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Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention

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ISBN: 9783038973744 9783038973751 Year: Pages: 218 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-375-1 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Sciences --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2018-11-26 10:26:46
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Due to the considerable impacts of hydrological hazards on water resources, natural environments, and human activities, as well as on human health and safety, climate variability and climate change have become key issues for the research community. In fact, a warmer climate, with its heightened climate variability, will increase the risk of hydrological extreme phenomena, such as droughts and floods. The Special Issue “Hydrological Hazard: Analysis and Prevention” presents a collection of scientific contributions that provides a sample of the state-of-the-art and forefront research in this field. In particular, innovative modelling methods for flood hazards, regional flood, and drought analysis and the use of satellite and climate data for drought analysis were the main research and practice targets that the papers published in this Special Issue aimed to address.

Efficient Radar Forward Operator for Operational Data Assimilation within the COSMO-model

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Book Series: Wissenschaftliche Berichte des Instituts für Meteorologie und Klimaforschung des Karlsruher Instituts für Technologie ISSN: 01795619 ISBN: 9783731501282 Year: Volume: 60 Pages: XI, 235 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000036921 Language: ENGLISH
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Physics (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:02:01
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Doppler radars provide unique 3D information about precipitating clouds in high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the observed quantities (reflectivity, Doppler velocity and polarization properties) are not directly comparable to the variables of numerical prediction models. In order to enable radar data assimilation, a comprehensive modular radar forward operator has been developed.

Fahrplanbasiertes Energiemanagement in Smart Grids

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ISBN: 9783731505518 Year: Pages: XII, 204 p. DOI: 10.5445/KSP/1000056497 Language: GERMAN
Publisher: KIT Scientific Publishing
Subject: Business and Management
Added to DOAB on : 2019-07-30 20:01:59
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The increase in decentralized, volatile electricity generation as result of the German energy system transformation causes congestions in electricity grids. IT networking and coordination of producers and consumers in smart grids promises a solution to these problems. In this context, this work presents an energy management approach that approximates specified, aggregated power profiles. The approach uses power forecasts and flexibilities and takes network restrictions into account.

Ensemble Forecasting Applied to Power Systems

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ISBN: 9783039283125 9783039283132 Year: Pages: 134 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-313-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-04-07 23:07:09
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Modern power systems are affected by many sources of uncertainty, driven by the spread of renewable generation, by the development of liberalized energy market systems and by the intrinsic random behavior of the final energy customers. Forecasting is, therefore, a crucial task in planning and managing modern power systems at any level: from transmission to distribution networks, and in also the new context of smart grids. Recent trends suggest the suitability of ensemble approaches in order to increase the versatility and robustness of forecasting systems. Stacking, boosting, and bagging techniques have recently started to attract the interest of power system practitioners. This book addresses the development of new, advanced, ensemble forecasting methods applied to power systems, collecting recent contributions to the development of accurate forecasts of energy-related variables by some of the most qualified experts in energy forecasting. Typical areas of research (renewable energy forecasting, load forecasting, energy price forecasting) are investigated, with relevant applications to the use of forecasts in energy management systems.

Computational Intelligence in Photovoltaic Systems

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ISBN: 9783039210985 9783039210992 Year: Pages: 180 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-099-2 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Photovoltaics, among the different renewable energy sources (RES), has become more popular. In recent years, however, many research topics have arisen as a result of the problems that are constantly faced in smart-grid and microgrid operations, such as forecasting of the output of power plant production, storage sizing, modeling, and control optimization of photovoltaic systems. Computational intelligence algorithms (evolutionary optimization, neural networks, fuzzy logic, etc.) have become more and more popular as alternative approaches to conventional techniques for solving problems such as modeling, identification, optimization, availability prediction, forecasting, sizing, and control of stand-alone, grid-connected, and hybrid photovoltaic systems. This Special Issue will investigate the most recent developments and research on solar power systems. This Special Issue “Computational Intelligence in Photovoltaic Systems” is highly recommended for readers with an interest in the various aspects of solar power systems, and includes 10 original research papers covering relevant progress in the following (non-exhaustive) fields: Forecasting techniques (deterministic, stochastic, etc.); DC/AC converter control and maximum power point tracking techniques; Sizing and optimization of photovoltaic system components; Photovoltaics modeling and parameter estimation; Maintenance and reliability modeling; Decision processes for grid operators.

