series: Frontiers Research Topics ISSN: 16648714 ISBN: 9782889451500 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3389/978-2-88945-150-0 Language: English
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Subject: Oceanography --- Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2017-08-28 14:01:09
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In June 2015 we held a workshop on the beautiful island of Mallorca, Spain with a focus on sea level variability and change. Over 120 sea level experts from around the world attended this workshop, from a range of different disciplines. The main aims of the workshop were to: 1.) Evaluate the current state-of-knowledge of sea level science; 2.) Identify gaps and unresolved questions in any aspect of sea level science; and 3.) Design future research to address these issue. All aspects of sea level changes were covered, from global to regional, observations and modelling, processes driving mean sea level changes and extremes, from the geological scale to the instrumental era and future projections and including impacts on the coastal zones. This E-Book presents papers that came out of that workshop. Overall, these papers illustrate the multi-disciplinary nature of sea level research, cross-cutting many fields of research including: oceanography, meteorology, geology, coastal morphodynamics, engineering and the social-economic aspects. Collectively, theses articles represent an interesting range of perspectives and original studies that contribute to understanding the dynamic nature of sea level and its impacts across a wide range of time and space scales. Enjoy reading them!

Sponge Cities: Emerging Approaches, Challenges and Opportunities

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ISBN: 9783038972723 9783038972730 Year: Pages: 462 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-273-0 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Added to DOAB on : 2018-10-18 10:04:07
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Primarily as a response to increasing flood, impacts, the Chinese Central Government launched a program to implement the Sponge City Concept in selected pilot cities across China in 2013. As a result, the Sponge City Concept is gaining ground and becoming more and more accepted by city governments. The first best practices of the pilot cities are being shared, and international exchange activities between research institutions and cities are providing guidance on the design and implementation of new concepts and technologies. However, there are still many technical, institutional, and socio-economic challenges ahead that hamper wider uptake and up-scaling in China. While the Sponge City Concept is new, the approaches and technologies involved in it, and therefore related challenges and opportunities, have been tried out in many different parts of the globe under the guise of terminologies such as water sensitive cities, Sustainable Drainage Systems, low-impact development, and ABC waters. This book aims to capture a selection of these experiences from China, as well as from other countries in both the developed and developing world, and draws lessons from these experiences relevant to the Sponge City Concept.

Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses in Crop Plants

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ISBN: 9783038974635 / 9783038974642 Year: Pages: 252 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-464-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Plant Sciences --- Genetics --- Biology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-01-16 10:24:11
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While the demand for crop products continues to increase strongly, agricultural productivity is threatened by various stress factors, often associated with global warming. To sustain and improve yield, it is necessary to understand how plants respond to various stresses, and to use the generated knowledge in modern breeding programs. Most knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms associated with stress responses has been obtained from investigations using the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Stress hormones, such as abscisic acid, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid, have been shown to play key roles in defense responses against abiotic and biotic stresses. More recently, evidence that growth-regulating plant hormones are also involved in stress responses has been accumulating. Epigenetic regulation at the DNA and histone level, and gene regulation by small non-coding RNAs appear to be important as well. Many approaches have used mutant screens and next generation sequencing approaches to identify key players and mechanisms how plants respond to their environment. However, it is often unclear to which extent the elucidated mechanisms also operate in crops.This Special Issue Book, therefore, aims to close this gap and contains a number of contributions from labs that work both, on Arabidopsis and crops. The book includes contributions reporting how crop plant species respond to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, flooding, and salinity, as well as biotic stimuli during microbial infections. It contains reviews, opinions, perspectives, and original articles, and its focus is on our molecular understanding of biotic and abiotic stress responses in crops, highlighting, among other aspects, the role of stress hormones, secondary metabolites, signaling mechanisms, and changes in gene expression patterns and their regulation. Approaches and ideas to achieve stress tolerance and to maintain yield stability of agricultural crops during stress periods can be found in most chapters. These include also perspectives on how knowledge from model plants can be utilized to facilitate crop-plant breeding and biotechnology.

Colloids and Interfaces in Oil Recovery

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ISBN: 9783039211067 / 9783039211074 Year: Pages: 234 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-107-4 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Added to DOAB on : 2019-06-26 08:44:06
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It is well-known that colloid and interface science and petroleum production are inextricably linked. Whether in the reservoir, with its porous structure, or during recovery, crude oil is intimately associated with rock surfaces and with water, often in the form of emulsions. This situation leads to highly complex systems, comprising multiple colloids and interfaces, which require to be optimized if oil is to be recovered efficiently, both in terms of economic cost and with due concern for the environment. This book contains a compilation of contemporary research topics which illustrate various aspects of the importance of colloids and interfaces in crude oil recovery through modifying conditions between the rock, crude oil, and water in the reservoir, in order to achieve improved oil recovery. The specific topics covered relate both to conventional oils, in which waterflooding is the most common secondary and tertiary means of recovery, and to non-conventional heavy oil and natural bitumen, which require thermal recovery methods, owing to their high viscosity.

Modeling and Practice of Erosion and Sediment Transport under Change

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039214310 / 9783039214327 Year: Pages: 212 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-432-7 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Climate and anthropogenic changes impact the conditions of erosion and sediment transport in rivers. Rainfall variability and, in many places, the increase of rainfall intensity have a direct impact on rainfall erosivity. Increasing changes in demography have led to the acceleration of land cover changes in natural areas, as well as in cultivated areas, and, sometimes, in degraded areas and desertified landscapes. These anthropogenized landscapes are more sensitive to erosion. On the other hand, the increase in the number of dams in watersheds traps a great portion of sediment fluxes, which do not reach the sea in the same amount, nor at the same quality, with consequences on coastal geomorphodynamics. This book is dedicated to studies on sediment fluxes from continental areas to coastal areas, as well as observation, modeling, and impact analysis at different scales from watershed slopes to the outputs of large river basins. This book is concentrated on a number of keywords: “erosion” and “sediment transport”, “model” and “practice”, and “change”. The keywords are briefly discussed with respect to the relevant literature. The contributions in this book address observations and models based on laboratory and field data, allowing researchers to make use of such resources in practice under changing conditions.

Groundwater Resources and Salt Water Intrusion in a Changing Environment

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ISBN: 9783039211975 / 9783039211982 Year: Pages: 176 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-198-2 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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This Special Issue presents the work of 30 scientists from 11 countries. It confirms that the impacts of global change, resulting from both climate change and increasing anthropogenic pressure, are huge on worldwide coastal areas (and critically so on some islands in the Pacific Ocean), with highly negative effects on coastal groundwater resources, which are widely affected by seawater intrusion. Some improved research methods are proposed in the contributions: using innovative hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical monitoring; assessing impacts of the changing environment on the coastal groundwater resources in terms of quantity and quality; and using modelling, especially to improve management approaches. The scientific research needed to face these challenges must continue to be deployed by different approaches based on the monitoring, modelling and management of groundwater resources. Novel and more efficient methods must be developed to keep up with the accelerating pace of global change.

Extreme Floods and Droughts under Future Climate Scenarios

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039218981 / 9783039218998 Year: Pages: 174 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-899-8 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:16
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Hydroclimatic extremes, such as floods and droughts, affect aspects of our lives and the environment including energy, hydropower, agriculture, transportation, urban life, and human health and safety. Climate studies indicate that the risk of increased flooding and/or more severe droughts will be higher in the future than today, causing increased fatalities, environmental degradation, and economic losses. Using a suite of innovative approaches this book quantifies the changes in projected hydroclimatic extremes and illustrates their impacts in several locations in North America, Asia, and Europe.

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