Financial Econometrics

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ISBN: 9783039216260 9783039216277 Year: Pages: 136 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-627-7 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Economics
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 11:49:15
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Financial econometrics has developed into a very fruitful and vibrant research area in the last two decades. The availability of good data promotes research in this area, specially aided by online data and high-frequency data. These two characteristics of financial data also create challenges for researchers that are different from classical macro-econometric and micro-econometric problems. This Special Issue is dedicated to research topics that are relevant for analyzing financial data. We have gathered six articles under this theme.

Selected Papers from the 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference

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ISBN: 9783039212699 9783039212705 Year: Pages: 432 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-270-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Geography
Added to DOAB on : 2019-08-28 11:21:27
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The 15th Estuarine and Coastal Modeling Conference provides a venue for commercial, academic, and government scientists and engineers from around the world to present and discuss the latest results and techniques in applied estuarine and coastal modeling. Prospective authors are invited to submit papers on a wide range of topic areas, including:• Pollutant Transport and Water Quality Prediction• Coastal Response to Climate Change• Modeling Techniques and Sensitivity Studies• Model Assessment• Modeling Specific Estuarine and Coastal Systems• Visualization and Analysis• Wave and Sediment Transport Modeling• Modeling of Chemicals and Floatables• Oil Spill Transport and Fate Modeling• Inverse Methods• Circulation Modeling• Facility Siting and CSO Studies• Data Assimilation• Nowcast/Forecast Modeling Systems• Modeling Systems with Strong Buoyancy Forcing• Modeling of Coupled Systems• Risk Analysis (Nuclear Reactors, Flood Forecasting)

Keywords

British Columbia --- environmental assessment --- marine construction --- circulation --- numerical model --- sediment model --- tidal current --- wind-driven current --- stratification --- initial dilution zone --- property-carrying particle model --- coupled models --- ecosystem simulation --- biophysical modeling --- Sandusky Bay --- Great Lakes --- tides --- tidal datums --- VDatum --- spatially varying uncertainty (SVU) --- north-east Gulf of Mexico --- Brown Passage --- Chatham Sound --- internal tides --- circulation --- numerical model --- stratification --- barotropic --- baroclinic --- Hood Canal --- floating bridge --- Salish Sea --- hydrodynamics --- Finite-Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM) --- circulation --- anthropogenic impact --- zone of influence --- Salish Sea model --- ice modeling --- operational forecast --- FVCOM --- CICE --- hydrodynamic modeling --- Great Lakes --- hydrodynamic numerical model --- H3D --- agriculture --- salt wedge --- climate change --- sea level rise --- river discharge --- channel deepening --- tidal constituent database --- ADvanced CIRCulation model (ADCIRC) --- Eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENPAC) --- coastal ocean modeling --- Gulf of Mexico --- operational nowcast and forecast system --- Finite Volume Community Ocean Model --- water level --- temperature --- salinity --- water quality --- model calibration --- estuary --- eutrophication --- CE-QUAL-W2 --- phytoplankton --- algal growth kinetics --- wave energy --- wind forcing --- large-wave hindcast --- multi-level nested-grid modeling --- CFSR --- NARR --- WaveWatch III --- SWAN --- hydrodynamics --- feasibility assessments --- nearshore restoration --- FVCOM --- Puget Sound --- Salish Sea --- numerical model --- sediment transport --- marine --- short-lived radioisotopes --- wave hindcast --- breakwater --- harbor --- estuary --- SWAN --- MIKE21SW --- unstructured grid --- storm surge --- coastal storm --- flooding --- compound events --- estuarine modeling --- lateral circulation --- tidal currents --- momentum balance --- coastal and estuarine modeling --- ADCIRC --- water level time series --- VDatum --- tidal datums --- statistical interpolation --- spatially varying uncertainty --- non-tidal zones --- marine grid population --- Texas --- western Louisiana --- Gulf of Mexico --- ocean modeling --- cloud computing --- data analysis --- geospatial data visualization

Entropy Applications in Environmental and Water Engineering

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ISBN: 9783038972228 Year: Pages: 512 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03897-223-5 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Environmental Engineering --- General and Civil Engineering --- Technology (General)
Added to DOAB on : 2019-03-21 15:50:41
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Entropy theory has wide applications to a range of problems in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including river hydraulic geometry, fluvial hydraulics, water monitoring network design, river flow forecasting, floods and droughts, river network analysis, infiltration, soil moisture, sediment transport, surface water and groundwater quality modeling, ecosystems modeling, water distribution networks, environmental and water resources management, and parameter estimation. Such applications have used several different entropy formulations, such as Shannon, Tsallis, Reacutenyi Burg, Kolmogorov, Kapur, configurational, and relative entropies, which can be derived in time, space, or frequency domains. More recently, entropy-based concepts have been coupled with other theories, including copula and wavelets, to study various issues associated with environmental and water resources systems. Recent studies indicate the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering, including establishing and explaining physical connections between theory and reality. The objective of this Special Issue is to provide a platform for compiling important recent and current research on the applications of entropy theory in environmental and water engineering. The contributions to this Special Issue have addressed many aspects associated with entropy theory applications and have shown the enormous scope and potential of entropy theory in advancing research in the fields of environmental and water engineering.

Keywords

complexity --- streamflow --- water level --- composite multiscale sample entropy --- trend --- Poyang Lake basin --- four-parameter exponential gamma distribution --- principle of maximum entropy --- precipitation frequency analysis --- methods of moments --- maximum likelihood estimation --- flood frequency analysis --- generalized gamma (GG) distribution --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- entropy theory --- principle of maximum entropy (POME) --- GB2 distribution --- flood frequency analysis --- non-point source pollution --- ANN --- entropy weighting method --- data-scarce --- multi-events --- spatio-temporal variability --- soil water content --- entropy --- arid region --- joint entropy --- NDVI --- temperature --- precipitation --- groundwater depth --- Hei River basin --- turbulent flow --- canopy flow --- randomness --- coherent structures --- Shannon entropy --- Kolmogorov complexity --- entropy --- information transfer --- optimization --- radar --- rainfall network --- water resource carrying capacity --- forewarning model --- entropy of information --- fuzzy analytic hierarchy process --- projection pursuit --- accelerating genetic algorithm --- entropy production --- conditional entropy production --- stochastic processes --- scaling --- climacogram --- turbulence --- water resources vulnerability --- connection entropy --- changing environment --- set pair analysis --- Anhui Province --- cross-entropy minimization --- land suitability evaluation --- spatial optimization --- monthly streamflow forecasting --- Burg entropy --- configurational entropy --- entropy spectral analysis time series analysis --- entropy --- water monitoring --- network design --- hydrometric network --- information theory --- entropy applications --- hydrological risk analysis --- maximum entropy-copula method --- uncertainty --- Loess Plateau --- entropy --- water engineering --- Tsallis entropy --- principle of maximum entropy --- Lagrangian function --- probability distribution function --- flux concentration relation --- uncertainty --- information --- informational entropy --- variation of information --- continuous probability distribution functions --- confidence intervals --- precipitation --- variability --- marginal entropy --- crop yield --- Hexi corridor --- flow duration curve --- Shannon entropy --- entropy parameter --- modeling --- spatial and dynamics characteristic --- hydrology --- tropical rainfall --- statistical scaling --- Tsallis entropy --- multiplicative cascades --- Beta-Lognormal model --- rainfall forecast --- cross entropy --- ant colony fuzzy clustering --- combined forecast --- information entropy --- mutual information --- kernel density estimation --- ENSO --- nonlinear relation --- scaling laws --- power laws --- water distribution networks --- robustness --- flow entropy --- entropy theory --- frequency analysis --- hydrometeorological extremes --- Bayesian technique --- rainfall --- entropy ensemble filter --- ensemble model simulation criterion --- EEF method --- bootstrap aggregating --- bagging --- bootstrap neural networks --- El Niño --- ENSO --- neural network forecast --- sea surface temperature --- tropical Pacific --- entropy --- cross elasticity --- mean annual runoff --- water resources --- resilience --- quaternary catchment --- complement --- substitute --- entropy theory --- complex systems --- hydraulics --- hydrology --- water engineering --- environmental engineering

Statistical Analysis and Stochastic Modelling of Hydrological Extremes

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ISBN: 9783039216642 9783039216659 Year: Pages: 294 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03921-665-9 Language: English
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Science (General) --- Meteorology and Climatology
Added to DOAB on : 2019-12-09 16:10:12
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Hydrological extremes have become a major concern because of their devastating consequences and their increased risk as a result of climate change and the growing concentration of people and infrastructure in high-risk zones. The analysis of hydrological extremes is challenging due to their rarity and small sample size, and the interconnections between different types of extremes and becomes further complicated by the untrustworthy representation of meso-scale processes involved in extreme events by coarse spatial and temporal scale models as well as biased or missing observations due to technical difficulties during extreme conditions. The complexity of analyzing hydrological extremes calls for robust statistical methods for the treatment of such events. This Special Issue is motivated by the need to apply and develop innovative stochastic and statistical approaches to analyze hydrological extremes under current and future climate conditions. The papers of this Special Issue focus on six topics associated with hydrological extremes: Historical changes in hydrological extremes; Projected changes in hydrological extremes; Downscaling of hydrological extremes; Early warning and forecasting systems for drought and flood; Interconnections of hydrological extremes; Applicability of satellite data for hydrological studies.

Keywords

rainfall --- monsoon --- high resolution --- TRMM --- drought prediction --- APCC Multi-Model Ensemble --- seasonal climate forecast --- machine learning --- sparse monitoring network --- Fiji --- drought analysis --- ANN model --- drought indices --- meteorological drought --- SIAP --- SWSI --- hydrological drought --- discrete wavelet --- global warming --- statistical downscaling --- HBV model --- flow regime --- uncertainty --- reservoir inflow forecasting --- artificial neural network --- wavelet artificial neural network --- weighted mean analogue --- variation analogue --- streamflow --- artificial neural network --- simulation --- forecasting --- support vector machine --- evolutionary strategy --- heavy storm --- hyetograph --- temperature --- clausius-clapeyron scaling --- climate change --- the Cauca River --- climate variability --- ENSO --- extreme rainfall --- trends --- statistical downscaling --- random forest --- least square support vector regression --- extreme rainfall --- polynomial normal transform --- multivariate modeling --- sampling errors --- non-normality --- extreme rainfall analysis --- statistical analysis --- hydrological extremes --- stretched Gaussian distribution --- Hurst exponent --- INDC pledge --- precipitation --- extreme events --- extreme precipitation exposure --- non-stationary --- extreme value theory --- uncertainty --- flood regime --- flood management --- Kabul river basin --- Pakistan --- extreme events --- innovative methods --- downscaling --- forecasting --- compound events --- satellite data

District Heating and Cooling Networks

Authors: --- ---
ISBN: 9783039288397 / 9783039288403 Year: Pages: 270 DOI: 10.3390/books978-3-03928-840-3 Language: eng
Publisher: MDPI - Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
Subject: Technology (General) --- General and Civil Engineering
Added to DOAB on : 2020-06-09 16:38:57
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Conventional thermal power generating plants reject a large amount of energy every year. If this rejected heat were to be used through district heating networks, given prior energy valorisation, there would be a noticeable decrease in the amount of fossil fuels imported for heating. As a consequence, benefits would be experienced in the form of an increase in energy efficiency, an improvement in energy security, and a minimisation of emitted greenhouse gases. Given that heat demand is not expected to decrease significantly in the medium term, district heating networks show the greatest potential for the development of cogeneration. Due to their cost competitiveness, flexibility in terms of the ability to use renewable energy resources (such as geothermal or solar thermal) and fossil fuels (more specifically the residual heat from combustion), and the fact that, in some cases, losses to a country/region’s energy balance can be easily integrated into district heating networks (which would not be the case in a “fully electric” future), district heating (and cooling) networks and cogeneration could become a key element for a future with greater energy security, while being more sustainable, if appropriate measures were implemented. This book therefore seeks to propose an energy strategy for a number of cities/regions/countries by proposing appropriate measures supported by detailed case studies.

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